1. Loring SH, Yoshino K, Kimball WR, Barnas GM. Gravitational and shear-associated pressure gradients in the abdomen. J Appl Physiol


2. Decramer M, De Troyer A, Kelly S, Zocchi L, Macklem PT. Regional differences in abdominal pressure swings in dogs. J Appl Physiol 1984;


3. Mead J, Yoshino K, Kikuchi Y, Barnas GM, Loring SH. Abdominal pressure transmission in humans during slow breathing maneuvers. J

Appl Physiol 1990;68:1850-1853.

4. Agostoni E, Hyatt RE. Static behavior of the respiratory system. In: Mack lem PT, Mead J, editors. Handbook of physiology. Vol. 3: The respiratory system, Part 1. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society; 1986. p.


5. Heaf PJD, Prime FJ. The compliance of the thorax in normal human subjects. Clin Sci (Colch) 1956;15:319-327.

6. Roussos C, Campbell EJM. Respiratory muscle energetics. In: Macklem PT,

Mead J, editors. Handbook of physiology. Vol. 3: The respiratory system,

Part 2. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society; 1986. p. 481-509.

7. Leblanc P, Bowie DM, Summers E, Jones NL, Killian KJ. Breathless-

ness and exercise in patients with cardiorespiratory disease. Am Rev

Respir Dis 1986;133:21-25.

8. Konno K, Mead J. Measurement of the separate volume changes of rib cage and abdomen during breathing. J Appl Physiol 1967;22:407-422.

9. Smith JC, Mead J. Three degree of freedom description of movement of the human chest wall. J Appl Physiol 1986;60:928-934.

10. McCool FD, Kelly KB, Loring SH, Greaves IA, Mead J. Estimates of ventilation from body surface measurements in unrestrained subjects.

J Appl Physiol 1986;61:1114-1119.

11. Mead J, Peterson N, Grimby G, Mead J. Pulmonary ventilation mea sured from body surface movements. Science 1967;156:1383-1384.

12. Scanlon PD, Loring SH, Pichurko BM, McCool FD, Slutsky AS, Sarka rati M, Brown R. Respiratory mechanics in acute quadriplegia: lung and chest wall compliance and dimensional changes during respiratory maneuvers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;139:615-620.

13. Ringel ER, Loring SH, McFadden ER Jr, Ingram RH Jr. Chest wall con-

figurational changes before and during acute obstructive episodes in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;128:607-610.

14. McCool FD, Loring SH, Mead J. Rib cage distortion during voluntary and involuntary breathing acts. J Appl Physiol 1985;58:1703-1712.

15. Banzett RB, Mahan ST, Garner DM, Brughera A, Loring SH. A simple and reliable method to calibrate respiratory magnetometers and Re-spitrace. J Appl Physiol 1995;79:2169-2176.

16. Estenne M, De Troyer A. Relationship between respiratory muscle elec-

tromyogram and rib cage motion in tetraplegia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;132:53-59.

17. Sartene R, Martinot-Lagarde P, Mathieu M, Vincent A, Goldman M,

Durand G. Respiratory cross-sectional area-flux measurements of the human chest wall. J Appl Physiol 1990;68:1605-1614.

18. Cala SJ, Kenyon CM, Ferrigno G, Carnevali P, Pedoti A, Macklem PT,

Rochester DF. Chest wall and lung volume estimation by optical reflectance motion analysis. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:2680-2689.

19. Cohen CA, Zagelbaum G, Gross D, Roussos C, Macklem PT. Clinical manifestations of inspiratory muscle fatigue. Am J Med 1982;73:308-316.

20. Mead J, Loring SH. Analysis of volume displacement and length changes of the diaphragm during breathing. J Appl Physiol 1982;53: 750-755.

21. Loring SH, Mead J, Griscom NT. Dependence of diaphragmatic length on lung volume and thoracoabdominal configuration. J Appl Physiol 1985;59:1961-1970.

22. Loh L, Goldman M, Newson Davis J. The assessment of diaphragmatic function. Medicine (Baltimore) 1977;56:165-169.

23. Decramer M, Macklem PT. Pressures developed by the respiratory mus cles. In: Roussos C, editor. The thorax. Part B: Applied physiology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1995. p. 1099-1126.

24. Konno K, Mead J. Static volume-pressure characteristics of the rib cage and abdomen. J Appl Physiol 1968;24:544-548.

25. Goldman MD, Grimby G, Mead J. Mechanical work of breathing de rived from rib cage and abdominal V-P partitioning. J Appl Physiol 1976;41:752-763.

26. Mead J, Smith JC, Loring SH. Volume displacements of the chest wall and their mechanical significance. In: Lenfant C, editor. The thorax. Vol. 85: Lung biology in health and disease. New York: Marcel Dek-ker; 1995. p. 565-586.

27. Loring SH, Mead J. Action of the diaphragm on the rib cage inferred from a force-balance analysis. J Appl Physiol 1982;53:756-760.

28. Grassino A, Goldman MD, Mead J, Sears TA. Mechanics of the human diaphragm during voluntary contraction: statics. J Appl Physiol 1978; 44:829-839.

29. De Troyer A. The respiratory muscles. In: Cristal R, West J, Weibel E,

Barnes P, editors. The lung: scientific foundations, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1997. p. 1203-1214.

30. Lopata M, Evanich MJ, Lorenco R. Quantification of diaphragm EMG

to CO2 rebreathing in humans. J Appl Physiol 1997;43:262-270.

31. Brancatisano A, Engel LA, Loring SH. Lung volume and effectiveness of inspiratory muscles. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:688-694.

32. Schweitzer TW, Fitzgerald JW, Bowden A, Lynn-Davies P. Spectral analyses of human diaphragm electromyogram. J Appl Physiol 1979; 46:152-165.

33. Sinderby C, Lindstrom L, Grassino A. Automatic assessment of EMG

quality. J Appl Physiol 1995;79:1803-1815.

34. Sinderby C, Beck J, Spahija A, Weinberg J, Grassino A. Voluntary acti vation of the human diaphragm in health and disease. J Appl Physiol 1998;85:2146-2158.

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