Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation Audio Sounds Lazy Summer Day

Relaxation Audio Sounds Lazy Summer Day

This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds from Lazy Summer Day.

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Relaxation Rate

On cessation of contraction, skeletal muscles relax at a rate determined by their relative proportion of fast and slow fibers. When muscles fatigue, their relaxation rate declines as a result of a slower uptake of calcium previously released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. During various types of intermittent contractions, the rate of decay of Pes and of Pdi reflects the relaxation rate of inspiratory muscles and of the diaphragm, respectively. When fatigue is induced by breathing against external loads, the inspiratory muscle relaxation rate falls early and then stabilizes, following a time course similar to that of the change in electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum. Thus, relaxation rates typically decline before the occurrence of muscle failure at about the same rate as the center frequency of EMG does. On cessation of loading, the relaxation rate recovers quickly and reaches baseline values within 5 to 10 minutes (42, 43). Methodology. The relaxation rate of Pes or Pdi...

What is it supposed to do

As mentioned, citrulline readily converts to arginine, which has gotten much attention recently due to it's being a precursor to nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule (see arginine section for additional comments on NO) in the human body. NO is a vasodilator that mediates the relaxation of smooth muscle. NO is a key signaling molecule in the human body for a huge number of functions and is beyond the scope of this chapter. In summary Citrulline may improve performance by improving the clearance of ammonia and lactate during exercise, but other effects may include an improvement in ATP replenishment post-workout.

What does the real world have to say

It's not uncommon that people are given advice on what to eat in regards to the food's amino acid content. For example, many people have probably heard at one time or another, If you want to be more alert, eat a high protein food. This advice is probably due to the high l-tyrosine content of the food. Conversely, people are also given advice that to relax, they should eat foods such as milk and turkey, which are high in the amino acid l-trypto-phan. L-Tryptophan is a building block of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is known to help with sleep and relaxation.

Respiratory muscle functional assessment implications for human gene therapy

Finally, there are newly emerging areas of respiratory muscle evaluation which are conceptually attractive due to their noninvasive nature and the ability to track changes over time. One such approach is the ultrasound, which can be used to image the diaphragm provided there is little or no air intervening between the probe and the muscle. The normal diaphragm is poorly echogenic, whereas the diseased diaphragm muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy was found to be associated with increased echogenicity (De Bruin et al. 1997). The thickness of the diaphragm during relaxation at different lung volumes, tidal breathing, and static inspiratory efforts can also be determined (Ueki et al. 1995 Cohn et al. 1997). When skeletal muscles contract, they also produce vibrations and low frequency sounds which can be detected by microphones placed on the skin surface (Oster and Jaffe 1980). This signal, called a phonomyogram, can be recorded during respiratory maneuvers and has been correlated with...

Diaphragmatic Response to Phrenic Nerve Stimulation

Typical pressure tracings in response to phrenic nerve stimulation. Traces A to C show, respectively, the esophageal pressure (Pes), gastric pressure (Pga), and transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) responses to bilateral, supramaximal, electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve in the neck, in a patient with COPD (hence the relatively low amplitudes). On the Pdi trace (C) are indicated some indexes often used to describe quantitatively the twitch response (1) Pdi,tw is the amplitude of the response from baseline to peak it is the result of the interaction of diaphragm contraction with the rib cage and the abdomen although not a direct measure of diaphragm intrinsic contractile properties, it is related to diaphragm strength and can be used to characterize it if all other intervening factors are otherwise kept identical (e.g., lung volume, thoracic geometry, rib cage and abdomen compliance, diaphragm state of activation, etc.) (2) ttp and 1 2rt are the time-to-peak and...

Relaxing and Letting Go

One of the most important benefits of stretching is its ability to promote relaxation not only of your body but also of your mind and spirit. The slow, methodical movements in a good flexibility program provide gentle movements as you position your body for the next stretch, followed by periods of quiet stillness as you hold the stretch. Concentrated focus on the muscles you're stretching helps block out other stress-inducing thoughts (you know, those thoughts of your schedule, your finances, your kids, and so on). In this way, stretching can not only lengthen your muscles but also expand your mental horizon.

A Healthy Back and Body

Now, drop the pelvis almost to the floor (See Figure 1, Position 2). Remember keep elbows and knees stiff (this is essential to impart the proper spinal stretch). As you lower the back, throw your head back raise it sharply as you lower the body. This is not a fast motion take time in its execution. Dip to the extreme low, rise high again, arching the back all you can down again . . . up, and down. If you do this motion correctly, you will find that a few times are enough. If only you could see what is going on along the spinal column during this jackknife action, you would know the relaxation and great relief imparted to the nerves all along the line.

First things first Relaxing in the Water

The first step to swimming effectively is relaxation. You need to get comfortable in the water. Breathe. Feel how your body moves. Tension in your body will prevent you from floating and propelling forward properly. In order to swim well, and conserve energy while doing it, you must first at least feel safe in the water, if not completely relish it.

A glossary of myotonia

By definition, myotonia is a feature of muscle fiber dysfunction. Proof of this can be achieved with curare. This differentiates the myotonia from neuromyotonia, which is caused by spontaneous motor unit activity due to hyperexcitability of the terminal motor nerve branches. Myotonia is characterized by an involuntary muscle tension that is caused by a lowered electrical threshold and action potentials which repetitively fire because of a hyperexcitability of the muscle fiber membrane. Usually myotonia does not occur spontaneously but depends on the patient's past activity. Myotonia is most prominent in muscles that are strenuously activated for a few seconds after they have rested for > 10 minutes. Under these conditions, muscle relaxation is severely slowed due to the involuntary after-activity. If the myotonia is severe, transient weakness can occur. The myotonia decreases with continued activity, a phenomenon called warm-up. Also the weakness, if present at all, resolves. On the...

Nucleotide Breakdown in Postmortem Muscle

ATP is the main source of energy in the muscle for the biochemical reactions. ATP is necessary in the muscle to provide the required energy to drive the Na K pump of the membranes, to drive the calcium pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and to provide energy for muscle contraction and relaxation.4 The ATP concentration is usually approximately 5-8 mol g in resting muscle but this amount drops to final negligible values in a few hours postmortem, when the rigor state is reached. This is related to the formation of actomyosin and the loss of extensibility.5 At very early postmortem, there is an apparent stability of ATP due to its formation from creatine phosphate through creatine kinase and also through anaerobic glycolysis.1,3,6 But the efficiency is not so good as only 2 moles of ATP are produced per mole of glucose through anaerobic glycolysis versus 12 moles that are produced under aerobic conditions (living state). Once both creatine phosphate and glycogen are exhausted, or the...

Maximum Sustainable Isoflow

To roughly calculate the additional inspiratory pressure used to overcome lung and chest wall impedance, the isoflow apparatus can be modified to inflate the subject's lungs during complete relaxation (13). This additional positive pressure can be added to active inspiratory pressures developed during each breath to estimate the total inspiratory muscle pressure (Pmus).

Pressure Time Index of Inspiratory Muscles

In several investigations, skeletal muscle fatigue was found to occur when a muscle generated more than 15 of its maximal force during sustained contraction. This work has led to the concept that a fatigue threshold exists, with fatigue occurring only when the level of pressure-time generated exceeds this threshold level. Additional work on this concept has shown that the fatigue threshold is higher during intermittent contractions and depends on the relative duration of contraction and relaxation. The same holds true for the in-spiratory muscles of subjects submitted to external inspiratory loads. The pressure-time index of the diaphragm is defined as

Estimation Of Ventilation Based On Chest Wall Motion Konnomead Diagram

Figure 4 shows a Konno-Mead diagram of a subject breathing quietly and performing an isovolume maneuver. During quiet inspiration, the rib cage and abdomen move out synchronously, following the rib cage-abdomen relaxation characteristic. In the isovolume maneuver, the subject voluntarily shifts volume between rib cage and abdominal compartments by contracting and relaxing abdominal muscles with the glottis closed. Because lung volume is constant, the decrease in abdominal volume (i.e., the volume displaced by inward movement of the abdominal wall) must be equal to the increase in rib cage volume two isovolume maneuvers performed at known lung volumes allow calibration of rib cage and abdominal displacements in terms of lung volume change.

Inferring Respiratory Muscle Contribution To Breathing From Chest Wall Motion

Ward motion of the abdominal wall expected during inhalation with a paralyzed diaphragm may be abolished if inspiration occurs with simultaneous relaxation of abdominal muscles that were activated during expiration (22). Unambiguous evidence of muscle action is best achieved by combining displacement and pressure measurements.

The Chalk Board Method

Well, your desire to toss and turn, really isn't the result of you not being comfortable, it's the result of you not feeling relaxed. On a deeper feeling our mind wants us to relax, but most of the times we interpret the message as find a comfortable spot on the bed. True relaxation comes from within you, and has to be triggered by your inner thought process.

Regulation of Ca Flow Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Phospholamban (PLB) It is a pentamer made up of five identical subunits, each 6,000 dalton (52 amino acid residues). PLB is found in cardiac, slow skeletal and smooth muscle but it is absent in fast skeletal muscle. The protein is associated with the Ca2+-pump ATPase in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The flexible N-terminus on which the phosphorylation sites are located extends out into the cytoplasm of the cardiac muscle cell. The phosphorylation site at serine 16 is a substrate for PKA, whereas threonine 17 is phosphorylated by a Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of PLB by PKA increases the rate of Ca2+ transport and the Ca2+-sensitivity of the Ca2+-pump and thereby facilitates relaxation in heart exposed to p-adrenergic agonists (Katz, 1992 Perry, 1996). Phosphorylation of PLB by a Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase also stimulates Ca2+-uptake in vitro, but its physiological significance is not known. Research on the physiological...

Inferring Diaphragm Activation And Electromechanical Effectiveness From

The Rahn, Campbell, Konno-Mead, and Macklem diagrams allow the inference of respiratory muscle activity via departures from the relaxed pressure-volume, motion-relaxation, or pressure-pressure relationships. The major limitation of these methods is that both esophageal and gastric pressures are affected by the action of many muscles, and the analysis of their individual actions is indirect and qualitative. Relaxation is often difficult to obtain.

Composition of the jigsaw puzzle

Volume training is good for activating many muscle fibres. But it's far from effective. Between the sets the muscle fibres get enough rest to relax. So it's hard to activate new muscle fibres that weren't in the game before. But the main problem is the relaxation factor. Relaxation is very important just as important as the simultaneous activation of as many muscle fibres as possible. That's why I want to discuss the relaxation factor in the next two chapters.

The Anabolic Cycle Timing is Everything

Cycling between periods of action and rest is therefore necessary to effectively reach anabolic states. Length of training (volume) and exercise intensity are both important factors in inducing growth stimulation. Nevertheless, periodic rest and relaxation intervals are as important as workout sessions. Although exercise activates the first stage of the anabolic cycle, rest combined with proper nutrition closes the cycle and activates the final second stage, which facilitates the actual growth. As noted previously, one of the most important anabolic effects occurs during deep sleep, when growth hormone release reaches its peak level.

Alternative Health Therapies

( Rolfing Developed by Ida Rolf in the 1930's in the U. S. Rolfing is also called structural processing and postural release, or structural dynamics. It is based on the concept that distortions (accidents, injuries, falls, etc.) and the effects of gravity on the body cause upsets in the body. Rolfing helps to achieve balance and improved body posture. Methods involve the use of stretching, deep tissue massage, and relaxation techniques to loosen old injuries and break bad movement and posture patterns, which can cause long-term health and body stress. Web ( Massage - Self ) Paul C. Bragg often said, You can be your own best massage therapist, even if you have only one good hand. Near-miraculous health improvements have been achieved by victims of accidents or strokes in bringing life back to afflicted parts of their own bodies by self-massage and even vibrators. Treatments can be day or night, almost continual. Self-massage also helps achieve relaxation at day's end. Families...

Bottomline Bodybuilding

So much the actual growth hormone that provides the youth enhancing qualities, but the fact that the growth hormone is being released that induces the majority of the benefits. That's why deep sleep is imperative to the bodybuilder looking for maximum growth. The deeper the sleep, the quicker the recuperation and the more effectively all the processes of repair are carried out. The lighter and more disturbed the sleep, the slower the recuperation, and the quicker fatigue will set in. So in effect, if you sleep lightly and keep waking up throughout the night, you may still get 8 total hours, but the release of growth hormone never occurs, which is why you're still dragging your ass the following day. Sometimes sleep of an hour or two under conditions of complete relaxation will accomplish more actual reconstruction than a whole night's restless, dream-racked sleep. I say dream-racked because vivid dreaming is not a result of deep sleep, even though it's mistaken as such. The majority...

Application of the supercompensation model

On the other hand, if the performance stagnates, even diminishes, the relaxation phase isn't complete. You do this until your performance doesn't increase a lot anymore. Afterwards you know exactly how many days of relaxation your body needs to adapt. 1 relaxation day 2 relaxation days 3 relaxation days 4 relaxation days Therefore the optimal relaxation time is 3 days. After 3 days of relaxation you get the best performance increase.

Myofascial Release Techniques

Still's writings demonstrate that he accorded great significance to the connective tissue. It is most likely he also utilized myofascial relaxation techniques. The Still techniques that are taught by Van Buskirk23 are the best evidence for this. Myofascial release techniques aim at relaxing the connective tissue. These terms are significant in treatment. In direct treatment, the tight tissue is tensed even more. This activates receptors in the tissue, which then cause relaxation. The other method consists of approximating the tensed tissue. This reduces tension and calms the receptors. In direct treatment, we palpate continuously in the direction the tension manifests in. In indirect treatment, we follow the relaxations throughout the course of treatment. For treatment as well as for the examination, we sound out the mobility of the tissue in all three planes. Depending on the treatment variation, relaxation (ease) and contraction (bind) are then stacked on top of

Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Proteins

Low molecular weight heat schock proteins are phosphorylated in smooth muscle A 27-28-kDa protein is phosphorylated in various intact smooth muscles and smooth muscle cells (reviewed in Barany and Barany, (1996c). Cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasorelaxation is associated with the phosphorylation of a 20-kDa heat shock protein, called HSP20 (Beal et al., 1997 Rembold et al., 2000). It was found that HSP20 is an actin-associated protein (Brophy et al.,1999 Rembold et al. 2000) suggesting that smooth muscle relaxation may be brought about by the binding of the phosphorylated HSP20 to the actin filaments.

Adaptation a breakthrough

Super compensation is more important here than diet. If you don't eat optimally you will not reach a good muscle increase, but stagnate or even lose muscle. If you don't take enough relaxation time it's going to harm you. In most cases you'll over-train and at best-stagnate. What makes it unusual is the simultaneous attention for maximum growth and optimal relaxation. At this point X-Adaptation training is light-years ahead of conventional training methods

Pleural Pressure and Derived Variables

Calculation of the PTP necessitates the integration of the area under the Ppl curve versus time. It also requires, however, a solution to the problem of determining the beginning of the inspiratory effort and of using PEEPi to reference the true beginning of inspiration to the chest wall relaxation line (52). Different methods have been proposed to perform this calculation (which is applicable as well to the transdiaphragmatic pressure Pdi ), and the termination of inspiratory effort has been based on the inspiratory-expiratory flow transition point (52) or once the pressure has returned back to its baseline level (84). PTP can be expressed on a per-breath or a perminute basis today, it is probably one of the most useful tools for quantifying respiratory muscle effort in mechanically ventilated patients (18, 52, 80, 85-93) (see Pressure-Time Index of Inspiratory Muscles in Section 5 and Pressure-Time Product in Section 4 of this Statement). PTP can be separated into a number of...

The Biochemistry of Exercise and Stress

However, some stress in your life can be productive, in that it keeps you energized, prevents boredom, and even helps you stay focused. After all, for many people, an imminent deadline is great motivation. Some people, such as psychologist James E. Loehr, author of Stress for Success, make a case for stress as an antiaging factor. Most experts agree, however, that too much stress can be detrimental to your health. People who are constantly stressed out are more prone to suffer physical or psychological illnesses than people who also build relaxation time into their lives. Stress is linked to chronic pain, headaches, allergies, and insomnia, as well as more serious ailments such as hypertension, heart attacks, diabetes, and asthma.

Hands Healthe Soothing Touch of Massage

A massage therapist will use his or her palms, hands, thumbs, and forearms in kneading and stroking movements to work the muscles of your neck, back, arms, shoulders, legs, hands, and feet. Massage provides overall relaxation of the muscles and increases circulation. For Swedish and most other massages, you undress to the level of your comfort. (Most people prefer to be nude so the massage therapist can work unrestricted.) The massage therapist will drape a sheet or blanket over you and will expose only the body part he or she is working on. Your private parts will stay covered at all times. The therapist also will want to make sure that your body temperature is comfortable at all times and will adjust the room temperature and or blankets at your request.

Meditation Can Move Emotional Mountains

Meditation is a form of mental relaxation in which you sit and consciously concentrate on nothing. Nothing can be breathing, a specific image, or a single repeated word or phrase (often called a mantra, which is a Sanskrit word). Although there is significant formal training for different types of meditation, particularly those that are part of religious practices, it doesn't take much training to derive some relaxation from withdrawing and focusing your attention inward.

What Affects Testosterone Production Sex Drive and Libido

Considering all the above, a healthy diet that supplies all essential nutrients, and therefore energy, as well as stress management methods, such as relaxation techniques, regular exercise, and a proper nutritional program that helps slow the aging process, are all natural methods that work as a first defense against low testosterone. I truly believe that the best way to keep your vigor high is to follow a cycle of daily detoxification, and then consume nutritional meals that make you feel satisfied, compensated, and reiaxed every night.

Assessment Of The Function Of The Active Chest Wall Campbell Diagram

Campbell Diagram

To evaluate respiratory muscle action, a Campbell diagram, in which lung volume on the ordinate is plotted against pleural pressure on the abscissa, can be constructed. In this diagram, pleural pressure has differing significance depending on the maneuver. Consider a subject who is slowly inflated and deflated passively by a syringe connected to the airway while the respiratory muscles are relaxed (passive inflation Figure 2). The pleural pressure, which is equal to transthoracic pressure, rises and falls, describing the characteristic PV curve for the relaxed chest wall, which is the same as that in the Rahn diagram (Figure 1). Alternatively, during active slow inhalation and exhalation with an open glottis, the pleural pressure (in this case equal to transpulmonary pressure with a negative sign) becomes more subatmospheric as the lungs inflate (active inflation Figure 2), describing the lungs' characteristic PV curve, which appears as a mirror image of the lungs' curve in Figure 1....

Dystrophin Minidystrophin and Microdystrophin

The 2.4 mb dystrophin gene is located on the short arm of the X-chromosome and it consists of 79 exons. The use of different promoters and alternative splicing yield numerous dystrophin isoforms expressed in a variety of tissues (Ahn and Kunkel 1993 Blake et al. 2002). The main isoform expressed in striated muscle (skeletal muscle and the heart) is a 427 kD protein called Dp427m, or full-length dystrophin, or simply, dystrophin. By crosslinking intracellular g-actin with the extracellular matrix protein laminin, dystrophin stabilizes the sarcolemma during the repeated cycles of muscle contraction and relaxation (Ervasti and Sonnemann 2008 Petrof 2002). Two g-actin binding domains have been identified in dystrophin and are named ABD and ABD2. ABD is located at the N-terminus of dystrophin and ABD2 is located in the middle of the dystrophin protein between spectrin-like repeats 11 and 17 (Fig. 9.1). Dystrophin indirectly interacts with laminin through dystroglycan via a dystroglycan...

A split a fire walk an act of faith

Usually the body possesses great stretching reserves but the stretched muscle is resisting by trying to contract, and this resistance must be overcome with the psychological mindset on relaxation. Stretching exercises must be performed slowly and carefully, with a fixation of the stretched position for a minute or so. While holding the stretch all your intentions should be on relaxation, a reduction of tension in the stretched muscles. Such mental concentration enables one to reach stunning results. Appropriate images and pictures sometimes help the relaxation mindset. For example, imagine that your legs are the ends of a rope easily spread apart as you perform a split. Visualizing heat is very helpful. Mentally wrap the spot with most muscular tension with a hot towel in a few layers. As this hot application heats up, the muscle softens up and relaxes. Although not a must, various tools for relaxing the body and the mind from sports psychology and...

Interaction between Myosin and Actin

Figure 10-6 A schematic representation of the mechanism of filament sliding during contraction of a myofibril. The globular head of energized myosin binds to a specific binding site on actin, and the energy stored in myosin is released. The resulting relaxation of the myosin molecule entails rotation of the globular head, which induces longitudinal sliding of the filaments.

Paramyotonia congenita

Paramyotonia Congenita Pregnancy

In the cold (even in just a cool wind), the face may appear mask-like, and the eyes cannot be opened for several seconds or minutes (Fig. 3.6). Working in the cold makes the fingers so stiff that the patient cannot move them for several minutes. Under warm conditions, most patients have no complaints because impaired muscle relaxation improves at higher temperatures. Other patients have stiff limb muscles in a warm environment the stiffness improves on continued exercise and displays the paradoxical reaction only on cooling. On the whole, the duration and degree of the paramyotonic reaction of muscles depends on the duration and intensity of cooling, but there are also individual differences in susceptibility. Fig. 3.7. Contractions of a paramyotonia patient at different temperatures. Periods of voluntary isometric muscle contractions (in Newton) and the corresponding surface EMG activity underneath (modified from Haass et al., 1981). The patient was asked to maximally contract his...

What does the research say

Why does this matter You'll recall from the arginine review, that one of the functions of arginine is the production of nitric oxide, or NO. What NO does when it binds to a receptor is activate the enzyme guanylyl cyclase - which, in turn, manufactures a second messenger molecule known as cyclic gua-nosine monophosphate (cGMP). One of the downstream results of cGMP is the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. This results in vasodilation and increased blood flow to the surrounding tissues. cGMP is degraded by PDE to 5'-GMP, which has no signalling function. There are 6 different PDE iso-forms that occur in different tissues, but they all perform the same basic function.

Physical principles of Maxalding

Relaxation of the other muscles during the contraction and subsequent relaxation of the desired muscles. This permits to increase the circulation into the exercised muscles. A very prolonged contraction generates so much pressure that it prevents correct blood flow. BMC consists in the quick performance (about 1-2 seconds) of successive and alternating contractions and relaxations of the same isolated muscle. This MC method is called quick reflex in the original Maxalding writings. It is recommended for developing high speed and power. BCM is more difficult than the SMC, because during an explosive contraction, the surrounding muscles tend to be contracted too. This explosive controls are very important, because they teach you how to relax unnecessary muscles during quick and demanding exercises for preserving energy. The mind-muscle link reinforces by means of BMC providing the ability of generating extremely powerful contractions in critical situations. BMC can be also...

Variations of Muscle Energy Techniques

Postisometric relaxation After contraction, a muscle relaxes more easily. During the relaxation phase, the previously tensed fibers can be stretched better. The relaxation phase must not be equated with the latent time, which is much shorter. We suspect an activation of the golgi sensory system, which leads to an inhibition for 10-15 seconds. During this relaxation phase, the muscle group is stretched exactly until a new contraction occurs. Here again, both methods are applied. While ilium lesions are primarily treated by antagonist inhibition, we correct joint dysfunctions mainly with the principle of postisometric relaxation (PIR). In either case, isometric contractions are preferable.

Conclusion Respiratory Muscles

Abdominal displacement (Vab) gastric pressure (Pga) characteristic during relaxation and contraction of abdominal muscles. Assessment of the passive properties of the chest wall (Rahn diagram) the chest wall is a contractile musculoskeletal structure that changes volume to accommodate the ventila-tory function of the lung. Its passive characteristics are those of an elastic body, and have been defined by Rahn diagram (the relationship between the passive relaxation pressure at the closed mouth and lung volume). The relaxation characteristics of the lung are measured by the relationship between volume and esophageal pressure. By subtraction, the passive relaxation properties of the chest wall are calculated. The Rahn diagram is of considerable conceptual importance, although seldom constructed outside a research context. Figure 6. Abdominal displacement (Vab) gastric pressure (Pga) characteristic during relaxation and contraction of abdominal muscles.

Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of the 20kDa Myosin Light Chain

It is generally believed that LC phosphorylation-dephosphorylation controls the contraction-relaxation cycle of smooth muscle RELAXATION CONTRACTION In the resting muscle there is about 0.1 pM Ca2+, upon stimulation the Ca2+ concentration increases about 100-fold through electromechanical or pharmacomechanical coupling. It is conventional to use fluorescent indicators to follow changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration immediately after the stimulation and during the plateau of the mechanical activity. Large variations are reported, depending on the nature of the smooth muscle, the tissue preparation, or the drug used. However, all investigators agree that in order to elicit relaxation the Ca2+ level in the sarcoplasm must be returned near to the resting value. Two mechanisms participate in decreasing the Ca2+ level 1) The plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting ATPase pumps Ca2+ from the inside into the extracellular space. 2) The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting ATPase...

Transdiaphragmatic Pressure

Loops of esophageal pressure against Vt used for computation of the work of breathing in a patient successively ventilated with pressure support (PS) of 0, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O. The work per breath is represented by the cross-hatched area subtended by the inspiratory part of the pressure-volume loop on the left and the relaxation curve of the chest wall on the right. Arrows indicate the beginning and end of inspiration. The relaxation curve of the chest wall is passed through the elastic recoil pressure of the chest at end exhalation, and the distance between the beginning of the pressure-volume loop (arrow) and the relaxation curve represents intrinsic PEEP. The concomitant decrease in the work per breath and in the respiratory rate (rr) results in a large reduction in the work of breathing per minute (power). Reprinted by permission from Reference 55. The ratio of the inspiratory Pga swings to Pdi. The Pga Pdi ratio has been proposed as a means of assessing the...

Inferring Respiratory Muscle Contribution To Breathing From Pressurevolume Relationships

Pressure-volume measurements of rib cage and abdominal compartments can provide the basis for mechanical analysis of the diaphragm, rib cage, and abdominal muscles, allowing inferences about which muscles contribute to a particular breath or respiratory maneuver. Whereas the Campbell diagram can be used to infer inspiratory and expiratory activity of all the respiratory muscles, other PV diagrams can be used to infer action of specific respiratory muscles. Pressure-volume diagrams of rib cage and abdomen were introduced by Konno and Mead (24), who showed their respective relaxation characteristics. By comparing pressure-volume data during breathing with those obtained during relaxation, these diagrams can be used to infer the action of specific respiratory muscles when pressure data alone or volume data alone could be misleading. An example of the pressure-volume diagram for the abdomen is shown in Figure 6. Contraction of the abdominal muscles tends to displace the abdominal wall...

Locks Throws

The secret behind the throws Physical principles based on gravity and movement from Center. Internal principles based on focus, calmness and relaxation. And Koichi Tohei's basic principles for the practice of Ki-Aikido. The flip side of a floating foot is a floating arm. Sensei Jim Baker (Aikikai) describes the relaxation of the arm in these terms Let the forward arm die.

Key differences in approach

In many other forms of athletics as well, there is a prominent need for relaxation under load. A prime example is in the fighting sports, which require the ability to relax and recover while subject to external stressors. The relaxed, natural manner of FS lifting is consistent with athletic movements. The signature of a trained athlete is fluidity and grace, an effortless quality of motion.

The Biological Principles of Fat Loss

Overexcitatory impact, which occurs during chronic stress or constant exposure to danger, sometimes leads to panic attacks or adrenal exhaustion, and finally to overall metabolic breakdown. If insufficient rest has accompanied the chronic stress, the result may be formation of tissue such as stubborn fat, which typically expresses a high ratio of alpha- to beta-adrenoreceptors and is less responsive to adrenal stimulation. Relaxation methods, sufficient rest, and avoiding overtraining can help manage stress and protect against adrenal exhaustion. Avoid exposure to chronic stress such as from overtraining, lack of relaxation, and insufficient rest to prevent adaptation of the body to chronic stress, which may result in decreased sensitivity to adrenal fat burning actions and a resultant formation of stubborn fat tissue.

Of Stretching

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is an advanced stretching technique that employs alternating muscular contraction-relaxation protocols. PNF stretching can be very effective in improving joint range of motion and can also provide modest gains in strength. They are commonly used to help restore normal range of motion and strength following injury. However, most PNF exercises require the use of a knowledgeable and experienced partner.


Weber and Portzehl (1954) prepared single muscle fibers from glycerol treated psoas muscles that developed tension equal to the intact muscle and reproduced the entire contraction-relaxation cycle of the muscle (Fig. M12). Thus, it was proven without doubt that the interaction between actin, myosin and ATP is the basic mechanism for the contraction-relaxation cycle in skeletal muscle. Fig. M12. Contraction-relaxation-contraction cycle of a single psoas fiber. The fiber was contracted by ATP and at the top of contraction washed with saline. The fiber was relaxed by adding pyrophosphate to the bath, arrow down, then recontracted by the addition of ATP, arrow up. (From Weber and Portzehl, 1954).

Neck rotation

Treatment for recurrent tension headaches, however, is another story. A frequently throbbing head is your body's way of telling you that something significant is out of balance in your life. Stress is an unavoidable part of modern life, but by far the best course of action to combat stress-related tension headaches is prevention. Although such natural remedies as a visit to a chiropractor, acupressure, acupuncture, and even hypnosis can help with recurring tension headaches, several well-regarded studies have concluded that stress management skills and relaxation training can reduce chronic headache for 50 to 70 percent of patients. Techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and most important of all, stretching, can trigger the relaxation response, which can lower blood pressure, reduce pulse rates, and release muscle tension. Regular stretching keeps you calm and flexible, and it can help reduce headache frequency and intensity.


Simple carbohydrates serve as the primary source of readily available energy for muscle cell metabolism, while more complex forms serve as structural components for a variety of tissues, organs, and organelles. Polysaccharides or glycans are covalently linked polymeric monosaccharide units that can be hundreds of units in length, and are further subdivided into homopolysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose) and heteropolysaccharides (glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids). In antemortem muscle tissue and liver, the predominant storage form of glucose is the branched polysaccharide glycogen, which provides an easily metabolized energy source for muscle contraction and relaxation. When needed for muscle contraction, stored glycogen is readily converted to glucose-6-phosphate for further hydrolysis to glucose and entry into the glycolysis pathway. Subsequent metabolism follows through either an oxidative or an anaerobic pathway. At death, glycogen undergoes...

Evening Pleasures

The evening was dedicated to relaxation, pleasure, and socialization, including family gatherings. This time was organized around the evening meal, called the Cena. It was essential for people to relax at night and avoid all signs of being troubled or worried. They did not talk business. The wealthy had their siaves play music. Those who couldn't relax were thought to be suffering from a stiff or corrupted soul. Given all these relaxation ruies, Romans, with their warrior discipline, always retained a certain alertness. They sat on Roman chairs, which had no back, and forced them to remain alert. The evening relaxation prepared them for sleep. Sleep was essential for a Roman who had to awaken at dawn. Insomnia was considered a sign of weakness, remorse, regret, worry, longing or having a bad conscience.

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Delayed myotonia in a myotonia fluctuans patient. The upper trace shows the surface EMG and the lower trace the myogram of the finger flexors. The first two forceful isometric contractions (lasting 10 s and a second shorter period) were not associated with myotonia. However, short contractions, performed after a rest of 2 and 10 minutes, elicited severe electrical myotonia and slowed relaxation (delayed myotonia). Adapted from Ricker et al. (1990). Fig. 3.4. Delayed myotonia in a myotonia fluctuans patient. The upper trace shows the surface EMG and the lower trace the myogram of the finger flexors. The first two forceful isometric contractions (lasting 10 s and a second shorter period) were not associated with myotonia. However, short contractions, performed after a rest of 2 and 10 minutes, elicited severe electrical myotonia and slowed relaxation (delayed myotonia). Adapted from Ricker et al. (1990).


Electrical discharges may be absent at normal or increased temperatures, but cooling elicits fibrillationlike spontaneous activity (Haass et al., 1981). Depending on the temperature and the resulting membrane potential between the action potentials, the electrical activity may vary between myotonic discharges and long-lasting repetitive complex discharges (Weiss and Mayer, 1997). In the transient phase, during which periodic paralysis emerges from the paramyotonic state, silent contractures can accompany the myotonic contractions. Extracellular recordings from excised muscle bundles, with electrodes that detect all electrical activity, reveal that part of the slowed relaxation following direct electrical stimulation and cooling are not caused by action potentials (Ricker et al., 1986). The most likely explanation is that sustained membrane depolarization evokes a long-lasting contracture and also blocks subsequent action potentials generation. This process finally leads to lack of...


L-Tryptophan is a building block of the neurotransmitter serotonin known to help with sleep and relaxation. Some strength athletes have found that by taking 500 to 1000mg of tyrosine prior to exercise, they have more energy, but no studies to date have found this to be an effect of Tyrosine.

The Racing Mind

There are many methods to relax your mind and body. In the bonus of this book you will find a body & mind relaxation section to guide you through this process in a few simple ways. For now, lets look at just a couple of methods to quiet your mind in times that you can't fall asleep.


Ca2+ enters the cardiac cell during the plateau phase of the action potential via the L-type Ca2+ channel. (The channel tightly binds the Ca2+ channel blocking agents of the dihydropyridine family). The sarcolemmal Na+ Ca2+ exchanger transports 3 Na+ Ca2+. The energy for this transport is indirectly derived from ATP hydrolysis via the sodium gradient that is established by the Na+ K+ pump. It is the major Ca2+ extrusion mechanism of the cardiac myocyte and may contribute significantly to myocardial relaxation. The sarcolemma also houses the Na+ K+-ATPase that transports 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ into the cell per molecule of ATP, and thus moves out one net charge per cycle. This is the key transporter that sets up the sarcolemmal ionic gradients for Na, K, and Ca, and consequently allows ion channels to function. The Na+ and K+ channels in the

How to Visualize

Find your spot, and then make a conscious effort to relax each part, each muscle of your body, one by one. Start with your head and neck, and work your way down to your toes. This should take several minutes. As you perform this relaxation exercise, take slow, deep breaths. Allow yourself to become as relaxed as possible. Close your eyes and let your thoughts drift inward.

Super compensation

Relaxation phases have to be adapted exactly to your body. After a complete relaxation your performance ability increases and you are ready for muscle increase. Of course the relaxation phases shouldn't be too long. In connection to the relaxation phase follows the phase of super-compensation. Here the performance ability grows high above the base line. If you do your training during this phase, your performance ability increases (green line).

Deep Muscle Benefits

Sports-massage therapists use a particular combination of massage strokes, timing them in a certain way in order to heal and relax the muscles while energizing the body. Different techniques are employed, depending on whether the massage is being given before an exercise session or just for purposes of relaxation.


Essential oils-seductive, aromatic fragrances drawn from natural plant sources-have charms to soothe even the most jittery souls. Some oils reputedly help you stay alert others help you get to sleep. In its simplest form, aromatherapy can mean placing a bowl of potpourri in your bathroom or a bouquet of fresh flowers on your desk. There's more to aromatherapy, however, than just being in a room with something that smells good. You can find essential oils or have them custom-blended to stimulate a desired body response. Lavender, chamomile, clary sage, and neroli oils are reputed to promote relaxation or sleep. Other refreshing aromas you might try include sandalwood and orange. Aromatherapy alone or in conjunction with massage using complementary botanical oils promotes and enhances relaxation. You can benefit from these aromas as candles or oils that you can drop onto your pillow, add to a warm bath, or drip onto an aromatherapy ring for a light bulb. > - Aromatherapy, which...

Mind Body Options

Fran Scalessa, a yoga instructor in Summit, New Jersey, believes that its popularity hasn't yet crested. He notes, people enjoy it, and see the benefits of what they're doing. As the population ages, I'm sure even more will come. Yoga delays the aging process, and the stretching and relaxation we do in class directly benefits my students. With the increase in interest, many fitness organizations are training instructors in yoga forms. While most purists would call classes like fitness yoga and yoga ball purely western derivations, they are becoming very popular in health clubs around the country, and those who participate cite relaxation and a sense of well-being as major benefits.

Ultrasound Diaphragm

Diaphragm Apposition Zone Ultrasound

With this technique the thickness of the zone of apposition during relaxation at different lung volumes (14, 21), tidal breathing (20), and static inspiratory efforts (14) has been measured. Because the diaphragm is identified by its enveloping membranes and there is scattering, ultrasound tends to overestimate diaphragm thickness. However, estimates of the average thickness of the costal diaphragm in normal untrained subjects during relaxation at FRC have been in the range of 1.7-3.3 mm (14, 20, 22-24), with larger values in men than women (22), and lower values in children (24, 25). Healthy newborn infants have also been studied (26). There appears to be a thicker diaphragm in individuals with greater inspiratory strength (27). Unilateral diaphragm paralysis is associated with a thinner costal diaphragm (28), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy is associated with increased echogenicity (25).

Fixing Loopy Lifts

Annie demonstrates this passive, loopy movement in video 1. You can see the difference in photos IA and IB as well, which show a floaty, loopy clean and a tight, aggressive one, respectively. In photo IA, the barbell is way too far out in front and above the shoulders of the lifter, and her body is fairly relaxed. At no point in any Olympic lift should there be either distance or relaxation. In contrast, in Photo IB, the lifter receives the barbell at its apex by aggressively pulling her body to the bar. You can see extreme tension in Annie's body as she receives the barbell.

Muscle biopsy IVCT

For the static caffeine test a separate sample is exposed to increasing concentrations of caffeine in a similar manner (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 32.0 mM). Some centers also perform a dynamic halothane test when the muscle is alternatively stretched and relaxed in the presence of increasing halothane concentrations, after obtaining three control stretch relaxation curves. The tests are duplicated and are performed according to the EMHG protocol (European Malignant Hyperthermia Group, 1984). An example of the muscle responses to halothane for MH susceptible and normal individuals is shown in Fig. 5.2.

What is Maxalding

There is practically no limit to the practice of MC, because it implies the internal organs as much as the external muscles. In advanced stages of Maxald-ing you would be able to regulate your digestive system, your breathing rate and your heartbeats by means of extreme relaxation techniques.