The Biological Principles of Fat Loss

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^Fat loss is part of a biological process that forces the body to break storage fat and release fatty acid for energy. But as simple as it may sound, fat burning isn't just about burning fat tissue. In fact, the burning of fat, in particular stubborn fat, first requires the elimination of the metabolic problems that initially cause fat gain. If not resolved, certain metabolic impairments such as high toxicity or insulin resistance, may give fat tissue a reason to accumulate and to resist elimination. Adipose fat tissue serves some biological purposes beyond simple energy reserve storage. The body gains or loses fat as part of a regulatory mechanism that helps protect the body from three major problems:

1. The accumulation of toxins that can damage vital organs.

2. The accumulation of lipids and cholesterol that can lead to insulin resistance and diabetes.

3. Declining estrogen levels (especially for women) that can lead to an array of metabolic problems, including loss of bone mass, cognitive difficulties, impaired sexual performance, and reproductive aging.

In other words, fat gain can be regarded as a desperate attempt by the body to protect itself from high toxin levels, insulin resistance, and low estrogen levels. Therefore any method that will help eliminate the three problems cited above would likely remove some of the major biological reasons for fat gain and therefore facilitate effective fat loss.

Carb and Calorie Restrictions

As noted, fat gain and fat loss are dictated by certain biological principles. Most current diets are based on two major premises: (1) restriction of calories and (2) restriction of carbs. By restricting calories, the body consumes less energy than it spends; therefore it is forced to burn stored fat to provide the required missing energy. By restricting carbs, the body is forced to burn fat instead. Additionally, carb restrictions minimize insulin's inhibitory effects on fat burning.

However, in spite of the convincing logic behind these premises, most diets fail in the long run. Evidently, both calorie restrictions and carb restrictions aren't sufficient to sustain fat loss. Something else must be going on. Consider, for example, that for thousands of years, people living in China, Tibet, and Africa have followed diets traditionally based on grains and roots. In spite of consuming high-carb meals, these people are remarkably lean and healthy. Consider also those are people who traditionally consume huge quantities of food, such as the nomadic Arab tribes in the North African and Middle Eastern deserts. These people are famous for their huge feasts, yet their bodies look rock-hard.

Conversely, chronic restrictions of calories and carbs may adversely affect thyroid, growth hormone, and steroid hormone actions, leading to an overall sluggish metabolism. However, if done periodically rather than chronically, restricting calories and carbs is sometimes a very effective method for helping people lose body fat. Chronic calorie and carb restrictions adversely affect fat loss. Effective fat loss and the ability to remain lean require further investigation into the various biological functions for which fat is responsible, and a practical method for removing these biological functions from fat tissue. When fat is deprived of its active role, it loses its biological function and, like any other organ, it degrades and deteriorates.

Similarly to muscle, fat can be either built or destroyed, depending on biological priorities. The body's survival depends on its tendency to develop active tissue and degrade inactive tissue. The same is true of fat tissue. Deprive fat of its active role, and it breaks down and shrinks.

Eliminating Fat' s Reasons to Exist

Eliminating the reasons for the existence of fat is a mission that, at first glance, looks impossible. A certain amount of body fat is necessary for survival, and therefore the idea of completely eliminating body fat is implausible. Nevertheless, by eliminating the reasons for fat accumulation, a person may be able to effectively reduce body fat to a minimum biological set point at which the body still performs at its best. To attempt to eliminate the reasons for fat gain, we must first understand the two distinct types of fat tissue: subcutaneous and visceral.

Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat

One of the main reasons for confusion about fat loss is that many people aren't aware that there are two kinds of fat tissue in the body, each with a distinct sensitivity to fat breakdown (lipolysis). These two distinct fat tissues are subcutaneous fat, which lies under the skin, and visceral fat, which is internal.

Subcutaneous fat tends to be insulin sensitive and therefore more resistant to fat burning, whereas visceral fat is more insulin resistant and has a higher affinity for adrenal fat-burning stimulation than subcutaneous fat. Nonetheless, each type of fat tissue works together to balance the breakdown of the other.

The greater the amount of visceral fat, the more it releases fatty acids and the more resistant to fat burning subcutaneous fat is. Because of its fast reaction to adrenal stimulation followed by fat tissue breakdown and the release of fatty acids to the liver, visceral fat is presumably most dangerous to individuals who are prone to heart disease and diabetes. High visceral fat and its related flux of released fatty acids may cause fatty liver (hepatic hyperlipidemia) and consequent insulin resistance.

The accumulation of visceral fat is often associated with the formation of stubborn fat under the skin. In an attempt to balance visceral fat's high release of fatty acids to the liver, the subcutaneous fat tends to be more resistance to fat burning and in turn becomes stubborn.

Delayed Fat Loss

Another reason for confusion about fat loss is so-called delayed fat loss. People who suffer from an accumulation of excessive visceral fat often don't notice any noticeable reduction of subcutaneous fat under the skin, in spite of following hard diet and exercise routines. The reason is that visceral fat responds first to the fat-burning stimulation of diet and exercise, whereas subcutaneous fat has a delayed reaction. People who have excessive visceral fat need to burn it first before they will notice any change in the fat under the skin. Bodybuilders and others who want to achieve greater leanness and definition must be aware that the higher a person's percentage of visceral fat, the longer it takes to notice a change in body composition and overall body definition.

Fat Tissue Functions

Researchers believe that fat metabolism is controlled by a primal biological feedback mechanism that helps human beings survive in extreme conditions such as starvation, very cold climates, or exposure to prolonged and intense physical stress. They have also suggested that body fat may protect the body from the adverse effects of insulin resistance and diabetes, overall toxicity, and declining estrogen. Additionally, the body may be programmed to protect itself from the adverse effects of chronic overfeeding or underfeeding by regulating the rate of fat breakdown or fat gain accordingly.

This survival-like control mechanism is constantly influenced by the body's ability to utilize fat and produce energy. The greater the body's ability to utilize fat and energy, the lower the levels of plasma, liver lipids, and cholesterol are and the more likely fat is to be mobilized for energy. The lesser the body's ability to utilize fat and energy, the more likely lipids and cholesterol are to accumulate, and the more resistant fat tissue may be to fat burning.

High fat utilization and high energy expenditure are the key principles of effective fat loss. Let's see how increased fat utilization and high energy turnover can help eliminate the metabolic problems that initially cause fat gain, such as insulin resistance or overall toxicity.

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a metabolic state that caused by the accumulation of high lipids and cholesterol in the liver and plasma. Hyperlipidemia and fatty liver decrease fat and glucose utilization, thereby establishing a state of insulin resistance. The body tries to protect itself from insulin resistance by inducing fat gain in a desperate attempt to prevent further accumulation of fatty acids in the blood, liver, and other tissues. In other words, fat gain protects the body from insulin resistance, and vice versa.

As absurd as it may seem, excessive fat breakdown, in particular the breakdown of visceral fat, may lead to overaccumulation of lipids in the plasma and liver, thereby causing a state of insulin resistance. Excessive visceral fat may cause insulin resistance that, as noted, may further inhibit fat loss and promote the formation of stubborn fat.

Overall Toxicity

Besides protecting the body from insulin resistance, fat gain serves other purposes, such as protecting the body from the accumulation of toxins. Fat tissue stores toxins and protects vital organs from damage. Any process that detoxifies the body is likely to eliminate the reason for fat accumulation and to accelerate fat burning.

The primal biological principles of fat loss are:

1. Increased fat utilization,

2. Increased energy turnover, and

3. Increased overall detoxification.

Let's examine how the above principles translate into actual fat loss and, in particular; the loss of stubborn fat.

Biological Principle 1: Increased Fat Utilization

Most fat utilization occurs in the cell mitochondria. The greater the number of mitochondrial enzymes, the more efficient fat utilization is. Because muscle is the largest mitochondria-containing tissue, muscle composition directly affects fat utilization. Certain muscle fiber types have superior fat-utilization capabilities over other muscle fiber types.

Slow muscle fiber types as well as super muscle fiber types (see "Super Muscle Fiber" in Chapter 8, "Super Muscle") can metabolize fat more efficiently than fast fibers, because of their larger mitochondrial size. For increased fat utilization, protection from diabetes, and enhanced fat loss, special training routines that help develop muscles with greater metabolic capacity for utilizing fat fuel are highly recommended. Incorporating endurance training with strength and speed exercise in a workout routine may help develop muscle fibers with superior performance capabilities and increased capacity to utilize fat.

Biological Principle 2: Increased Energy Turnover

Energy turnover describes the overall energy that the body consumes, utilizes, and spends. High energy turnover is a state in which the body's overall metabolic rate is high (high energy expenditure and high food consumption). Cellular high-energy turnover is also an indication of high fuel utilization. When energy turnover is high, utilization of carbs and fat increases, thus preventing insulin resistance and the accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the blood and tissue. This metabolic state could be established by incorporating intervals of physical training and rest periods with feeding cycles that supply all essential nutrients and calories needed to fuel the highly pumped metabolic machine.

Periodic overeating may help increase the body's basal metabolic rate, thus helping facilitate a state of high energy turnover. However, overeating should be fully controlled and alternated with periodic undereating to prevent a state of chronic overfeeding that can eventually lead to fat gain.

Finally, high-energy turnover is a metabolic state that can be easily manipulated to encourage weight loss. Alternating between days of high carbs and low carbs, as well as days of undereating and days of overeating, induces temporary states of low insulin impact and negative energy balance, respectively, while preventing the overall metabolic rate from falling. These temporary states of low insulin and negative energy balance in a highly energized body can help induce effective fat loss.

Overtraining and insufficient nutrition may initially cause weight loss, but in the long run, a metabolic decline may result, causing rebound fat gain.

Biological Principle 3: Increased Overall Detoxification

The most effective way to purge the body of toxins naturally is to fast or undereat. Digestive stress robs the body of vital energy that could otherwise be used for other metabolic purposes. Additionally, when food consumption is minimized, more energy is shifted toward cleansing. Another bonus of undereating is that less food means reduced exposure to dietary toxins.

Be aware that effective detoxification increases the release of toxins into the bloodstream and may cause a temporary elevation of toxin levels in the blood. Whenever you detox, it is important to supplement and nourish with antioxidants to help protect the body from the oxidative stress of free radicals and neutralize harmful substances. Antioxidants are naturally found in fruits, vegetables, roots, seeds, nuts, mushrooms, bran, and sulfur-containing foods such as broccoli, cauliflower, eggs, and whey protein.

Fat loss also releases toxins into the bloodstream. Toxins may then accumulate in the liver, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Extreme fat loss

methods, including crash diets, can cause an overwhelming increase in blood toxin levels and force the body to induce fat gain to desperately reabsorb the released toxins. Gradual fat loss is best because this helps you avoid overtoxicity and rebound fat gain.

Any metabolic process that increases toxicity may inhibit fat loss. Food chemicals, pesticides, plastic derivatives such as from polluted water or food, excessive alcohol consumption, and chronic constipation may all significantly increase toxin levels and overwhelm the liver's ability to detoxify. A stressed liver is often associated with increased estrogenic activity and stubborn fat gain.

Understanding the biological principles of fat loss can be of great practical help for people who want to lose fat and stay lean. However, there are additional biological functions of fat tissue that affect fat loss and are worthy of our attention.

Regulation of Body Fat

Scientists suggest that fat tissue may function as a regulator of body fat percentage and may help suppress excessive fat gain, particularly in obese people. Body fat is regulated by insulin sensitivity, with insulin tending to inhibit fat burning. Beyond a certain set point of body fat gain, the body may be forced to induce a state of insulin resistance to swiftly suppress any additional fat gain.

When insulin-resistant adipocyte fat cells resist insulin fat burning inhibitory action, they break triglycerides ester storage and mobilize fatty acids to the blood. However, this alleged fat breakdown comes at a price: These fatty acids can't be oxidized for energy because fat utilization is suppressed though lipid and cholesterol accumulation in the liver and circulatory system. That process can create a vicious cycle leading to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, two conditions often associated with obesity.

L-Carnitine Deficiency and Overconsumption of Carbs

Some people develop insulin resistance because of a deficiency in the amino acid L-carnitine and its related enzymes. A deficiency in L-carnitine sometimes causes accumulation of unoxidized fatty acids that decrease insulin sensitivity. Therefore, eating foods rich in L-carnitine, such as meat and eggs, or supplementing with L-carnitine and Lysine, an L-carnitine precursor, may support fat utilization and facilitate efficient fat loss.

Overconsumption of processed and simple carbs may adversely affect insulin receptor sensitivity, thereby leading to high insulin levels, a condition known as hyperinsulinemia. Chronic insulin stimulation from causes such as frequent carb consumption during the day may increase insulin resistance toward the end of the day. Minimizing carb consumption to one meal per day, as well as alternating between days of low carbs and days of moderate carbs, may help stabilize insulin sensitivity and afford effective fat loss.

Fat Loss and Exposure to Cold Temperatures

Fat metabolism may be affected by exposure to cold temperatures, a factor that can be manipulated to accelerate fat loss. When exposed to extremely cold temperatures, the body increases its energy expenditure, which translates into body heat. This increase in energy production is mediated by uncoupling proteins, which are found in the inner mitochondrial membranes. Uncoupling proteins generate their actions by transferring anions (negatively charged particles) through mitochondrial membranes. The uncoupling protein's actions create a proton infusion that bypasses energy utilization as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), thus inducing what is considered a waste of energy in the form of heat (a thermogenic effect).

Through their actions, uncoupling proteins reduce the cellular level of ATP and thereby create negative cellular energy balance that forces the

body to increase cellular energy production to compensate for the wasted energy. Additionally, a cellular negative energy balance promotes cellular factor cAMP and inhibits insulin.

A person can take advantage of UCP activity through exposure to cold, such as by taking cold showers. The recommended method is to alternate the water temperature between warm and cold and to finish with a cold rinse. Exposing the body to extreme cold has been used traditionally in Europe and Russia. Rubbing snow on the body and jumping into icy rivers are still considered effective methods of improving circulation and overall health.

For the purpose of losing fat, temporary exposure to extremely cold temperatures increases the actions of uncoupling proteins, thereby increasing body heat as well as the rate of fatty acid mobilization and fat loss.

Human Adaptation to

Cold Climates and Stubborn Fat Gain

Some individuals are naturally inclined to gain stubborn fat because of a genetic predisposition to high visceral fat. Inuits, Aleutians, and Native North Americans may possess a genetic code that helps their bodies survive in the extremely cold Arctic climate. Having to survive under such environmentally tough conditions, the body must constantly mobilize fatty acids as fuel for energy and heat production. Therefore, people who live in these extremely cold climates may be more prone to high visceral fat, insulin resistance, and stubborn fat gain.

This assumption is based on current genetic discoveries that suggest an evolutionary theory based on the formation of different human body types via adaptation to different climates. Generally, people who live in hot weather are more inclined and biologically suited to eat plant foods such as vegetables, fruits, and grains and are therefore more insulin sensitive.

People who live in cold climates fare better by eating flesh and fat but may be inherently inclined to an insulin-resistant metabolic state that permits a constant influx of fatty acids to the liver as fuel to keep the

body warm. It is currently fashionable to present Inuits as paragons of health. Unfortunately, as healthy as they may be in their native environment, they suffer from myriad blood sugar and vascular problems as soon as they begin to follow a typical modern Western diet.

People who are genetically predisposed to survive well in cold weather may have a tendency to insulin resistance and stubborn fat gain. Inuits, some Native Americans, and perhaps even some Latino people who are of part Indian and part Spanish descent may need a special, modified diet based on low-glycemic meals. They may need to be physically active, thus creating a state of increased energy expenditure that mimics the way their bodies are originally destined to function. Periodic undereating and a steady exercise routine incorporating both aerobic exercise and resistance are highly recommended.

Stress and Stubborn Fat

Fat loss is a process that depends almost exclusively on adrenal hormone actions. Apparently, it is the balance between beta and alpha adreno-receptors that dictates whether fat tissue is responsive to fat-burning stimulation. Generally, fat tissue with high affinity to beta receptors is more reactive to adrenalin fat-burning stimulation than is fat tissue with a high number of alpha receptors. In fact, alpha-2 receptors inhibit fat burning because of their suppressive effect on the enzyme adenylate cyclase and its related cellular factor, cAMP.

The binding of adrenal hormones to their various receptors creates distinctly different effects on stress reactions and overall fat burning. Adrenal binding to beta-2 receptors activates an intramembrane G protein to stimulate the synthesis of cellular factor cAMP, which induces fat burning by activating hormone-sensitive lipase. Fat-tissue breakdown requires the actions of hormone-sensitive lipase; otherwise, fat burning is inhibited. In contrast, the binding of adrenal hormones to alpha-2 receptors activates intramembrane G1, which has an inhibitory effect on cAMP, thus suppressing hormone-sensitive lipase and overall fat burning. There are also alpha-1 adrenoreceptors. The alpha-1 adrenoreceptor may mediate muscle fueling during physical activity.

Beta-3 receptors are the subject of current research because of their direct response to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which facilitates

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muscle contraction. Nevertheless, beta-3 receptors are considered fat-burning stimulators. Adrenal hormones (catecholamines) are released largely as a fight-or-flight response to stress. The effects of stress on adipose fat tissue and the liver cause a release of fatty acids and glucose as fuel. In skeletal muscles, adrenal stimulation causes the breakdown of glycogen reserves to provide immediate fuel for swift reactions.

During stress, adrenal hormones accelerate the heart rate to increase blood flow. They also enhance breathing and overall detoxification by relaxing blood vessels in the nasal passages and gastrointestinal tract. In the short run, adrenal hormones help the body react to immediate danger or stress by facilitating fat burning for immediate fuel utilization, enhancing oxygenation, and eliminating toxins. In the long run, however, adrenal hormones may have other metabolic functions that appear contradictory and confusing.

All adrenoreceptors compete for the same adrenal hormones. Because the ratio of beta- to alpha-adrenoreceptors dictates stimulatory or inhibitory adrenal effects, both stimulatory and inhibitory adrenal actions may serve different biological purposes. A high affinity of a tissue to the inhibitory effect of alpha-2 adrenoreceptors may be part of a biological defense mechanism that protects the body against stress-related adrenal overexcitatory impact.

Overexcitatory impact, which occurs during chronic stress or constant exposure to danger, sometimes leads to panic attacks or adrenal exhaustion, and finally to overall metabolic breakdown. If insufficient rest has accompanied the chronic stress, the result may be formation of tissue such as stubborn fat, which typically expresses a high ratio of alpha- to beta-adrenoreceptors and is less responsive to adrenal stimulation. Relaxation methods, sufficient rest, and avoiding overtraining can help manage stress and protect against adrenal exhaustion.

Let stress work for you rather than against you. Short-term, controlled exposure to stress is stimulatory and most effective toward fat loss, whereas chronic or prolonged stress has adverse effects. In other words, short, intense workout sessions with sufficient rest yield better results than do protracted workout routines six or seven days a week.

The body adapts to the type of stimulation it experiences most frequently. It follows, then, that the body may adapt to chronic stress by reversing tissue sensitivity to adrenostimulatory reactions to stress, thereby protecting the body from exhaustion. Adaptation to chronic stress may cause fat tissue to be less reactive to fat breakdown and therefore more stubborn. This long-term adaptation to chronic stress may be partially responsible for age-related stubborn fat gain.

Lipolysis: The Chemistry of Fat Burning

Lipolysis is the release and mobilization of fatty acids from adipose fat tissue so they can be used as fuel. In this simple process, fatty acids attached to glycerol are hydrolytically removed. Fatty acids, in addition to being mobilized for fuel, act as precursors for the synthesis of ketone bodies, such as during prolonged starvation. Additionally, lipolysis occurs in muscle tissue and in the liver, where small amounts of fatty acids are stored to produce cellular energy.

The process of fat-burning occurs in three stages:

1. Hormonal simulation,

2. Mobilization of fatty acids to the mitochondria for energy utilization, and

3. Fat metabolites signal the body whether to keep mobilizing fat for energy or stop the fat-burning process.

Low-Carb Ketogenic Diets

Ketogenic diets are based on carb deprivation, and the motivating idea is to create a metabolic state in which the body is forced to increase production of ketone bodies because of increased demand for fatty acid oxidation. In early stages of the diet, the lack of dietary carbs and low insulin increases the mobilization of fatty acids for fuel and increases liver synthesis of ketone bodies in the form of acetoacetate, 3-

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hydroxybutyrate and acetone. Ketones serve as fuel for peripheral tissue and spares protein breakdown. Promoters of ketogenic diets promise maximum fat loss when ketosis is induced.

What is great in theory, however, does not always work in reality. Ketogenic diets are doomed to fail. People who experience prolonged carb restriction reach a point of stagnation beyond which they cannot lose any more body fat. Moreover, they may suffer metabolic decline and gain back all the weight they initially lost, but this time the weight gain includes a higher percentage of body fat. The reason the ketogenic diet fails is simple: During ketosis, blood pH declines as the body's acidity rises. Desperate to reduce acidity, the body secretes insulin, thus inhibiting lipolysis and halting ketosis, with its acidic effect.

Ketone bodies are acid fat metabolites. The body tries to get rid of these through the lungs and the kidneys, via exhalation and the urine, respectively. However, when the body reaches ketosis, it secretes insulin to prevent further acidosis. Insulin inhibits lipolysis and therefore decreases mobilization of fatty acids to the liver. When fat loss is suppressed, the synthesis of the liver's ketone bodies decreases, and the body's pH rises. Ketosis inhibits fat loss and increases insulin levels, and ketogenic the diet's quest of reaching ketosis clearly fails to maximize fat loss.

Chronic carb restrictions may adversely reduce cellular adenosine triphosphate, thus impairing thyroid hormone activation—that is, conversion of T4 to the active form, T3. Low thyroid activity often causes an overall metabolic decline, with impaired muscle fuel utilization, lack of strength, sensitivity to cold, and fat gain. Low-carb ketogenic diets are very popular these days. People who suffer from insulin resistance may benefit from low-carb diets adjusted to their individual needs. Nevertheless, the desire to reach a metabolic state of ketosis-related fat loss, such as in high-fat, no-carb ketogenic diets is misleading and ill advised.

Insulin and Fat Gain

Insulin stimulates fat gain, increasing the net uptake of fatty acids into adipocytes. Insulin is considered the major antilipolytic (anti-fat-burning hormone). In fact, insulin has a profoundly inhibitory effect on biological processes necessary for fat burning. The many inhibitory mechanisms by which insulin inhibits lipolysis aren't fully understood.

Insulin stimulates the enzyme phosphodiesterase 3, which degrades and decreases cellular factor cAMP in fat cells. As noted, cAMP is critical for lipolysis, and suppressing cAMP inhibits fat burning.

Insulin desensitizes beta-adrenoreceptors by inducing translocation of beta-adrenoreceptors to intracellular space that reduces lipolytic sensitivity to adrenal hormones. Insulin inhibits the fat-burning hormone sensitive lipase by enhancing its dephosphorylation.

Fat-Burning Hormones

Adrenal hormones are the most important stimulators of lipolysis. Adipocyte fat cells have three different beta-adrenoreceptors (beta-1, -2, and -3) and alpha-2 adrenoreceptors. While beta-2 and beta-3 receptors stimulate fat burning, alpha-2 and beta-1 receptors may actually inhibit fat breakdown. Adrenal hormones stimulate fat burning or lipolysis by binding to beta receptors that are coupled to G-sensitive protein. Activated Gs protein catalyzes the formation of cAMP. cAMP activates protein kinase A, which then finally phosphorylates and activates hormone-sensitive lipase, thus inducing lipolysis. Other fat-burning hormones also have a cAMP lipolytic impact on fat cells.

Hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone, glucagons,

Fat-Burning Hormones (continued)

hunger-related cholecystokinin and parathyroid hormone are all stimulators of lipolysis via cAMP activation, but their effects are minor compared to those of the adrenal hormones. The main physiological factors that increase lipolysis are fasting, undereating, and exercise. Each of these physiological factors involves the stimulatory effect of adrenal hormones and the activation of cellular factor cAMP.

Eliminating Fat's

Reasons to Exist—Practical Tips

• Establishing temporary states of negative energy balance (i.e., when more energy is spent than is consumed) through periodic undereating and exercise, eliminates the reason for fat to serve as storage for energy and instead forces it to break down into fuel for energy.

• Removing toxins from the body through periodic fasting or undereating helps eliminate the reason for fat to serve as a storage for toxins, thereby preventing fat gain while practically supporting fat loss.

• Natural methods that increase the body's capacity to utilize fat for energy, such as by incorporating endurance and strength training in workout routines, protects the body against accumulation of serum lipids as well as insulin resistance.

• Avoiding consumption of estrogenic substances such as petroleum-based food chemicals, pesticides, and fertilizers, as well as overconsumption of alcohol helps prevent overestrogenic activity.

• Avoiding chronic calorie restrictions and crash diets helps prevent a sudden elevation of toxin levels as well as preventing estrogen decline in women.

• Avoid ketogenic diets that involve chronic carb restrictions to prevent fat gain rebound as well as low thyroid, sluggish metabolism, and impaired performance.

• Body exposure to extreme cold temperatures such as by taking cold showers or swimming in cold water triggers an increase in the actions of uncoupling proteins, thereby increasing body heat as well as accelerating the rate of fatty acids mobilization for energy and overall fat loss.

• Avoid exposure to chronic stress such as from overtraining, lack of relaxation, and insufficient rest to prevent adaptation of the body to chronic stress, which may result in decreased sensitivity to adrenal fat burning actions and a resultant formation of stubborn fat tissue.

Muscle Gain and Fat Loss Conclusions

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