Abdominals (abs) muscles of the midsection.

Abduction sideways movement away from the body.

Abductors muscles that move your leg away from the body.

Adduction sideways movement in the direction toward the body.

Adductors muscles that draw your leg in toward your body from an outward position.

Aerobic exercise that requires a significant and sustained supply of oxygen. Literally means in the presence of oxygen.

Alternating grip (reverse grip) a grip where you hold the bar with the fingers of one hand facing your body (pronated) and the fingers of the other hand facing away from your body (supinated).

Amino acids the structural material or "building blocks" of protein.

Anaerobic exercise that can take place in the absence of oxygen.

Anterior refers to the front of the body.

Assisted reps repetitions performed with the help of a spotter.

Atrophy the loss of size of a muscle. The opposite of hypertrophy.

Barbell a straight freeweight, on which plates can be added for increased resistance.

Bench press a power-lifting exercise that involves lying on your back and pushing a weight from your chest.

Biceps the muscle in the front of the upper arm, responsible for bending (flexing) the elbow.

Breakdowns a technique in which once you fatigue, you decrease the weight being used and do a few extra reps.

Bursa a padlike sac that acts to reduce friction between tendon and bone or tendon and ligament.

Bursitis inflammation of the bursa.

Cardiovascular exercise any activity that improves your cardiovascular system. Your body's cardiovascular system includes your heart, lungs, and circulatory system.

Carpal tunnel syndrome a condition that is often caused by repetitive activities done with improper body mechanics, such as typing with your wrists in an extended position, or repetitive squeezing activities. The median nerve swells and is unable to pass comfortably through the small bones in your wrist (carpals). Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome are numbness, tingling, or a sharp, shooting pain into your hand.

Clean and jerk an Olympic weight-lifting exercise in which the lifter hoists the weight from the platform to the shoulders in one motion (clean) and then thrusts the bar from his/her shoulders to a position over head in one motion while splitting his/her legs (jerk).

Collar a safety device that helps secure plates on a barbell.

Compound movement an exercise, such as the bench press, squat, or lat pull down, that involves the movement of more than one joint at a time.

Concentric contraction the shortening of a muscle as it exerts force.

Contract literally speaking, to draw together or shorten. When contracted, a muscle shortens and produces movement.

Contracture a condition where a joint (shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger, hip, knee, or ankle) is unable to be fully straightened or fully bent.

Deadlift a powerlifting maneuver in which the weighted bar is on the floor, and the lifter bends his or her knees and hips to reach the bar. The bar is then lifted to midthigh.

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) the temporary pain you feel in your muscles after a workout, usually within 24 hours of your workout, which peaks after 48 hours.

Deltoid major muscle of the shoulder. Divided into medial, posterior, and anterior sections.

Diaphragm a muscle used in respiration.

Dumbbell handheld freeweights.

Eccentric contraction a lengthening of the muscle as it exerts force but is overcome by the resistance.

Erector spinae muscles of the back that run along the spine.

Ergogenic aid any product that improves athletic or physical performance.

Extend to increase the angle between body parts, as in straightening the elbow or knee.

Fast-twitch muscle fiber a powerful, easily fatigued muscle fiber.

Female athletic triad a phenomenon common among competitive female athletes, that consists of eating disorders, amenorrhea (absence of the menstrual flow), and osteoporosis.

Flex to decrease the angle between body parts, as in bending the elbow or knee. (Commonly, but incorrectly, used to refer to contracting a muscle.)

Freeweights handheld weights such as barbells and dumbbells.

Gastrocnemius a muscle in the back of the lower leg, responsible for raising the heel over the toe, especially when the knee is straight.

Gluteus (glutes) generally refers to the gluteus maximus (the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are much smaller and weaker), responsible for extension of the hip.

Hamstrings muscles of the back of the upper leg, responsible for bending the knee and extending the hip. Made up of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semi-membranosus muscles.

Hyperextend to extend a joint beyond straight.

Hyperplasia an increase in the amount of muscle fibers. Does not appear to occur in humans.

Hypertrophy the growth of a muscle and the individual fibers that make it up. This growth usually occurs as a result of an external stimulus like weight lifting.

Impingement the pinching or squeezing of the internal structures of the shoulder (tendons of the rotator cuff, bursa, ligaments, and nerves). This pinching causes pain on elevation of the arm.

Isolation exercise a lift that uses only one joint and therefore focuses on one muscle.

Isometric contraction a muscle action that results in no movement because the muscle force and the resistance are equal.

Lactic acid by-product of anaerobic work that causes fatigue and a burning sensation.

Latissimus dorsi (lats) the large, fan-shaped muscles of the middle and upper back.

Ligaments the connective tissue between bones.

Lordosis the natural inward curve of the lumbar or lower spine.

Muscle pull See muscle strain.

Muscle strain a trauma to the muscle or tendon caused by excessive contraction or stretching.

Negatives an advanced technique in which you stress the eccentric phase of an exercise.

Olympic weight lifting a competitive sport that includes the snatch and the clean and jerk.

Overtraining a phenomenon that occurs when you exercise excessively without allowing sufficient recovery between workouts.

Palpitations an abnormally rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart.

Pectorals (pecs) the large muscles in the chest.

Phlebitis an inflammation of a vein.

Plates weighted disks that are added to a bar to increase its weight. Plates most often come in denominations of 2V2, 5, 10, 25, 35, and 45 pounds.

Plyometrics controversial exercises that use bounding techniques to build "explosive" power.

Posing a facet of bodybuilding where the competitor demonstrates his or her physical assets by assuming various positions that show off his or her muscularity and proportion.

Posterior refers to the rear of the body.

Powerlifting a competitive sport that includes the squat, bench press, and deadlift.

Pronation turning the hand so that the palm faces downward. Opposite of supination.

Quadriceps muscles of the front of the upper leg, responsible for straightening the knee. Made up of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles.

Range of motion (ROM) the movement from the beginning to the finishing point of an exercise. Moving a joint from complete extension to complete flexion is considered a full range of motion.

Recovery the rest period between two sets or workouts.

Repetition (rep) the execution of an exercise one time. Consecutive repetitions are grouped into a set.

Rotator cuff group of muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and sub-scapularis) located under the deltoid.

Set a series of repetitions performed consecutively.

Slow-twitch muscle fiber a muscle fiber that has great endurance but relatively low power.

Snatch an Olympic weight-lifting exercise in which the lifter pulls the bar up from the platform. Then he or she leaps into a squat position under the bar, securing it overhead with arms held straight.

Soleus a muscle in the back of the lower leg, responsible for raising the heel over the toe, especially when the knee is bent.

Specificity of training a physiological theory that suggests that adaptations made during training depend on the type of training used.

Split routine a workout scheme in which the body is divided into different parts that are exercised on different days.

Spotter someone who stands by to help the lifter if and when he or she can't finish a repetition. The spotter is responsible for the safety of the lifter.

Sprain damage due to overstretching of ligaments.

Squat a power-lifting maneuver that involves performing a deep knee bend with a barbell across your back.

Sticking point a particular position during your range of motion where you have difficulty completing the repetition without assistance.

Supersets an advanced strength-training method that involves doing two exercises with no rest.

SuperSlow a protocol that involves extremely slow movement—10 seconds for the positive phase and 5 seconds for the negative.

Supination turning the hand so that the palm faces upward. Opposite of pronation.

T cells the cells responsible for enhancing antibody production and for killing foreign cells in the body.

Target heart rate (training zone) the desired heart rate range to elicit a training effect while performing cardiovascular exercise.

Tendinitis a condition characterized by inflammation of a tendon.

Tendon connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

Trapezius (traps) the muscle that covers the rear of the neck and shoulders.

Triceps the muscle in the back of the upper arm, responsible for straightening (extending) the elbow.

Valsalva maneuver holding the breath while lifting. May lead to excessive increase in blood pressure and decrease in blood returning to the heart.

VO2 max a measure of an individual's capacity for aerobic work. It is generally considered to be one of the most important factors in predicting an athlete's ability to perform in activities of more than three to five minutes.

Weight belt a thick, wide, dense leather belt used for added support for the lower back when lifting.

Working in the practice of alternating sets on a particular bench or machine with another person.

Appendix B


Achilles Track Club 42 West 38th Street New York, NY 10018 (212) 354-0300

Aerobics and Fitness Association of America (AFAA) 15250 Ventura Boulevard Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 (800) 225-AFAA

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) P.O. Box 1440

Indianapolis, IN 46206-1440 (317) 637-9200

American Council on Exercise (ACE) 5820 Oberlin Drive Suite 102

San Diego, CA 92121-3787 (800) 825-3636


115 Marin Valley Drive Novato, CA 94949 (800) 987-6892


2200 NE 65th Avenue Vancouver, WA 98661 (800) 269-3539

Challenged Athletes Foundation 2148-B Jimmy Durante Boulevard Del Mar, CA 92104 (619) 793-9293

Concept II

105 Industrial Park Drive Morrisville, VT 05661-9727 (800) 245-5676



2100 Smithtown Avenue Ronkonkoma, NY 11779-9003 (516) 585-9000


Fitness Wholesale 895-A Hampshire Road Stow, OH 44224 (800) 537-5512

Fitness World

Gatorade Sports Science Institute 617 W. Main Street Barrington, IL 60010 (800) 616-GSSI (4774)

Hammer Strength 2245 Gilbert Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45206 (513) 221-2600 Guide to Health and Fitness


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services


12660 Branford Street Sun Valley, CA 91352 (800) 883-2421

International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association (IHRSA) 263 Summer Street Boston, MA 02210 (800) 228-4772


10601 West Belmont Avenue Franklin Park, IL 60131 (800) 735-3867

Nancy Clark Sports Nutrition

National Sports Performance Association (NSPA) 700 Russell Avenue Gaithersburg, MD 20877 (800) 494-6772

National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) 1640 L Street, Suite G Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (888) 746-CERT (2378)

Natural Strength


709 Powerhouse Road Independence, VA 24348-0708 (800) NAUTILUS


370 Crossways Park Drive Woodbury, NY 11797 (800) 227-1314

Power Blocks Intellbell

1819 South Cedar Avenue Owatonna, MN 55060 (800) 446-5215

Powerlifting USA P.O. Box 467 Camarillo, CA 93011 (800) 448-7693


3303 Monte Villa Parkway Bothell, WA 98021-8906 (800) 426-0337


Hawthorn Farm Industrial Park 570 NE 53rd Avenue Hillsboro, OR 97124-6494 (800) 547-8802

StairMaster Sports

12421 Willows Road NE Suite 100

Kirkland, WA 98034 (800) 635-2936

Star Trac

14410 Myford Road Irvine, CA 92606 (877) STAR-TRAC

SuperSlow Exercise Guild P.O. Box 180154 Casselberry, FL 32718-0154 (407) 862-2552


10 Trotter Way Medway, MA 02053 (800) 677-6544

Total Gym

(800) 541-4900

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 (888) INFO-FDA 463-6332

USA Powerlifting

124 West Van Buren Street Columbia City, IN 46725 (219) 248-4889

USA Weightlifting One Olympic Plaza Colorado Springs, CO 80909 (719) 578-4508

VersaClimber Heart Rate, Inc. 3188-E Airway Avenue Costa Mesa, CA 92626-2771 (800) 237-2271

Women's Sports Foundation Eisenhower Park East Meadow, NY 11554 (800) 227-3988

Index a abdominal muscles (abs), 145 freeweight exercises crunches, 245-247 oblique crunches,

248-250 reverse crunches,

247-248 side obliques, 250-251 machine exercises crunches, 251-252 rotary torso, 252-253 maintaining fitness away from home, 335 myths, 244-245 pregnancy and exercise, 351-352 ACE (American Council on Exercise) ACE Web site, 415 certifications, 44 Achilles Track Club (ATC),

370-371 ACOG guidelines, pregnancy and exercise, 349-350 ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) certifications, 43 guidelines for adolescents,

378-379 guidelines for seniors,

361-363 Health/Fitness Instructor exam, 44 actin, 28

acute soreness, 261 adductor muscles, 133 adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 84

adjustable bench, 57 adolescents. See teenagers adult onset diabetes, 401

advantages assisted training, 275 breakdown training, 274 freeweights, 111 machines, 109-110 negatives, 274 pylometrics, 270 split routines, 278 SuperSlow Protocol, 268 Supersets, 272 aerobic dance (cardiovascular training), 326-327 aerobic exercise. See cardiovascular training AFAA (Aerobics and Fitness

Association of America), 44 aged persons, weight lifters, 12-13

aging, benefits of exercise program, 358 AIDS, 398-400

all-in-one units (freeweights), 52

alternating grips, 188 ambience, choosing a gym,

38-39 amenorrhea, 347 American Academy of

Pediatrics, 380 American College of Sports

Medicine. See ACSM American Council on

Exercise. See ACE amino acids, 82 amputations, 370 anaerobic exercise, 322 androstenedione, 86 ankle weights

AquaBell Ankle Weights, 339

lead columns, 336 maintaining fitness away from home, 335-337 sand-filled, 335

anterior aspect, 146 anterior cruciate ligament tears, 312 anterior deltoid, 215 apparel. See clothing AquaBell Ankle Weights, 339 AquaBell Dumbbell system, 339

assisted reps, 119 assisted training, 275 asthma, 404-406

medical precautions, 98 pectoral stretch, 132 ATC (Achilles Track Club),

370-371 athletes, weight training benefits, 7 ATP (adenosine triphosphate), 84

atrophy, 13 attire. See clothing autoimmune disorders, lupus, 406

back muscles, 186 chart, 146

freeweight exercises, 186 deadlifts, 187-189 dumbbell rows, 191-193 pull-ups/chin-ups

(Gravitron), 189-191 shrugs, 195-196 upright rows, 193-194 machine exercises, 196 cable rows, 198-199 extensions, 199-200 lat pull downs, 196-197 back pain, 384-385 back injuries medical precautions, 100

preventing injury, 9

posture, 385

stretching and strengthening exercises, 139, 385-386 balance, preventing injury,

9-10 Balance Bar, 88 bands (Dyna-Bands), 337-338 bars

Olympic, 58 safety, 116-117 basal metabolic rate (BMR), 74

baseball, injury prevention,


basketball, injury prevention,

312-313 bee pollen, 88

belts (equipment-aided pow-

erlifting), 294 bench press bench press shirt (equipment-aided powerlifting), 294

do's and don'ts, 204 powerlifting, 297 exercises, 202-203 bending, 150 benefits (exercise) children, 376-377 physically challenged, 369 seniors, 357-358 teenagers, 376-377 Better Business Bureau, 36 biceps, 144

freeweight exercises concentration curls,

231-232 dumbbell curls, 230-231 standing curls, 228-230 machine exercises cable curls, 232-234 machine curls, 234-235 biceps femoris, 134 BMR (basal metabolic rate), 74

body fat ratios, 79-80 body image, 7-8 body-weight exercises, 273 bodybuilders, 290-291 bodybuilding contests,

291-292 female, 292

Bodymaster, 36 bonded gyms, choosing a gym, 40 boredom, combating in routine, 265-266 bouncing (stretching), 129 Bowflex, 56-57 boxing, 317-318 branch-chained amino acids, 88

breakdown training, 274-275 breathing, 129, 151-152 Brzycki, Matt (author), 30 burn (pain), 261 bursitis, 100 buyer's remorse clauses, choosing a gym, 40

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