The Acquisition Of Super Power

While it's important to develop strong ligaments and tendons in order to support and lift heavy weights and, of course, to provide strong attachments for muscles undergoing intense contractions, tendons don't contract or otherwise aid in the lifting of the weight only muscles do that. Even so, the tendons transmit the forces to the hones and move them. The heavy partial movements that you perform during Power Factor Training not only develop and stimulate tremendous muscular growth, they...

Overtraining And Cellular Damage

The clinical evidence that we need to train less frequently is finally starting to trickle in from the medical community. In fact, research conducted by Michael Sherman back when he was a research associate at Ball State University in Indiana strongly indicates that rest and recovery goes way beyond simply allowing ourselves to feel better it's also absolutely essential to the cells of our bodies. In the January 1985 issue of American Health magazine, Stephen Kiesling had this to say about...

The Growth Process

Phase 1 of systemic recovery takes place in the minutes and hours immediately after an intense workout. Some exercise physiologists have theorized that within as little as three seconds after a muscle has been worked to a point of momentary muscular failure, it can recover a substantial portion of the strength it lost as a result of the exercise. (It is during this immediate phase that most of the local energy reserves utilized in the actual training effort are replenished.) However, this does...

Comparing Individuals

Q Can I compare my Power Factor and Power Index to someone else's A The simple answer to this question is no. There are many reasons, a few of which deserve some elaboration. Many bodybuilders and strength athletes refuse to believe that size and strength are related. To support this erroneous contention, they invariably point to two individuals and note that one of them is smaller and less massive than the other, yet the smaller individual can lift more weight. A contradiction Only an apparent...

Determining Your Maintenance Need For Calories

Remember to allow for 10 pounds of muscle growth to manifest itself over the course of a year, you have to consume an additional 6,000 calories over and above your maintenance need of calories (given, of course, that you stimulated that growth in the first place). Also, there is a certain metabolic cost in the growth process, which may bump that extra caloric intake to 17 or 18 calories a day. (This is oversimplified, but it does give you some idea of just how slow the muscle growth process can...

How To Combat Overtraining

As we now know what overtraining is, the question then becomes, How do you get rid of the overtraining symptoms once you've acquired them The truth of the matter is that the problem is an individual one. Each trainee is obliged to consider his own case on its own merits. However, some general or basic rules apply to all human beings. First off, there are varying degrees of overtraining. For example, a bodybuilder can train for a month or two and make steady gains in both power and physique....

The Two Sides Of Recovery

Like all other physical characteristics of humans, recovery ability after exercise varies very widely among individuals. After identical workouts, one person may be able to return to the gym in forty-eight hours and see an increase in his Power Factor and Power Index, while another person may need a full week in order to recover sufficiently and show improvement. When you use Power Factor Training, you will be able to see the extent to which you have recovered by virtue of your Power Factor and...

Getting Enough Calories For Growth To Take Place

For practical purposes, the majority of trainees already eat more than they need to grow 10 pounds of muscle a year anyway. That's why so few of us have ultra-low bodyfat Never, never forget that the first requisite for muscle growth is to trigger the growth response through training. Never, never forget that the first requisite for muscle growth is to trigger the growth response through training. (what we call being ripped). Most of us are actually eating too many calories as it is. If you're...

Siscos Laws Of Bodybuilding

In the realm of human exertion, there are actually two forms of strength, which we refer to as alpha strength and beta strength. The measure of alpha strength is what we call the Power Factor (PF). Momentary intensity is expressed mathematically as I. 7 where W is the total weight lifted in pounds and t is the total time in minutes. A high intensity of muscular overload is one of the indispensable conditions of triggering muscle growth. It therefore behooves us, in...

Monitoring for Optimum Results

Never perform a blind workout wherein you just lift weights without regard to the reps, sets, and exact time taken for each exercise. It's a wasted workout. Even if the intensity is sufficient to stimulate some new muscle growth, you'll have no way of knowing what intensity you need next time you're in the gym. It's sloppy, and there is no excuse for it. The most significant ramification of the inno* vation of the Power Factor and Power Index is the ability, for the first time in the history of...

Alpha Strength And Beta Strength Two Ways To Grow

If you think of lifting weight as performing work the way a machine does, then there are two measures of that machine's strength or power. One is the rate of lifting that it can achieve, like 20 tons per hour. The other measure is the amount of time that the machine can sustain that rate of work, like 4 hours or 24 hours before needing to be shut down. The human body has the same two forms of power, but there are protection mechanisms that try to prevent you from operating at their extreme...

Power Index Overall Workout

That you should see on your graph is a consistent increase in your Power Factor and Power Index numbers, both on individual exercises and on your workout. As in the example, a workout may not always yield an increase, and you may even see a decrease in your numbers. This, as you will discover, can be caused by a variety of circumstances. You may have worked out after eating too few carbohydrates or after having had too little sleep or when unable to concentrate due to stress. However, the...

Lifting Heavy Weights Safely

One of the stated objections to training with heavy weights is that it's injurious to the bones and connective tissues. However, this objection is without merit. Training with heavy weights is actually quite safe as long as the emphasis is on lifting the weight, as opposed to attempting to thrust it or torque it. Trying to move a weight that's simply too heavy for the muscles involved requires the use of outside forces such as momentum and body leverage. Lifting a heavy weight with the aid of...

Protracted Recovery Periods

The value of knowing your personal range of recovery ability is that you'll know, with mathematical precision, exactly when you honestly do have to train and when you don't. Somebody else's ability to train three days a week and make progress is irrelevant in your personal training considerations. He may have stumbled onto a margin of training that falls within his range of personal recovery ability and is (for the moment, at least) making progress. His problem will arise when he eventually...

The Genes Of A Champion

Q If I engage in Power Factor Training, will 1 become a champion bodybuilder A There are many factors to consider when answering this question, not the least of which is genetics. As an example, no one would dispute the fact that being tall certainly would influence your chances of being a successful professional basketball player (Spud Webb notwithstanding) nor that the exact opposite would be true for someone who wanted to be a professional jockey. However, it's obvious that bouncing a...

Maximum Overload for Maximum Gains

The amount of overload you can impose on a muscle is directly correlated with how much size and strength it can acquire. The greater the overload imposed, the greater the potential size and strength increase. Specific demands imposed upon the body result in specific physiological adjustments. This fact forms a concept central to exercise physiology known as the principle of specific adaptation to imposed demands (said). According to the said principles, if training is to be performed for the...

Word About Repetitions

Despite what some trainers will tell you, there is no magic number of reps to perform for building mass or increasing definition. Remember that muscular definition is primarily the result of losing subcutaneous fat so that the muscles directly beneath the skin appear in bold relief. To achieve this degree of definition, you really don't have to train with weights at all ninning even a mile a day will hum far more calories from your body than would the performance of some extra sets of bench...

Graphs

The graphs arc used to display the information in the Exercise Workout Performance Forms. By graphing your Power Factor and Power Index, you'll be able to see at a glance the rate of progress you are achieving. Also, plateaus and declines due to overtraining (or improper training) will be impossible to ignore. These graphs will provide all the evidence that you, or any skeptic in the gym, will need to verify your tangible, objectively measured progress. Note that the Power Factor number is...

The Millionpound Workout

If you would like an idea of how dramatic a subject's results can be when Sisco's laws are properly obeyed and applied, consider this example. When we first began the development of Power Factor Training in 1992, our performances were nothing spectacular, to be sure. A typical workout of shoulders and arms, consisting of three different exercises, yielded an overall workout performance of a 343 Power Factor and a 5.3 Power Index. Similarly, a chest, back, and legs workout, consisting of three...

Size Gains Vs Strength Gains

Q I seem to be able to increase my strength on a consistent basis, but I'm not seeing size increases of the same magnitude. Why A We hope no one reading this thinks there is a difference between training for size and training for strength. The fact is, muscle size and strength are directly related. For a muscle to be srronger, it has to get bigger. And vice versa. Gym lore like Positives for strength and negatives for mass is crap. If this were true, it would be possible to train with a...

Muscle Growth As Systemic Not Localized

Much of the confusion that has arisen in the realm of strength training has resulted from the belief that the muscle growth process is a localized rather than systemic phenomenon. This notion is erroneous, however. In fact, the central nervous system (CNS) triggers the growth process, a process that cannot be called into play by the isolated and protracted performance of highly repetitive tasks that are well within the body's existing muscular capacity. Growth is systemic, and the trigger...

The Natural Range

Outside of the gym, virtually no one uses a full range of motion. Partial reps are more in keeping with the natural range of motion that our muscles utilize on a day-to-day basis. They are the safest types of repetitions to perform, and more to the point they produce fantastic results. A sprinter, for example, can develop his or her legs quite w ell simply by running, which is patently a partial-range exercise. Again, we can't stress too strongly that nowhere has it been empirically established...

Finding Your Sweet Spot

By all measures, Workout 1 is superior. The reason is that there is a relationship between the amount of weight that you put on the bar and the number of times you can lift it. It's obvious that if the weight is very light, you can do many reps bur it takes a long time. If the weight is very heavy, you can only do a few reps and the lifting will be ended very fast. For example, using the bench press, suppose that you want to determine your muscular output at the two extreme ends of this...

Your Ideal Routine

Just what is the ideal training routine How many sets How many reps How many exercises per body part And how many days per week should one train to stimulate maximum gains in size and strength These are valid questions to be sure, but until recently nobody had an answer to them. There were opinions, but very few of these opinions were consistent, and fewer still had any scientific basis. When we looked into the realm of the requirements of productive exercise, we were surprised to find that the...

Specificity Of Training

Specific training methods result in specific training effects. In physiology circles, this is known as the specific adaptation to imposed demands (said) principle and is among the most fundamental to a proper understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between exercise and muscle growth. We'll say more about this important physiological principle later in this book. For now, suffice it to say that when you train specifically for size and strength (training in your strongest range of...

Stronger Muscle Is A Bigger Muscle

It's a physiological fact that a muscle's strength is directly proportional to its cross-sectional area. In other words, if you want to get bigger, you've got to get stronger, and vice versa. The major physiological response to overload training is an increase in muscle fiber size. Trained muscle fibers tend to be larger than untrained muscle fibers. However, a variety of factors affect muscle strength and size. The type and density of muscle fibers, the location of tendon insertions, and the...

Why Multiple Exercises Are Not Necessary

Many bodybuilders have adopted the age-old contention i hat a variety of exercises for a particular muscle must be performed in order to activate all of a given muscle's fibers. However, as we've just learned, the law of muscle fiber recruitment renders this belief invalid. It's the force required to lilt a weight that determines and activates the amount of fibers recruited, not the number of exercises performed. Choosing light-weight, multiple exercises is both inefficient and ineffective.

Training For Shape

There's also a popular though erroneous belief (which exists in quite a few training circles) that by varying the angle at which a muscle is trained, the trainee will somehow be able to direct the stress imposed to specific areas of a muscle and can thereby shape the muscle being trained. This belief has absolutely no basis in fact. The reason is the way a muscle is innervated. The nerves that enter a given muscle divide out into threads that resemble branches on a tree. Each branch ends at the...

Periodization

Q Much has been written in the muscle and pow-erlifting magazines recently about the importance of cycling your workout routines to prevent overtraining. They say that you have to do this in order to stress the muscles differently and shock the muscles back into growing again. They also advise that doing so gives the body a break from heavy workouts, which, according to them, lead rapidly to overtraining. What is Power Factor Training's response to this A The Power Factor Training response is...

Youre Never Too Old To Train

Q I'm very interested in increasing my power and muscle mass. However, I'm over fifty years of age and believe I am too old to benefit from your system. Is there another activity that you can recommend for old-timers like me A While we can empathize with concerns, we cannot at all agree that age is a barrier to engaging in Power Factor Training. In fact, a University of Southern California study involving a group of seventy-year-old men showed significant improvement in muscular strength after...

The Power Factor Measurement and Why You Need It

Until now your only means of gauging the value of your workouts has been by feel. If you felt particularly tired at the end of a workout, you probably assumed it was more productive than your previous one. The truth is, however, that your muscular overload might have been much less than you perceived it to be, owing to inadequate sleep the night before, consumption of the wrong foods, or some other factor. The cause of your fatigue and soreness might not have been that you subjected your...

Training For Definition

Q I want to put on muscle size as quickly as possible without putting on any fat in the process. In fact, I'd like to lose a bit of bodyfat too. I low do I train for size and definition at the same time.7 A First off, you can't train for definition. Most people, when referring to definition training, mean long, arduous hours of low-intensity work, which does not build size but rather endurance or cardiovascular efficiency. To build size, you must do just the opposite, which means that training...

The Power Factor

Using Power Factor Training, you will be able to calculate a precise Power Factor and Power Index for each exercise you perform and for your entire workout. You will also be able to calculate ahead of time what workout you will be required to perform next time out in order to meet your goals of increased size and strength. This means that every workout can pay off in gains if it doesn't, you'll know exactly where and why you fell short. You may, for example, find that your shrug power went down...

The Best Diet To Follow In Order To Build Mass

The most important aspect of eating a well-balanced diet is that it maintain health. This is something we all learned in eighth-grade health class. It also happens to be something we often forget. The first requisite in building a strong, healthy body is maintaining health and the best way to maintain health is to eat a well-balanced diet. A well-balanced diet comprises 60 percent carbohydrates, 25 percent protein, and 15 percent fats. If your daily maintenance...

Mentzers Research

At about the time the authors encountered their first plateau on the Power Factor Training system, Mike Mentzer, former Mr. Universe, called to inform us of the results of some recent research he had conducted over a two-year period involving some 200 clients who had been training under his direct supervision I've noted with many of my clients thai they're stronger after a two- to three-meek layoff. I've noted this with all of my clients, some of whom were either forced to take a layoff or had...

The Power Factor Look

It is a shame for a man to grow old without seeing the beauty and strength of which his body is capable. Socrates Power Factor Training, in addition to building stronger ligament and tendon strength, gives the body a very powerful, rugged look. You see this extraordinarily rugged look in the physiques of the athletes whose statements you've just read, as well as in the physiques of other athletes of today who train with very heavy poundages. People like Dorian Yates, Flex Wheeler, and John...

Gaining 10 Pounds Of Muscle

Some exercise physiologists and experienced bodybuilders believe that gaining even 10 pounds of muscle a year would be a considerable achievement. Let it be understood right off the top that we're not referring here to simply gaining 10 pounds of body weight that's a relatively simple procedure but rather 10 pounds of pure muscle. On the surface, such an amount doesn't really sound like much to gain over a twelve-month period. But looked at over the long term say, five years, which is how you...

The Weak Link Analogy

There is a popular maxim in strength training A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. In other words, you're Power Factor Training, in addition to building ligament ami tendon strength, gives the body a very powerful, rugged look. Power Factor Training, in addition to building ligament ami tendon strength, gives the body a very powerful, rugged look. only as strong in an exercise as you are in the weakest part of its range of motion (also known as the sticking point). This maxim,...

Groundless Training Theories

Judging by some of the bizarre and downright fraudulent training beliefs that are currently in vogue these days, as well as by the volume of mail and phone calls we're receiving on a daily basis regarding the Power Factor Training System, it might be safe to say that the time for such a nonconrradictory, rational, scientific, and (most importantly) result-producing system of strength training is long overdue. What follows, then, is a look at some of the more prevalent muscle-building beliefs...

Understanding the Fundamentals

As this priming of Power Factor Training goes to press, at least twenty thousand athletes and body' builders in fifty-eight countries are training with this system and achieving their best results ever. What exactly is Power Factor Training How did it originate And why is it so effective To provide answers to these questions, we must begin by explaining the very nature of the muscle growth process. To begin with, muscle growth is a product of hypertrophy, or the enlarging of existing muscle...

Contents

Universe t'ii 1 Understanding the Fundamentals I 4 Monitoring for Optimum Results 43 5 Maximum Overload for Maximum Gains 53 6 Developing Ligament Strength 7 Strong-Range Partials Why They're So Effective 73 9 The Ten Best Exercises for Power Factor Training 99 10 Recovery Ability The Forgotten Factor 129 11 A Nutrition Seminar '47 12 Bodybuilding Fact vs. Fiction J 65 13 Questions and Answers J 99 14 Your Logbook 225 Resources 233 Index 237

Sugar The Fuel Of Power Factor Training

Power Factor Training, or any other form ot weight training for that matter, doesn't burn all that many calories. And the calories that it does burn are sugar calories. It doesn't matter how you train, whether it's Power Factor Training or any other system. Any kind of weight training is considered a high-intensity activity, and all high-intensity activities depend entirely upon glucose as fuel. So if you're trying to lose weight or lose fat to get cut up, weight training is the worst way to do...

The Seven Myths Of Bodybuilding

Myth 1 Big Muscles Will Slow You Down Many coaches and personal trainers believe that an increase in the size and strength of a muscle will result in slower movements when performing a particular athletic event. Boxing, for example, always maintained that weight training would slow down the punching speed of the boxer. However, just the opposite takes place. The speed at which you can perform a particular movement will he enhanced tremendously by increasing your strength levels. The speed of a...

Dead Lift

The dead lift is the greatest exercise you can perform for developing the muscles of your lower back, buttocks, and hamstrings. Always keep a slight bend in your knees when performing this exercise in order to insure that your lumbar muscles, rather than your vertebrae, bear the brunt of the exercise stress. 1. Start by placing a barbell inside the Power Rack at a height just slightly above your knees. Stand inside the Power Rack and grasp the barbell with a grip of approximately shoulder...

Your Training Schedule

The first thing the body does immediately after a workout is to recoup the energy and reserves lost during the workout. The processes of recovery and growth are separate, each requiring a certain amount of time. While recovery of an individual muscle may be quite rapid, the recovery of the overall physical system (also known as systemic recovery) was typically thought to require anywhere from forty-eight to seventy-two hours. However, recent research, backed up by the authors' personal...

The Facts About Steroids

To state, as some bodybuilders do, that steroids only add perhaps 10 percent of polish to one's physique may be the biggest joke in professional bodybuilding. It's unfortunately more like 90 percent of everything you see. This is unsettling for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that these drugs are illegal. Beyond that, however, is the fact that if bodybuilders can get their results out of a pill or bottle, then they have no vested interest in trying to determine just what...

Graph Your Results

This technique of scientifically planning your goals ahead of time and monitoring your results permits the highest possible muscular overload each workout and the greatest possible gains in sire and strength. You will be readily able to see your progress by plotting your Power Factor and Power Index numbers on the graph paper located in your logbook. The graph shown here reflects one subject's change in his overall workout Power Index during a period of eighteen workouts over sixty days. The...

The Importance Of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, next to water, are by far the most important nutritional element anybody, not just bodybuilders, could consume. The most important reason is that our nervous systems, our brains, our spinal cords, and our peripheral nerves derive 99.9 percent of their nutrition from the one thing that we've been taught is the worst thing we can eat sugar. In fact, your brain derives 99 percent of its nutrition from sugar. Carbohydrates are the most important thing you can eat because they are the...

The Overload Equation

The term overload has come to be regarded as synonymous with the amount of weight a muscle is made to contract against the heavier the weight, the greater the muscular overload. However, as far back as 1956, it was demonstrated clinically that weight per se is only part (although a large part admittedly) of the hypertrophy equation.2 The other indispensable element in the muscle growth process is the amount of work your muscles are made to perform in a given unit of time, which is measured in...

Body Structure And Your Potential For Power

If you can visualize your body as a building, you'll get a better idea of the importance of its connective tissue. Like any structure, the human body is closely knit and of many parts. The muscles serve to move the joints and keep the body upright and in balance. The muscles are composed of microscopic bundles of tissue, bound together or enclosed by a white substance known as fascia. It is this connective tissue that gives the muscles their tensile strength. The muscle mass is enclosed on the...

Why You Should Stay Lean

If you look at a bodybuilder who goes on a zero-carbohydrate diet for a contest, you'll notice a very common phenomenon that happens immediately afterward He gets fat. It's inevitable because it's a protective mcch- anism the body doesn't want to lose all of its bodyfat. As far as the body is concerned, it's starving, its dying. And it's going to protect itself against this happening again in the future by putting on as much fat as possible. The best thing to do if you desire to stay defined...

The Law Of Muscle Fiber Recruitment

As far as building muscular mass is concerned, the sole objective is muscle fiber recruitment. The more muscle fibers recruited, the more activated the more activated, the greater the growth stimulation. It therefore stands to reason that the more muscle fibers called into play or made to contract against resistance, the more muscle fibers will be stimulated to hypertrophy, or grow larger. It was demonstrated clinically in 1973 that, at light loads, slow-twitch fibers contract and are capable...

Success Stories Building Strength

Among strength athletes and weight litters of renown, many have used the technique of partial repetitions, but few, if any, have recognized the full significance of its potential. Nevertheless, when they employed the technique, all admitted that they knew they were on to something. Consider the following stories. Paul Anderson, the famed Olympic gold medalist (1956) who hit upon the method of performing partial repetitions early in his career, became a world champion before the age of...

Strong Range Partials Why Theyre So Effective

Anybody who's been involved in bodybuilding for any length of time will tell you that nothing builds thick, powerful pectorals like the bench press and that no other exercise is quite as effective as the Olympic press for building massive, powerful shoulders. After all, they are among the most basic of bodybuilding exercises. However, it is also known that the greatest development of these muscles comes about only from using very heavy exercising poundages. As a result, the perennial question...

The Ten Best Exercises for Power Factor Training

Power Factor Training

This chapter describes ten exercises that are well suited to Power Factor Training. These exercises all involve heavy compound movements that will tax a muscle or muscle group to its maximum ability. In short, these exercises require the highest Power Factor. When you first switch to strongest-range training, you will note that you can lift heavier weight and, because you lift it a shorter distance, more reps per unit of time. Also, this type of training will require a few workouts in order to...