A brief word on extensibilityflexibility

A thorough explanation of proper stretching procedures would require a whole book in itself and it is outside the scope of this one. However, the following figure illustrates the various factors involved in having an optimal range of motion.

The following structures can influence the actual range of motion:

a) Muscle structures: A muscle with proper extensibility is generally associated with an optimal usable range of motion.

b) Ligaments and joint structures: The ligaments can limit the range of motion due to their role as joint stabilizers. On the other hand, ligaments that are too loose can also be problematic, causing joint instability.

c) The nervous system: Sometimes there will be a lack in usable range of motion despite adequate extensibility of the muscles and ligaments. In this case the nervous system can be the cause of the lack of range of motion, not allowing the muscles to work throughout their complete amplitude.

d) Other factors: Elasticity of the skin, adhesions between the muscle fibers, and adhesions between the muscle and its fascia.

This tells us that several stretching techniques should be used. If the problem is structural, static stretching will be adequate. But more advanced techniques such as PNF or ballistic stretching become necessary to solve range of motion problems due to neural factors. If adhesions are the cause of the problem an ART treatment is the best solution.

Client evaluation

1. Physical data a) Height:_ Weight:_

b) Muscle extensibility (check appropriate case):










Rectus femoris

Mono-articular hamstrings (biceps femoris short head)

Bi-articular hamstrings

Spinal erectors


External hip rotators

Internal hip rotators

External shoulder rotators

Internal shoulder rotators

c) Strength deficit (check most appropriate):

c) Strength deficit (check most appropriate):

Very important:_ Important:_Moderate:_ Small:

2. Morphological/phenotypical data

a) General body type (check most appropriate choice):

Mesomorph (very lean and muscular)

Meso-endo (muscular but not very lean)

Meso-ecto (muscular but small joints and lengthy bones)

Ectomorph (thin and elongated physique)

Endomorph (thick and fat physique)

b) Body fat percentage/degree of leanness (check appropriate case):

Ripped (3-5%male; 9-11% female)

Defined (6-8% male; 12-15% female)

Lean (9-11% male; 16-21% female)

Average (12-15% male; 22-25% female)

Soft (16-18% male; 22-28% female)

Overfat (19-23% male; 29-35% female)

Obese (24%+ male; 35%+ female)

c) Fiber type dominance (check most appropriate):

Muscle groups



Mixed ratio



very dominant



very dominant


Upper back

Arm flexors

Arm extensors

Leg flexors

Leg extensors


Fat loss:_ Muscle gain:_ Sports performance:_ General fitness/health/wellness:

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