Anabolic/Androgenic steroids, hereafter referred to as AAS, have been used by athletes to improve performance for more than 30 years. The non-medical use of AAS is widespread among athletes engaged in power sports such as power-lifting, bodybuilding, football and rugby. Their popularity stems from their perceived contribution to increase muscle bulk and strength and to improve competitiveness. There are more than one million estimated users of AAS in the United States alone. Approximately 2% of athletes between the ages of 10 and 14, and 5% to 10% of high school athletes have used AAS. even though their use is prohibited. In addition, approximately 5% of college athletes currently use AAS. Because of legal and administrative issues it is difficult to estimate the number of Olympic and professional athletes currently using the drugs. However, a number of Olympic Gold Medalists have had their medals withdrawn for using such substances. The use of AAS for improved competitiveness violates ethical principles and is strictly prohibited by the military services as well as the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) and other national sports governing bodies.
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