Safety

Safety is a major consideration when planning and evaluating physical training programs. Commanders must ensure that the programs do not place their soldiers at undue risk of injury or accident. They should address the following items: •Environmental conditions (heat/ cold/traction).

• Soldiers' levels of conditioning ( low/ high/age/sex).

•Facilities (availability/instruction/ repair).

•Traffic (routes/procedures/formations).

•Emergency procedures (medical/ communication/transport) .

The objective of physical training in the Army is to enhance soldiers' abilities to meet the physical demands of war. Any physical training which results in numerous injuries or accidents is detrimental to this goal. As in most training, common sense must prevail. Good, sound physical training should challenge soldiers but should not place them at undue risk nor lead to situations where accidents or injuries are likely to occur.

Cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, sometimes called CR endurance, aerobic fitness, or aerobic capacity, is one of the five basic components of physical fitness. CR fitness is a condition in which the body's cardiovascular (circulatory) and respiratory systems function together, especially during exercise or work, to ensure that adequate oxygen is supplied to the working muscles to produce energy. CR fitness is needed for prolonged, rhythmic use of the body's large muscle groups. A high level of CR fitness permits continuous physical activity without a decline in performance and allows for rapid recovery following fatiguing physical activity.

Activities such as running, road marching, bicycling, swimming, crosscountry skiing, rowing, stair climbing, and jumping rope place an extra demand on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. During exercise, these systems attempt to supply oxygen to the working muscles. Most of this oxygen is used to produce energy for muscular contraction. Any activity that continuously uses large muscle groups for 20 minutes or longer taxes these systems. Because of this, a wide variety of training methods is used to improve cardiorespiratory endurance.

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