Littlejohn's force polygon (Fig. 5.5) consists of two triangular pyramids whose tips attach in front of the vertebral body of T4. The two posteroanterior lines and the anteroposterior line balance each other out and cross in front of T4. The result of these three lines is the central gravity line that runs through L3.
The lower pyramid has a solid base, consisting of the hip joints and the coccyx. The foramen magnum serves as the base of the upper pyramid. It is stabilized by myofascial structures. Pelvic dysfunctions and occipi-toatlantoaxial (OAA) lesions influence T3-T4. When walking, both pyramids turn in opposite directions. We can see this from the opposite arm and leg movements.
When the stance leg is on the left and the swing leg on the right, the lower pyramid forms a convexity with rightward rotation, while the upper pyramid makes a convexity with leftward rotation. The central gravity line connects L3 with the hip joints.
The anteroposterior line connects the atlas and the coccyx, running through L3. This creates a third pyramid. which also has the pelvis as a solid base and L3 as its tip.
All three pyramids depend on the pressure conditions in the cavities, the two lower ones directly and the upper pyramid indirectly through myofascial tensions.
Inhalation and exhalation not only change the pressure in the thorax and abdomen, but also cause the spine to stretch during inhalation.
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