• Occiput and C1-C2 in hyperextension
• Protracted chin
• Lower cervical spinal column (CSC) and upper thoracic spinal column (TSC) under tension
• Rotation and abduction of the shoulder blades
• The shoulder joint socket is oriented forward.
• Levator scapulae and descending part of the trapezius pull the shoulder up.
The following muscles are involved (Fig. 6.2a):
• Pectoralis major and minor
• Descending part of the trapezius
• Levator scapulae
• Ascending part of the trapezius
• Serratus anterior
• Rhomboid muscles
This results in tensions in the CSC as well as shoulder and arm pain.
Fig. 6.2a, b Upper and lower crossed syndrome according to Janda.
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