Should We Correct Leg Length Differences

Kuchera writes82 that recent studies prove that a sacral tilt of 1.5 mm affects the muscle tone of the LSC muscles and causes lumbago. An interesting study was done by Klein, Redler, and Lowman.76,1 In 7 out of 11 children between 1.5 and 15 years of age, leg length differences completely normalized after compensating with shoes for 3-7 months. In this study, differences in length ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 cm. Irvin (in l55) writes that a complete correction of leg length difference up to the...

Motion Patterns

The following motion patterns are stimulated Flexion-abduction-external rotation rotation Flexion-adduction-external rotation rotation Flexion-abduction-internal rotation rotation Flexion-adduction-external rotation rotation Leftward flexion-rightward extension and vice versa Flexion-lateral leftward flexion-leftward rotation and vice versa Extension-lateral rightward flexion-rightward rotation and vice versa Trunk flexion-lateral flexion-leftward (or right-ward) rotation Trunk...

Bibliography

Pogliani C, Wirhed R. Sportmedizin und Trainingslehre. Stuttgart Schattauer 1999 American Academy of Osteopathy. 52 AAO Yearbooks from 1938-1998. Indianapolis, AAO 2001 Amigues J. Osteopathie-Kompendium. Stuttgart Sonntag 2004 Arbuckle BC. The Selected Writings. Indianapolis AAO 1994 Barrai J. Manipulations Uro-genitales. Paris Maloine 1984 Barrai J. Le Thorax. Paris Maloine 1989 Barrai JP, Croibier A. Trauma. Ein osteopothischer Ansatz. K tzting Verlag f....

Harrison H Fryette56121

Fryette, one of Still's most brilliant students, is known among all osteopaths for his analysis of spinal biomechanics. Since their publication in the 1920s, Fryette's Laws have been the fundamental explanatory model for the physiology of the spinal column. In spite of the fact that the validity of Fryette's Laws have been questioned by numerous expert manual therapists, we do have to give him credit for providing an explanatory model for the formation of osteopathic lesions that...

The Osteopathy of Dr Still

Andrew Taylor Still presented his philosophy of therapeutics during a phase of rejecting the medicine practiced at that time, he called it osteopathy, knowing full well that this term had a different meaning among experts. In his desire to redirect medicine back to its origins, that is, to put the person at the center and natural laws in the foreground, osteopathy was the most accurate term to express the concept that illness (pathos) results from dysfunctions of the organism. Still...

The Nervous System as Control Center

The primary machine of life79 is powered by muscles. The musculature is the organ of the locomotor system, and the nervous system is the control center. To carry out harmonious movements, the muscles have to cooperate with each other. They do this by working in chains, wherein one unit of movement gives support to the next one. Example To allow the biceps brachii to flex the elbow, the shoulder has to be prevented from being pulled forward. This is ensured by the extensors of the shoulder and...

Preface

The idea for this book originated many years ago. Practical experiences, reading specialized literature, attendance at seminars, and conversations with colleagues and specialists from other disciplines showed us time and again the significance of the locomotor system. Daily clinical routine showed us in the course of years that the same lesion patterns tended to occur over and over. Years of intensive observation and investigation as well as thorough literature research confirmed that our...

Fryettes Laws

Post Lumbar Positioning

First Law Neutral Position-Sidebending-Rotation Fryette called the neutral position easy-flexion. This refers to the range of motion in the sagittal plane between the points where facet contact occurs in flexion and extension. When the spinal column makes a sideways bend from the neutral position, the vertebrae rotate into the newly formed convexity (Fig. 3.2). This affects several vertebrae. Second Law Flexion(or Extension)-Rotation-Side-bending When the spinal column makes a sideways bend...

Myofascial ChainsA Model

As already mentioned in the introduction, we consider muscles, as the organ of myofascial chains, to play an important role in all bodily functions. Also, while their main function centers on locomotion and maintaining equilibrium, we should not disregard their contribution to other vital functions. Thus, they are important for respiration, digestion, and circulation. Their significance becomes obvious in the case of dysfunctions, and when Still states that the fasciae are where we must look...

Therapy

Once we have found a predominant pattern, we need to examine in more detail all structures that are seg-mentally (neurally) connected with it, to direct therapy as specifically as possible, according to Still's principle find it, fix it. and leave it alone. From our osteopathic perspective, the myofascial structures play a significant role In acute, painful cases, we regularly find active trigger points. These frequently cause so-called pseudo-neuralgias. Example Trigger points in the scalene...

Effects on the Musculoskeletal System and Symptoms of Leg Length Difference

Most leg length differences remain asymptomatic until trauma or overexertion leads to pain symptoms. Even then, only the obvious differences are noted in most cases. Some patients report that they noticed that they have a tilted pelvis or that the public health physician already told them during a school examination that they have a spinal distortion. Uncorrected leg length differences lead to myofascial tensions in the entire locomotor system. The LSJ is the area in which pain tends to...

Intraossal Dysfunction

Intraossal Lesions of the Cranial Bones Because the bones grow from the ossification points out into the periphery, compression of the sutures is the most likely cause of intraossal lesions in the cranial bones. Tensions in the cranial membranes can also be a cause. Intrauterine and perinatal factors are mainly responsible for a compression of the sutures. It is obvious that these lesions, as we view them from the osteopathic perspective, only arise during the developing years. Note To ensure...

Muscles of Lower Leg Ankle and Foot Pain

Tibialis Anterior Muscle (Figs. 19.119,19.120) Origin Lateral side of the tibia (proximal half) In the upper third of the muscle belly (transition from the proximal to the middle third of the lower leg) Medial cuneiform bone (plantar side) Base of the metatarsal bone I Stabilization of the longitudinal arch of the foot Innervation Ventromedial area of the upper ankle joint Dorsal and medial at the big toe A narrow band from the trigger point anteromedial through the lower leg to the big toe...

Y

Abductor Pollicis Longus Tendon

Ulnar side of the little finger Associated Internal Organs In the muscle belly near the base of the metacarpal None bone V Interosseous Muscles (Fig. 19.69) Base of the corresponding proximal phalanges Dorsal aponeurosis of fingers 2-4 Flexion of the proximal joints of the fingers with extension of the intermediate and distal joints Flexor pollicis brevis, superficial head Flexor pollicis brevis, superficial head Flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament) First through fourth dorsal...

Compression Dysfunction in the Sphenobasilar Synchondrosis

A compression dysfunction has no significant effect on the spinal column or other cranial bones in the sense of provoking malposture. It only has extremely negative results for the mechanics of the PRM and therefore must be given primary attention in treatment when it occurs. It involves a traumatic lesion in which the movements of the occiput and sphenoid are clearly limited. It can be caused by a fall on the buttocks or a hit on the occiput, glabella, or nasion. Compressions often arise...

Variations of Muscle Energy Techniques

Before describing the different kinds of MET, we would like to introduce a few terms Isometric contraction The distance between origin and attachment of the muscle does not change during contraction. The forces of the therapist and patient neutralize each other. Isotonic concentric contraction The muscle shortens during the contraction. The patient overcomes the resistance of the therapist. Isotonic eccentric contraction Muscle length is increased in spite of the contraction. Muscle fibers are...

Muscle Chains

Muscle Chains

In the preceding chapters, we have introduced a number of muscle chain models. While some have certain similarities (Busquet and Chauffour, both from the French school), others are very specialized (Myers, Struyf-Denis). Each of the authors described their model from a particular perspective. For Rolfers, for example, certain aspects dominate more than for osteopaths or physiotherapists. In addition, we described the mechanical aspect of cranial osteopathy, the Zink patterns, and Littlejohn's...

F

Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon

Extensor Indicis Muscle (Fig. 19.56) Origin Backside of the ulna (distal section) Radiates into the dorsal aponeurosis of the index finger TP of the extensor carpi radialis longus TP of the extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi radialis longus TP of the extensor digitorum In the distal half of the muscle in the middle of the forearm between the radius and ulna (see Fig. 19.55) Radial side of the wrist and back of hand Supinator Muscle (Figs. 19.57,19.58,19.59) Supinator crest of the...

Vertical Strain and Lateral Strain

In addition to the four physiological movements described above the SBS also executes so-called aphysio-logical movements. In vertical strain, the SBS is shifted caudally in the cranium. The sphenoidal body shifts upward or downward in relation to the basilar part of the occiput. The facial skull, spinal column, and pelvis are affected correspondingly (flexion-external rotation or extension-internal rotation position). In lateral strain, the occiput and sphenoid shift in a horizontal plane....

Trigger Points and Muscle Chains in Osteopathy

Assistant Director of the Institute for Applied Osteopathy (IFAO) Burg Reuland, Belgium Private Practitioner K nigswinter, Germany Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publisher. This book is an authorized and revised translation of the 2nd German edition published and copyrighted 2007 by Georg Thieme Verlag. Stuttgart, Germany. Title of the German edition Trigger-punkte und Muskelfunktionsketten in der Osteopathie und Manuellen Therapie. Translator Sabine...

Godelieve Struyff Denys

Codelieve Struyff-Denys, a Belgian physiotherapist with osteopathic training (European School of Osteopathy, Maidston, Kent) was apparently the first to speak of muscle chains in the true sense of the word.14' She was familiar with Kabat's principle of PNF, as well as with Meziere's spinal column therapy. In addition, her work was clearly influenced by Piret and Beziers, who stressed that a movement depends on the shape of the joint surfaces and the disposition of the musculature, especially of...

Trigger Points Lateral Scapula

Trigger Points

Infraspinatus Muscle Figs. 19.32,19.33 Origin Infraspinous fossa of the scapula insertion Greater tubercle of the humerus middle facet Outward rotation of the arm TP1 is found in the infraspinous fossa immediately below the spine of the scapula near the medial border of the scapula TP2 somewhat further laterally see also Fig. 19.25 . Ventrolateral upper arm and forearm Radial palm and back of the hand Teres Minor Muscle Fig. 19.34 Origin Lateral border of the scapula middle third , above the...

The Anterior Body Line

Umbilical And Symphysis Diaphragm

It is parallel to the central gravity line and runs from the symphysis menti to the pubic symphysis Fig. 5.2 . Its course depends on pressure conditions in the thorax and abdomen. Hence, it gives clues about the correlation between posture and the pressure conditions in the cavities. When the postural equilibrium changes, pressure conditions in the abdominal and thoracic cavities adjust. Increased pressure in the abdomen, for example, changes the course of the anterior body line and thereby...

Causes of Locally Increased Tension in Trigger Points and Referred Pain

White Ramus Communicans

Two alternative connections in which afferences are switched over to the efferent neuron exist in the bone marrow An afferent nociceptive impulse from the skin and muscle or an internal organ is switched to one inter-neuron in the bone marrow that is responsible for both afferences, before this neuron is again switched to the efference, to respond to the stimulus. Skin, muscle, and visceral afferences have a shared end path, before the stimulus is conducted to the efference. Afferent...

Iliopsoas

Picture The Greater Ischiadic Notch

The iliopsoas muscles Fig. 8.10 might well be the most interesting muscles of the entire myofascial system. They are certainly the muscles whose functions are discussed with the most controversy. Because of their attachments and especially their course, they are able to adjust the position of the hip, pelvis, and LSC to each other. For Basmajian, they are the most important muscles of the body for posture. They are able to adjust the spinal column and the pelvis in both the frontal and sagittal...

Trigger Point Therapy

Besides the different techniques used to treat trigger points, two things are important in therapy 1. Factors that sustain trigger points will cause prompt and regular reactivation of the trigger points and therefore, of the related complaints in spite of good immediate treatment results. The elimination of these factors is therefore at least as important as the treatment of the muscle. 2. Patients should be involved in the treatment. By this we mean developing sensitivity to straining...

Muscle Activity during Walking

Muscles Chains

For obvious reasons, we cannot describe muscle activity in detail here. First, statements in the literature regarding the activity of individual muscles vary widely. Second, muscle chains are, in our opinion, more important than isolated muscles. Furthermore, analysis is difficult because some joints have to be stabilized in several planes and movements take place three-dimensionally. Nevertheless, we describe the functions of individual muscles in the second half of this book on trigger...

Weakness In Muscle Chains

Preface List of Picture 1 Introduction 1.1 The Significance of Muscle Chains in the Organism 1.2 The Osteopathy of Dr. Still 2 1.3 Scientific Evidence 4 1.4 Mobility and 1.5 The Organism as a Unit 6 1.6 Interrelation of Structure and Function . . 7 1.7 Biomechanics of the Spinal Column and the Locomotor System 7 1.8 The Significance of Homeostasis 8 1.9 The Nervous System as Control Center 8 1.10 Different Models of Muscle Chains 8 1.11 In This Book 2 Models of Myofascial Chains 10...

Flexion Chain

Quadriceps Chain

A dominance of the flexion chain coincides with a cranial mechanism in extension internal rotation . Sphenobasilar synchondrosis SBS low Greater wings posterior and medial Peripheral bones in internal rotation Occipitoatlantoaxial OAA occiput in flexion, atlas anterior in relation. Fig. 8.3 Flexion chain dark blue and extension chain Responsible muscles rectus capitis anterior longus bright blue . capitis. Note The central tendon is also able to pull the SBS into extension. It is not a muscle,...

Patterns of Pain

If a person indicates pain in a certain area of the body, this can be a manifestation of a number of phenomena radicular pain, referred pain syndrome, pseudo-radicular pain, myofascialtrigger points, tender points, or viscerosomatic reflexes. The pain area corresponds to the regions supplied by the segment. There is disturbed sensitivity in the supplied areas. Sometimes loss of strength occurs in the muscles supplied by the segment, to the point of atrophy. Weakening of tendon reflexes occurs....

Torsion

Lower Back Wings Muscle

Like flexion and extension, torsion is a physiological movement. Herein, occiput and sphenoid rotate around an anteroposterior axis in the opposite direction. The movement is named according to the rotation of the sphenoidal bone similar to the way in which the movement of the spinal column is named according to the rotation of the cranial vertebra . Let us take a rightward rotation for an example. In this movement, the sphenoidal bone rotates to the right the right greater wing moves upward....

Muscles of Elbow Finger Pain

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Pain

Brachioradialis Muscle and Wrist Extensors Supracondylar crest of the humerus upper two-thirds Lateral intermuscular septum Insertion Styloid process of the radius Action Brings the forearm into medium position between supination and pronation 1-2 cm distal of the radius head on the radial side of the forearm approximately in the middle of the muscle belly Back of the hand in the area between the saddle joint of the thumb and the basal joint of the index finger Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus...

Muscles of Head and Neck Pain

Hyoid Bone Skull

With active trigger points TP , the muscles in this section lead to pain in the head and neck region, which could be misinterpreted as one of the following Arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint Trapezius Muscle Figs. 19.1,19.2,19.3,19.4 Middle third of the superior nuchal line Spinous processes and supraspinous ligament up to T12. Outer third of the back border of the clavicle Medial section of the acromion Upper border of the spine of the scapula Outward rotation in the shoulder joint...

Scientific Evidence

As already mentioned, the nervous system played a central role for Still. It is the connecting link between the visceral, parietal, and cranial systems. Due to the research of Korr, Sato, Patterson, and others, the significance of the central nervous system and particularly the spinal cord in the formation of dysfunctions and pathologies has been scientifically proven.79,81,1,2 These scientists were able to explain experimentally the significance accorded to the spinal column by Still and other...

Muscles of Upper Torso Pain

Sternocostal Pain

Pectoralis Major Muscle Fig. 19.70 - lateral at the manubrium and body of the sternum - aponeurosis of the abdominal external oblique muscle Crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus Deltoid tuberosity ventral Clavicular part flexion, adduction in the shoulder joint Sternocostal part adduction and internal rotation in the shoulder joint, inhalatory muscle Trigger points are distributed throughout the entire muscle. The points that are located more laterally and closer to the armpit are...

Classification of the Five Muscle Chains

Muscle Chain

The five muscle chains of each half of the body are composed as follows Three fundamental or vertical muscle chains involving the head and trunk. Two complementary or horizontal chains that concern the upper and lower extremities. These are relational chains that relate the person to their surroundings. These five muscle chains correspond to five psychological constitutions that are likewise categorized into three fundamental and two complementary constitutions. Interestingly, Struyff-Denys...

The Upper Crossed Syndrome

Upper Cross Syndrome

Occiput and C1-C2 in hyperextension Lower cervical spinal column CSC and upper thoracic spinal column TSC under tension Rotation and abduction of the shoulder blades The shoulder joint socket is oriented forward. Levator scapulae and descending part of the trapezius pull the shoulder up. The following muscles are involved Fig. 6.2a Descending part of the trapezius Ascending part of the trapezius This results in tensions in the CSC as well as shoulder and arm pain. Fig. 6.2a, b Upper and lower...

Muscles of Upper Thorax Pain and Shoulder Arm Pain

Infraspinatus Pain

Levator Scapulae Muscle Figs. 19.25.19.26 Medial border of the scapula cranial Rotation of the caudal scapular angle to medial, and elevation of the cranial scapular angle to cranial-medial Extension double-sided contraction and ipsilateral rotation of the CSC Dorsal scapular nerve C5 and ventral branches of the TP1 Shoulder-neck transition, palpable when trapezius is displaced to posterior TP2 Ca. 1.3 cm above the upper scapular angle Transition from the shoulder to the neck Collarbone...

Successive Induction

The irritability of antagonists is increased immediately after contraction of the agonist. These are only a few of the physiological facts described by Sherrington that must be taken into consideration in the application of muscle techniques. A further physiological principle plays a key role in posture and motion patterns the crossed stretch reflex. This refers to a defense or flight reflex. Irritation of the sole of the right foot by a pain impulse for example, leads to flexion of the hip,...

Occiput AtlasAxis

Rectus capitis superior, inferior, lateralis, and anterior Sternocleidomastoideus SCM and superior part of the trapezius We consider the SCM muscle under all circumstances as part of those muscles that play a role for the head joints, since its main function concerns the head. The trapezius is certainly involved in both regions, the occiput-atlas-axis OAA and the thoracic aperture. The atlas is the socket for the head. All cranial problems affect the OAA complex and vice versa. The OAA is a...

The Lower Crossed Syndrome

Lumbar spinal column LSC lordosis The following muscles are involved Fig. 6.2b Erector spinae muscles of the LSC Both syndromes together result in a kypholordotic spine. Note In principle, this crossed syndrome can be transferred to all other levels. Example Hypertonicity of the ischiocrural muscles and the foot extensors with hypotonicity of the quadriceps and triceps surae results in flexed position of the knee. Hypertonicity of the short adductors and quadratus lumborum with hypotonicity of...

Muscle Energy Techniques

Muscle energy techniques METs are rather popular with manual therapists. Whether physiotherapist, chiropractor, osteopath, or manual therapist, they all employ muscle energy techniques or variations thereof to relax or tone muscles, to mobilize joints, or to stretch fasciae. Perhaps they are so popular because they are not dangerous and often successful even when applied inaccurately. It is possible that Ka-bat was the first therapist who treated spasms and muscle shortenings with muscle...

Flexion and Extension

Sutherland Craniosacral Bone Movements

When Sutherland defined the two stages of the craniosacral rhythm, he called them flexion and extension because he considered the SBS to be the center of movement. In conforming to the nomenclature, flexion of the SBS corresponds to a reduction in the angle between the basilar part of the occiput and of the sphenoid body. Extension corresponds to an increase in this angle. The occipital bone makes a backward rotation, and the sphenoidal bone makes a forward rotation, in which the SBS rises....

The Facilitated Segment

The innervation of a spinal cord segment is multi-fa-ceted. The somatic and autonomous nervous systems originate here. On the one hand, the afferent neural fibers run from the posterior horn into the spinal cord on the other, the efferences leave the segment via the anterior horn. In between, we find a large number of synapses of these two nerve types in the spinal cord itself. By transmitting afferent impulses onto inter-neurons, diverse modulations become possible for the original neural...

Different Models of Muscle Chains

Several models for myofascial chains exist see Chapter 8 . Rolfers, physiotherapists, and osteopaths have all described muscle chains. These chains differ from each other not only because opinions vary, but also because of different therapeutic emphasis. A Rolfer does not focus on the same things in treatment as an osteopath or a physiotherapist. The model that we present in Chapter 8 is based on Sutherland's theory of two motion patterns Flexion-abduction-exterior rotation rotation Sutherland...

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

Herman Kabat founded the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF concept in the 1940s. He developed this treatment method originally for the treatment of poliomyelitis patients. Kabat was supported by Margaret Knott and Dorothy Voss, who published the first book on PNF in 1956. Since then, the method has been refined and successfully applied in patients with other symptoms. The concept of PNF is based on the neurophysiologic findings of Sir Charles Sherrington21- '60 Reciprocal...

Scalene Muscles

Busquet Muscular Chains

The scalene muscles Fig. 8.7 normally consist of three muscles the scalenus anterior, scalenus medius, and scalenus posterior. Sometimes, a fourth muscle is present, the scalenus minimus. In most cases, though, it does not exist but is replaced by vertebropleural ligaments. The scalenus anterior originates at the transverse processes of C3-C6 and attaches to the first rib, at the scalene tubercle. Fig. 8.6 Sternocleidomastoid muscle. Fig. 8.6 Sternocleidomastoid muscle. The scalenus medius...

Myofascial Chains According to T Myers

The Superficial Back Line Fig. 2.6 Fig. 2.6 Myofascial chains according to Myers. Superficial back line. Fig. 2.6 Myofascial chains according to Myers. Superficial back line. The Superficial Front Line Fig. 2.7a Anterior compartment muscles Infrapatellar and quadriceps tendons Sternalis and pectoralis major Sole of the foot and peroneal muscle Tractus iliotibialis, TFL, and gluteus maximus Obliquii and quadratus lumborum muscles Rhomboideus and serratus anterior on the other side TFL and...

Sidebending Rotation

According to Sutherland, the sidebending rotation is a physiological movement of the SBS as well. In this movement, the sphenoidal bone bends sideways toward the occiput-on one side-and both bones rotate together to the same side. This movement is named according to the side, in which the greater wing is low, for example, sidebending rotation left or sidebending rotation right Figs. 4.9,4.10 . Because of the sidebending, the sphenoid and occiput move closer together on the right side. The...

Paul Chauffours Biomechanical Chains

In his book Le Lien M canique Ost opathique,45 the French osteopath Paul Chauffour, with J.M. Guillot, clearly describes the topography of the fasciae, the places where they attach to the skeleton, and their functions. Furthermore, the chapter on Osteofascial Biomechanics Biom canique Ost o-faciale presents the myofascial chains in the four main movements of the body He elucidates in great detail the biomechanical processes in the individual areas of the spinal column, thorax, extremities, and...

Double Arches

Littlejohn described two double arches The upper posterior arch C7-T8 The lower anterior arch T10-sacrum From a mechanical perspective, it is interesting to note that the upper posterior arch carries the weight of the head, thorax, and upper extremities and shifts it dor-sally, so that it is then counterbalanced by the lower anterior arch and directed towards the hips. The apex of the double arches is located for the upper arch at the level of T4-T5, and for the lower arch at the level of...

Arches Pivots and Double Arches

From an anatomical perspective, the spine consists of four arches This classification into functional arches makes it possible to demonstrate how the individual spinal segments relate to each other. By accepting Littlejohn's model of force lines and his understanding of the effect of individual muscle groups as well as of the anatomical characteristics of individual vertebrae, we can then accept certain vertebrae as pivots. Littlejohn also divided the spine into four arches, but from a...

William G Sutherland5489101102136142143144

There is no longer any need to introduce osteopaths to William G. Sutherland. All therapists who apply cranial osteopathy in their treatments will most likely have heard of him. Hence, we do not want to present Sutherland's life and work here, but merely those aspects that fit within the framework of this book. Among Still's students, William G. Sutherland was probably the one who came closest to the master in his work. On the one hand, he recognized the significance of anatomy and biomechanics...

Myofascial Chains According to Busquet

Myofascial Chain System

Busquet describes five chains on the trunk that run into the extremities Flexion chain or straight anterior chain Extension chain or straight posterior chain Diagonal posterior chain or opening chain Diagonal anterior chain or closing chain The Static Posterior Chain Fig. 2.11 When standing, gravity tends to top the upper body forward. The body counteracts this with two passive that is, using little energy mechanisms. These are, on the one hand, the pleural and peritoneal spaces that exert an...

Irvin M Korr

If there is one non-osteopath who deserves the gratitude and recognition of osteopaths, this is surely Irvin M. Korr. In addition to Louisa Burns and John Stedman Denslow, Korr contributed in over 50 years of research to the collection of scientific evidence for the causes and results of osteopathic lesions. It is largely to his credit that a vertebral blockage is no longer seen only as a blockage of the joint, but as a neuromusculo-articular dysfunction. In the framework of this book, it is...

Muscles of Hip Thigh and Knee Pain

Innervation

Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle Fig. 19.106 Origin Iliac crest between the iliac tubercle and the ASiS outside Through the iliotibial tract to the front side of the lateral condyle of the tibia Stabilizing the knee in extension Superior gluteal nerve L4-S1 Trigger Point Location At the front edge of the muscle in the proximal third Anterolateral thigh, possibly all the way to the knee Sartorius Muscle Figs. 19.107,19.108 Origin Tibial tuberosity, medial edge Action Flexion in the hipjoint Abduction...

Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridians Chains

Tom Myers, certified Rolfer and docent at the Rolf Institute, describes a series of myofascial chains in the technical terminology of Rolfers in his book Anatomy Trains.l08 For presenting the chains, he employs metaphors like tracks, platforms, express trains, and so on. Thereby, the rather complex chains are brought into a tangible, plastic form. The myofascial connections are presented in a simple and comprehensible manner. Holism and myofascial continuity dominate. Fascial trains continue...

Extension Chain

We find an extension chain in combination with a cranial flexion pattern. Greater wings anterior and lateral Peripheral skull bones in external rotation OAA Occiput in extension, atlas relatively posterior. Responsible muscles major and minor rectus capitis posterior, superior and inferior obliquus capitis, sternocleidomastoideus SCM . Note The descending part of the trapezius is able to move the occiput into the extension. Its main function focuses, however, on the shoulder. C3-T4 The cervical...

Biomechanics of the Spinal Column and the Locomotor System

Nobody has analyzed the biomechanics of the spinal column in as much detail as Littlejohn53-95-96-97-98-126 and Fryette56 among other aspects . While Littlejohn looks at the spinal column as a whole and tries to offer a mechanical explanation for common dysfunctions, Fryette describes the behavior of individual vertebrae in movements and in the case of certain dysfunctions. Littlejohn gives mechanical explanations for the behavior of the spinal column globality . The behavior of the spinal...

Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

Trapezius Muscle Descending Fibers

Another important finding of Janda's is the fact that the behavior of weakened and shortened contracted muscle groups is not subject to coincidence but to certain laws. Microscopic and electrophysiological investigations have demonstrated the existence of two different types of cross-striped muscle fibers from a functional perspective red and white. Both types of muscle fibers are found in all muscles, but in varying quantities. The behavior of muscles is influenced by the amount of muscle...

Motion Tests

Muskelketten

Global motion tests serve to make the bodily regions with the most obvious limitations of movement stand out. In the trunk bend and sidebend Fig. 10.1 , we look for harmonious execution of movement. Interruptions or evasive movements are then examined in greater detail. This area is examined with segmental tests and palpation for muscular or segmental restrictions. Based on differential tests, we finally attempt to find out whether it is the visceral, cranial, or parietal aspect of the problem...

Lovetts Laws

In 1907, another physician, Robert A. Lovett, published a text in which he described the physiology of the spinal column. For his studies, Lovett separated the vertebral arches from the vertebral bodies, analyzed the behavior of each column under strain lumbar LSC , thoracic TSC and cervical CSC , and deducted the following rules LSC If the LSC is forced into a sideways bend, the vertebrae rotate into the concavity. TSC When the TSC makes a sideways bend, the thoracic vertebrae always turn into...

Biomechanics of the Craniosacral System

Falx And Ligaments Within The Skull

The theory of the craniosacral mechanism is based on five elements 1. The motility of the nervous system 2. The fluctuation of the cerebrospinal fluid CSF 3. The reciprocal tension membranes falx, tentorium Fig. 4.2 , and dura mater 4. The mobility of the cranial bones 5. The arbitrary mobility of the sacrum between the ilia We do not want to present these five components of craniosacral therapy in detail here, but instead refer the reader to the relevant literature. Nevertheless, for the sake...

Conclusion on the Different Models of Myofascial Chains

To our knowledge, Kabath was the first person to emphasize the significance of chains in the treatment of weak muscles. He explains this by the fact that the brain only knows motion processes, not individual muscles. Accordingly, Kabath defined a series of motion patterns, without describing continuous chains from head to foot. His treatment methods are based on neurophysiologic findings that have since become the foundation for other muscle energy techniques. The first to speak of muscle...

Functions of the Myofascial Muscle Chains

The five muscle chains are responsible for all movements of the trunk. The two anterior straight chains cause flexion. The two posterior straight chains cause extension. The right anterior and posterior straight chains cause a rightward inclination. The left anterior and posterior straight chains cause a leftward inclination. The left anterior diagonal chain causes a left anterior trunk torsion. The right anterior diagonal chain causes a right anterior trunk torsion. The left posterior...

Muscles of Lower Torso Pain

Gluteus Maximus Pain

Quadratus Lumborum Muscle Figs. 19.89,19.90,19.91 Origin Iliolumbar ligament Posterior third of the iliac crest Lateral flexion of the torso Fixation of the 12th rib during respiration Ventral branches of the spinal nerves T12-L3 For easier palpation, lie the patient on their contralateral side with a rolled-up towel in the waist, resulting in a sidebend of the spinal column away from the muscle that is to be palpated. The arm that lies on top is placed in maximal abduction and the upper leg...

The Force Polygon

Muscle Chains

Littlejohn's force polygon Fig. 5.5 consists of two triangular pyramids whose tips attach in front of the vertebral body of T4. The two posteroanterior lines and the anteroposterior line balance each other out and cross in front of T4. The result of these three lines is the central gravity line that runs through L3. The lower pyramid has a solid base, consisting of the hip joints and the coccyx. The foramen magnum serves as the base of the upper pyramid. It is stabilized by myofascial...

The Zink Patterns40418182

Gordon Zink Pattern

Gordon Zink, American osteopath and longstanding docent in the department of osteopathy at Des Moines University, Iowa, devoted much of his life to studying the fasciae as well as the effects of fascial imbalances on posture and circulation. Thanks to Michael Kuchera continuing education course, May 2004 in Berlin , who had the good fortune of working with Zink, the latter became known towards the end of his career as an osteopath with short treatments and fast results. He had developed a...

The Muscle Chains

Leopold Busquet Muscle Chains

The French osteopath, Leopold Busquet, produced an entire book series on the topic of muscle chains .25 30 The first four volumes describe the muscle chains of the trunk and extremities. The fifth volume deals with the cranial connections of the torso muscle chains. The last book of the series describes the visceral connections of the abdominal organs via the suspension system mesenteries, ligaments, omenta and the peritoneum to the trunk. In addition, Leopold Busquet wrote two further books...