Is There A Cure for Parkinson Disease
A plethora of recent studies suggest creatine may have therapeutic applications in aging populations, muscle atrophy, fatigue, gyrate atrophy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and other mitochondrial cytopa-thies, neuropathic disorders, dystrophies, myopathies and brain pathologies.
Typically, provocative tests of growth hormone secretion with pharmacological stimuli, such as insulin, glucagon, levodopa, clonidine, arginine or propranolol, are used to confirm growth hormone deficiency. The minimum normal peak serum growth hormone response to these tests has been arbitrarily set at 10 ug L. However, these provocative tests have a number of limitations including sparse normative data, unclear mechanism of action and high variability of growth hormone responses.
The first description of a disease with autosomal-dominant inheritance and multiple mtDNA deletions goes back to 1989 (Zeviani et al., 1989). Multiple mtDNA deletions have been associated with several clinical manifestations, which in most cases present after the first decade of life. The most common, albeit not constant, symptom is progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) with the variable addition of exercise intolerance, recurrent myoglobinuria, ataxia, parkinsonism, major depression, peripheral neuropathy, hypogonadism and cardiomyopathy (Zeviani et al., 1990 Cormier et al., 1991 Ohno et al., 1991 Servidei et al., 1991 Haltia et al., 1992 Suomalainen et al., 1992a Prelle et al., 1993 Checcarelli et al., 1994 Kawashima et al., 1994 Takei et al., 1995 Ville-Ferlin et al., 1995 Bohlega et al., 1996 Campos et al., 1996a Chalmers et al., 1996 Fabrizi et al., 1996 Melberg et al., 1996a Suomalainen et al., 1997 Carrozzo et al., 1998 Federico et al., 1998 Melberg et al., 1998 Nishizuka...
The maximum voluntary ventilation was formerly recommended as a more specific test for muscle weakness than volume measurements but, in practice, the proportionate reduction is usually similar to that of VC (18, 19). Disproportionate reductions may be seen in Parkinson's disease (20), in which the ability to perform frequent alternating movements is impaired.
Point mutations of ribosomal RNA genes are a rare cause of mitochondrial disease but have been described in association with deafness. Patients with homoplasmic point mutations at position 1555 in the 12S rRNA gene can develop rapidly progressive hearing impairment during treatment with aminoglycosides (Prezant et al., 1993 Estivill et al., 1998 Malik et al., 2003). Hearing impairment and deafness may also occur independent of such antibiotic treatment (Prezant et al., 1993 Thya-garajan et al., 2000 Malik et al., 2003). A point mutation at position 1095 in the 12S rRNA gene has been associated with maternally inherited sensorineural deafness, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, and neuropathy (Thyagarajan et al., 2000).
In ad ar PEO, muscle weakness and exercise intolerance are the most common symptoms. Additional manifestations, which sometimes may be the presenting symptoms, include peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, tremor, parkinsonism, mental depression, cataracts, pigmentary retinopathy, dysphagia, hypoacusia, episodic rhabdomy-olysis and hypogonadism (Zeviani et al., 1990 Servidei et al., 1991 Kaukonen et al., 1996 Melberg et al., 1996a 1996b Suomalainen et al., 1997 Melberg et al., 1998 Kaukonen et al., 1999). The MNGIE syndrome includes gastrointestinal manifestations, cachexia, leuko-encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy and mitochondrial myopathy (Nishino et al., 2001).
A plethora of recent studies suggest Creatine may have therapeutic applications in aging populations, muscle atrophy, fatigue, gyrate atrophy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and other mitochondrial cytopathies, neuropathic disorders, dystrophies, myopathies and brain pathologies.
More recent studies, in vitro and in vivo in animals, have found creatine to be highly neuroprotective against other neurotoxic agents such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and malonate.4 Another study found that feeding rats creatine helped protect them against tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces parkinsonism in animals through impaired energy production. The results were impressive enough for these researchers to conclude These results further implicate metabolic dysfunction in MPTP neurotoxicity and suggest a novel therapeutic approach, which may have applicability in Parkinson's disease. 5 . oral administration of creatine produced a dose-dependent improvement in motor performance and extended survival in G93A transgenic mice, and it protected mice from loss of both motor neurons and substantia nigra neurons at 120 days of age. Creatine administration protected G93A transgenic mice from increases in biochemical indices of oxidative damage. Therefore, creatine administration...
Patients with MELAS syndrome are usually normal at birth and develop normally during the first years of life. The patients are often of short stature and have episodes of vomiting with severe headache leading to somnolence and coma. Some of these episodes lead to severe generalized seizures with stroke-like episodes of hemiparesis, cortical blindness and hemianopia. The stroke-like episodes are characteristically parieto-occipital at first. Dementia, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance and diabetes mellitus are frequently seen and cardiomyopathy may also develop in the late stages of the disease. Phe-notypic heterogeneity has, however, also been well documented in patients with the A3243G mutation. These clinical variations include a pure myopathy with PEO, diabetes and deafness, cardiomyopathy, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, LS, MERRF MELAS and other overlap syndromes. The neuropathology of patients with MERRF syndrome is typically a systemic...
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