Littlejohn described two double arches:
• The upper posterior arch: C7-T8
• The lower anterior arch: T10-sacrum
From a mechanical perspective, it is interesting to note that the upper posterior arch carries the weight of the head, thorax, and upper extremities and shifts it dor-sally, so that it is then counterbalanced by the lower anterior arch and directed towards the hips.
The apex of the double arches is located for the upper arch at the level of T4-T5, and for the lower arch at the level of L2-L3. Both of these segments are very susceptible to dysfunctions. For Littlejohn, the
• T10-sacrum following were weak points in this system: C7, fifth rib, T9.T11.T12, L2, L3:
• C7 is located at the transition between a mobile and a rigid spinal segment.
• T9 is a functional pivot between two arches and between an anterior and posterior double arch.
• T11 and T12 are the torsion center of the spine.
• The fifth rib is located in the transition zone between the upper thorax and the CSC and the lower thorax and the LSC.
• L2 and L3 are the weakest point in the entire spine because the weight of the whole body manifests here: the weight of the trunk presses from above and the lower extremities pull downward during walking.
In the case of postural imbalances, compensative actions tend to organize around these weak points in the spine.
Littlejohn, and later also his students John Wernham and T.E. Hall, describe in their writings the relationships between the organs, the neurovegetative system, and the endocrine system. Furthermore, he explains and substantiates his therapeutic procedures. For obvious reasons, we had to limit ourselves here to reviewing those aspects that fit into the context of this book.
A further development of this model has led to an interesting osteopathic treatment method, namely SAT (specific adjustment technique). We present this method in the following section.
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