3 Cooper Institute study: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, October 1992; 24(10): 1080-1087.

4 Harvard Alumni Health Study: Journal of the American Medical Association, October 23/30, 2002; 288: 1994-2000.

4 "As little as two months of strength training can reverse twenty years of strength and muscle loss in seniors": This is taken from a review study by University of Maryland researchers Ben Hurley and Stephen Roth, published in Sports Medicine, October 2000; 30(4): 249-268. I've used this review, "Strength training in the elderly: Effects on risk factors for age-related diseases," as a source in many articles and book passages over the years.

4 "More than 50 million trained with free weights": This is on, in an article entitled "Nationwide health concerns may be pumping U.S. fitness behavior."

5 Muscle power study: This was sponsored by the National Institute on Aging and published in the Journal of Applied Physiology 2004: 96 (2): 814-821.

10 Sandow's dimensions: I used the descriptions of Eugen Sandow's physique I found in Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man, by John F. Kasson (Hill and Wang, 2001), 42.

11 "Death by Exercise": You can find a link to this story on my website, (click on "About Lou," and scroll through my bio—a rewarding experience for many reasons).

11 Accidental deaths from strength training: This comes from "Weight Training Injury Trends," a research paper by Chester Jones, Ph.D., of the University of Arkansas in the July 2000 issue of The Physician and Sportsmedicine: "Most of the fatalities were men [31 of 34 recorded in this study], involved head or neck trauma (27, or 80%), involved suffocation or strangulation (22, or 65%), and occurred during the use of free weights (33, or 97%). Two out of three lifters who died were unsupervised at the time of injury. The primary contributing factor in almost all (33, or 97%) of the deaths was unsafe behavior of the participant. For example, one lifter died from asphyxiation after the barbell fell from a homemade bench onto his neck." Ouch!

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