As stated earlier in this book, AGR Nutrition (www.agrnutrition.com) has a very effective fat-burning topical product called "Chiseled SGR (Site Reducing Gel)", which contains pure Yohimbine and other goodies that prevent insulin from getting in the way of Yohimbine doing its job.
It is in a gel form intended for topical site-specific application with an amazing absorption rate. Most note benefits in the first few days to a week of application. It is actually so effective that users are suggested to apply the product to only one site at a time (abs, lower back etc) to prevent an over accumulation of newly freed fatty acids from entering the circulatory system too quickly. (I truly enjoyed working on this one)
As stated prior, ephedrine products modulate 35-40% of their fat burning/thermalgenic effect through activation of beta-sub-3 receptors. However, to a lesser degree, they do stimulate thermalgenesis through activation of the beta-sub-1 receptors. Since beta-sub-2 receptor activity significantly down-regulates after only a few weeks of continuous stimulation, the question of "how long before beta-sub-land 3 receptors down-regulate activity" should come to mind.
After about four weeks of ephedrine/caffeine use, thyroid hormone levels increase. At about 12 weeks of use thyroid hormone levels decrease below normal levels. As stated prior, Ephedrine products increase T-4 conversion to the more potent T-3 thyroid hormone. Unfortunately, this too has a negative feed-back loop that kicks in at about 12 weeks of continuous ephedrine use.
Guess what? We have beta-sub-4 Andrenergic receptors which over-ride the rest and continue the fat burning process even with lower circulatory thyroid hormone levels. In fact, the thermalgenic effects of an ephedrine /caffeine stack is better at 12 weeks of use and remains significantly effective for up to 50 weeks.
This is due to the body's ability to increase the number of beta-sub-3 and 4 receptors in response to down regulation of beta -sub-1 and 2 receptors. Cool! By the way, the enzyme that converts T-4 to T-3 thyroid hormone is 5-deiodinase. Low selenium intake greatly reduces this enzyme's effects.
Note: most athletes experienced a 3-10% gain in strength and anaerobic capacity when using beta agonist. This resulted in more lean mass gains due to greater muscle fiber recruitment... potentially.
There are two readily recognized thyroid hormones. T-4 (thyroxine) and T-3 (triiodothyronine). In response to TSH, (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) the thyroid gland releases T-4 hormone, and to a lesser degree T-3 hormone.
Daily T-4 production is normally about 76 mcg, and T-3 production is about 26 mcg daily. The majority of T-3 hormone production is due to the conversion of T-4 to T-3 by the enzyme 5-deiodinase primarily in the liver and kidneys. T-3 is about 5-10 times more active or potent (depending upon which research paper the statistic originated from) than T-4.
Remember that only unbound or free testosterone can initiate a reaction? Well about 0.02 % of circulatory T-4 is unbound and about 0.30% of T-3 is unbound or free. Only free or unbound thyroid hormones can merge with and activate thyroid hormone receptor sites.
Thyroid hormones increase the levels of uncoupling proteins. They also increase ATP turn over by stimulating enzymes that effect nerve impulse conduction. A great deal of research supports the idea that thyroid hormone receptor-sites are directly linked to the genes that regulate the amount of uncoupling proteins produced. It should seem evident that thyroid hormones played a significant role in a chemically enhanced beast's contest prep in most cases.
My opinion was that a few weeks of exogenous thyroid hormone use was far healthier than long periods of calorie restriction. But that was only my opinion and not a recommendation. As stated prior, beta agonist aid in the conversion of T-4 to T-3 so there was an existing synergy when referring to fat loss or lean mass gains.
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