Shoulder external rotators

10.118 ^e external rotators of the shoulder include two small muscles called the infraspinatus and teres minor. ^ese are much weaker than the internal rotators, which include the pecs and lats. To distinguish between external and internal rotation of the shoulder, imagine you are standing and shaking hands with someone with your right hand. While in that position, if you move your hand to your right, you are externally rotating your shoulder. Move your hand to the left, and you are internally rotating your shoulder.

io.ii9 ^e infraspinatus and teres minor belong to a group of four muscles of the upper back that also include the supraspinatus and subscapularis. ^e tendons of these four muscles connect the scapula (shoulder blade) to the shoulder joint at the rotator cuff. Overuse and abuse of the rotator cuff and shoulders in general, together with weak external rotator muscles, make rotator-cuff injuries among the most common for weight trainees. (^e book the seven-minute rotator cuff solution by Dr. Joseph M. Horrigan and Jerry Robinson alerted me to the importance of specific exercise for the external rotator muscles.) Never try to work through pain in this area, or any other.

Depending on your leverages, the Trap Bar deadlift may not work your lower back adequately enough by itself. Stiff-legged or partial deadlifts may be needed too. For some people the Trap Bar dead-lift is a great substitute for the squat but not for a deadlift variation. And strength built by the Trap Bar may not necessarily carry over to the straight-bar deadlift, depending on the individual.

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