The majority of techniques and tests described in this Section of the Statement are not presently in routine clinical use and many should be considered experimental. The tests can be put into one of three groups based on their feasibility in different settings.

1. Tests that are well established and validated for routine clinical use include Pi,max, PE,max and the direct visualization of upper airway structures.

2. Many tests are fairly well developed but still require validation and establishment of normal values. These tests are available for use in clinical investigations where there are specifically trained personnel and specialized equipment. They include measurements of Pmo,0.1, inspiratory pressure reserve and PTI, thoracoabdominal asynchrony, EMG of the respiratory and upper airway muscles, and critical and closing pressures of the upper airway.

3. Tests that are still under development and that are recommended for use only in research settings include measurement of Ccw, crying pressures, ultrasonography of the diaphragm, and phrenic nerve stimulation. These tests all require further investigation before their feasibility in clinical practice can be established.


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