Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. Read more here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary


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The 3 Week Ketogenic Diet Review

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Introduction to the ketogenic diet

Many readers may not be familiar with the ketogenic diet. This chapter discusses some general ideas about ketogenic diets, as well as defining terms that may be helpful. In the most general terms, a ketogenic diet is any diet that causes ketone bodies to be produced by the liver, shifting the body's metabolism away from glucose and towards fat utilization. More specifically, a ketogenic diet is one that restricts carbohydrates below a certain level (generally 100 grams per day), inducing a series of adaptations to take place. Protein and fat intake are variable, depending on the goal of the dieter. However, the ultimate determinant of whether a diet is ketogenic or not is the presence (or absence) of carbohydrates.

Fuel metabolism and the ketogenic diet

Under 'normal' dietary conditions, the body runs on a mix of carbohydrates, protein and fat. When carbohydrates are removed from the diet, the body's small stores are quickly depleted. Consequently, the body is forced to find an alternative fuel to provide energy. One of these fuels is free fatty acids (FFA), which can be used by most tissues in the body. However, not all organs can use FFA. For example, the brain and nervous system are unable to use FFA for fuel however, they can use ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are a by-product of the incomplete breakdown of FFA in the liver. They serve as a non-carbohydrate, fat-derived fuel for tissues such as the brain. When ketone bodies are produced at accelerated rates, they accumulate in the bloodstream, causing a metabolic state called ketosis to develop. Simultaneously, there is a decrease in glucose utilization and production. Along with this, there is a decrease in the breakdown of protein to be used for energy, referred to as 'protein...

Hormones and the ketogenic diet

Ketogenic diets cause the adaptations described above primarily by affecting the levels of two hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a storage hormone, responsible for moving nutrients out of the bloodstream and into target tissues. For example, insulin causes glucose to be stored in muscle as glycogen, and FFA to be stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Glucagon is a fuel-mobilizing hormone, stimulating the body to break down stored glycogen, especially in the liver, to provide glucose for the body. When carbohydrates are removed from the diet, insulin levels decrease and glucagon levels increase. This causes an increase in FFA release from fat cells, and increased FFA burning in the liver. The accelerated FFA burning in the liver is what ultimately leads to the production of ketone bodies and the metabolic state of ketosis. In addition to insulin and glucagon, a number of other hormones are also affected, all of which help to shift fuel use away from carbohydrates and...

Exercise and the ketogenic diet

As with any fat-loss diet, exercise will improve the success of the ketogenic diet. However, a diet devoid of carbohydrates is unable to sustain high-intensity exercise performance although low-intensity exercise may be performed. For this reason, individuals who wish to use a ketogenic diet and perform high-intensity exercise must integrate carbohydrates without disrupting the effects of ketosis. Two modified ketogenic diets are described in this book which approach this issue from different directions. The targeted ketogenic diet (TKD) allows carbohydrates to be consumed immediately around exercise, to sustain performance without affecting ketosis. The cyclical ketogenic diet (CKD) alternates periods of ketogenic dieting with periods of high-carbohydrate consumption. The period of high-carbohydrate eating refills muscle glycogen to sustain exercise performance.

Changes in body composition Chapter 7 Other effects of the ketogenic diet

To address the physiology behind the ketogenic diet, a number of topics must be discussed. Chapter 3 discusses the utilization of various fuels glucose, protein, fat, ketones. Although not specific to the ketogenic diet, this provides the background to understand the following chapters. Chapters 4 and 5 address the topics of ketone bodies, ketogenesis, as well as the adaptations which are seen during the ketogenic diet. These two chapters are among the most technical in the book but are critical to understanding the basis for the ketogenic diet. Many of the adaptations seen are well-established, others less so. To avoid turning this into an undergraduate level biochemistry discussion, many of the smaller details have been omitted. Interested readers are encouraged to examine the references cited, especially the recent review papers. Chapter 6 addresses the question of whether a ketogenic diet causes greater, weight, water, fat, and protein losses compared to a more traditional fat...

Macronutrient Basics Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, or sugars, are made primarily of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms that cyclize into a ring. Carbohydrates can be simple or complex depending on the number of rings you hook together and the way in which they hook together. Though the rings can be slightly different, their common theme is the ring structure as their final shape. Similar to amino acids and fats, when you link the simple units (the sugars) together you get carbohydrates with different properties. You can link glucose units together to get a glucose polymer. In fact, when the body stores units of glucose linked together in the liver and muscle, it is called glycogen, a term with which most people are familiar. You will notice I have not mentioned the essential carbohydrates because there is no such thing Though the body runs best on an intake of some carbs in the diet, the body can make its own carbohydrates from protein and other non-carbohydrate substrates, as mentioned in the protein section. Digestion...

Relationships between carbohydrates and fat

Excess dietary carbohydrates can be converted to fat in the liver through a process called de novo lipognesis (DNL). However short term studies show that DNL does not contribute significantly to fat gain in humans. As long as muscle and liver glycogen stores are not completely filled, the body is able to store or burn off excess dietary carbohydrates. Of course this process occurs at the expense of limiting fat burning, meaning that any dietary fat which is ingested with a high carbohydrate intake is stored as fat. The most likely scenario in which this would occur would be one in which an individual was inactive and consuming an excess of carbohydrates calories in their diet. As well, the combination of inactivity with a very high carbohydrate AND high fat diet is much worse in terms of fat gain. With chronically overfilled glycogen stores and a high carbohydrate intake, fat utilization is almost completely blocked and any dietary fat consumed is stored. This has led some authors to...

Whats Wrong With Carbohydrates

If you mean what's wrong with a spear of broccoli or a bunch of spinach, the answer is nothing, they're magnificent foods. When I speak negatively of carbohydrates, I'm referring to the unhealthy ones-those lurking in the sugar bowl and the bin of white flour, along with milk, white rice and processed and refined foods of all kinds. I also must include concentrates, such as fruit juices. During the weight loss phase of Atkins, even your intake of potentially healthy carbohydrates such as fruits and whole grains must be controlled. Once you've bid adieu to your extra pounds, you can return to fruits and some starches to the degree that they won't upset your metabolism and reactivate the cravings that result in weight gain. But the refined and processed foods I've just mentioned simply aren't good for you-ever. Am I advocating a high-fat diet Not in the long run. As you increase the percentage of carbohydrates, while advancing through the different phases of Atkins, the percentage and...

Recommendations for carbohydrates fats dietary fiber and alcohol

What nutrients are missing from the RDA list of essentials Carbohydrates, fiber, fat, and alcohol. The reason is simple If your diet provides enough protein, vitamins, and minerals, it's almost certain to provide enough carbohydrates and probably more than enough fat. Although no specific RDAs exist for carbohydrates and fat, guidelines definitely exist for them and for dietary fiber and alcohol. In 1980, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined forces to produce the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see Chapter 16). This report has been modified many times. The latest set of recommendations, issued in the spring of 2005, sets parameters for what you can consider reasonable amounts of calories, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fats, protein, and alcohol. According to these guidelines, as a general rule, you need to i Eat enough carbohydrates (primarily the complex ones from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) to account for 45 to 65...

Do ketogenic diets spare more nitrogen than nonketogenic diets

Most studies comparing ketogenic to non-ketogenic diets are done at very low calorie levels (VLCD, below 600 cal day). These have limited applicability to an individual dieting at 10-20 below maintenance levels as advocated in this book for reasons discussed in detail below. All that can be said from most of these studies is that a non-ketogenic diet will spare nitrogen better than a ketogenic diet as long as the diet periods are less than three weeks (13,16,19,21). The problem being that diets are rarely used for a period as short as three weeks in the real world. Some studies show greater nitrogen sparing for the ketogenic diet (22-24) while others show no advantage (21,23,25) and others show less nitrogen sparing (13,15,26). At higher calorie levels (maintenance to 1200 calories), there are few studies. One study at 1200 calories found less lean body mass (LBM) loss for the higher carbohydrate diets (27) while another found no difference in LBM losses (28). A final study done at...

History Of Bodybuilding Diets Carbohydrates And The Bodybuilder

It's not surprising that students of anthropology and world history have had some serious questions to ask about the Great Fat Scare of the late 20th century. A look at the Eskimo tribes inhabiting the Northern latitudes of the Earth from Greenland across Canada to Asia show several strong examples of people who have existed on high fat diets with relatively little incidence of atherosclerosis and heart disease. For instance, the Greenlandic Eskimos have lived off a high fat diet consisting primarily of butter, cheese, meat and fish for most of their history. In fact, rent on land in some places was paid with butter. Yet no one keeled over on their way to the landlord. Heart disease was largely unknown until dietary changes caused by advancing Western civilization impacted them in recent decades. In Canada and Alaska, a similar situation is found. In fact, the high fat diet and relative good health of the North American Eskimos has been the source of research focusing on the possible...

Carbohydrates A Complex Story

Discovering the different kinds of carbohydrates Understanding how your body uses carbohydrates Loading up on carbohydrates before athletic competition Valuing dietary fiber Carbohydrates the name means carbon plus water are sugar compounds that plants make when they're exposed to light. This process of making sugar compounds is called photosynthesis, from the Latin words for light and putting together. In this chapter, I shine a bright light on the different kinds of carbohydrates, illuminating all the nutritional nooks and crannies to explain how each contributes to your vim and vigor not to mention a yummy daily menu.

Checking Out Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates come in three varieties simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, and dietary fiber. All are composed of units of sugar. What makes one carbohydrate different from another is the number of sugar units it contains and how the units are linked together. 1 Simple carbohydrates These carbohydrates have only one or two units of sugar. A carbohydrate with one unit of sugar is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide (mono one saccharide sugar). Fructose (fruit sugar) is a monosaccharide, and so are glucose (blood sugar), the sugar produced when you digest carbohydrates, and galactose, the sugar derived from digesting lactose (milk sugar). I Complex carbohydrates Also known as polysaccharides (poly many), these carbs have more than two units of sugar linked together. Carbs with three to ten units of sugar are sometimes called oligosaccharides (oligo few). Because complex carbohydrates are, well, complex, with anywhere from three to a zillion units of sugars, your body takes...

Carbohydrates and energy A biochemical love story

When you eat carbohydrates, your pancreas secretes insulin, the hormone that enables you to digest starches and sugars. This release of insulin is sometimes called an insulin spike, which means the same thing as insulin secretion but sounds a whole lot more sinister. Eating simple carbohydrates such as sucrose (table sugar) provokes higher insulin secretion than eating complex carbohydrates such as starch. If you have a metabolic disorder such as diabetes that keeps you from producing enough insulin, you must be careful not to take in more carbs than you can digest. Unmetabolized sugars circulating through your blood can make you dizzy and maybe even trip you into a diabetic coma. For info on why the difference between simple and complex carbs can matter for athletes, check out the section called Who needs extra carbohydrates

Carbohydrates A Bad

With the beatings that carbohydrates have taken over the past few years, it's a wonder that bread isn't protected by the Endangered Species Act. Everywhere I look, I see people eating burgers without buns, ordering spaghetti and meatballs hold the spaghetti or bragging about their all-bacon-all-the-time diet. While it's clear that protein and fat have tremendous nutritional benefits, it's unfair and unhealthy to kick carbohydrates off the dietary island. With more and more evidence showing that a high-carbohydrate diet helps promote fat storage (unless you run marathons), it's becoming more accepted that low-carbohydrate diets work in helping people control weight. A 2002 study in the journal Metabolism confirmed that very stance. Researchers at the University of Connecticut found that subjects who ate only 46 grams of carbohydrates a day about 8 percent of calories lost 7 pounds of fat and gained 2 pounds of muscle in 6 weeks. And they did it while downing a satisfying 2,337 calories...

The Complexities of Carbohydrates

When doing Atkins, you will control the number of grams of carbohydrates you eat and will focus on certain food groups rather than others. One reason you will need to do this is because not all carbohydrate found in food is created equal. Most carbohydrate is digested by your body and turned into glucose-and most nutritionists refer to this as digestible carbohydrate. However, some carbohydrate can be digested by your body but not turned into glucose (glycerin is one example), and some carbohydrate is not digestible at all, such as fiber (see Fiber A Form of Carbohydrate, opposite) and is therefore eventually excreted by your body. These last two types of carbohydrate don't have an impact on your blood-sugar levels. Understanding the different behavior of carbohydrate in your body can help you make smart food choices. But you cannot necessarily rely on food labels. Recently (in 2001) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rejected a request by numerous health food manufacturers to...

Other ways your body uses carbohydrates

Providing energy is an important job, but it isn't the only thing carbohydrates do for you. Carbohydrates also protect your muscles. When you need energy, your body looks for glucose from carbohydrates first. If none is available, because you're on a carbohydrate-restricted diet or have a medical condition that prevents you from using the carbohydrate foods you consume, your body begins to pull energy out of fatty tissue and then moves on to burning its own protein tissue (muscles). If this use of proteins for energy continues long enough, you run out of fuel and die. A diet that provides sufficient amounts of carbohydrates keeps your body from eating its own muscles. That's why a carbohydrate-rich diet is sometimes described as protein sparing. What else do carbohydrates do They

Finding the carbohydrates you need

The most important sources of carbohydrates are plant foods fruits, vegetables, and grains. Milk and milk products contain the carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar), but meat, fish, and poultry have no carbohydrates at all. These foods provide simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, and the natural bonus of dietary fiber. Table sugar, honey, and sweets which provide simple carbohydrates are recommended only on a once-in-a-while basis. One gram of carbohydrates has four calories. To find the number of calories from the carbohydrates in a serving, multiply the number of grams of carbohydrates by four. For example, one whole bagel has about 38 grams of carbohydrates, equal to about 152 calories (38 x 4). (You have to say about because the dietary fiber in the bagel provides no calories, because the body can't metabolize it.) Wait That number does not account for all the calories in the serving. Remember, the foods listed here may also contain at least some protein and fat, and these two...

Some problems with carbohydrates

Some people have a hard time handling carbohydrates. For example, people with Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes do not produce sufficient amounts of insulin, the hormones needed to carry all the glucose produced from carbohydrates into body cells. As a result, the glucose continues to circulate in the blood until it's excreted through the kidneys. That's why one way to tell whether someone has diabetes is to test the level of sugar in that person's urine. Other people can't digest carbohydrates because their bodies lack the specific enzymes needed to break the bonds that hold a carbohydrate's sugar units together. For example, many (some say most) Asians, Africans, Middle Easterners, South Americans, and Eastern, Central, or Southern Europeans are deficient in lactase, the enzyme that splits lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose. If they drink milk or eat milk products, they end up with a lot of undigested lactose in their intestinal tracts. This undigested lactose makes...

So arent carbohydrates essential

At this point you may be slightly confused about the role of carbohydrates in the diet. In the last chapter, I stated that carbohydrates weren't an essential nutrient and above I mentioned that a few tissues can only use glucose and that even the brain gets about 25 of its total fuel requirements from glucose after adaptation to ketosis. So if those tissues still require glucose for energy, you may be wondering how carbohydrates aren't essential in the diet. Remember from the last chapter what the definition of an essential nutrient is It is required for functioning and it can't be made by the body. Which brings me back around to the topic of protein as a fuel source for the body. Readers may have seen that 'carbohydrates spare protein' and this is part of the basis for that claim when carbohydrates are being eaten in sufficient quantities, the body has no need to break down protein for fuel. By extension, when carbohydrates are being restricted for whatever reason, some proportion of...

The Standard Ketogenic Diet

The standard ketogenic diet (SKD) is what most think of as the ketogenic diet. It is a diet low in carbohydrate, and moderate-high in both protein and fat. Since the SKD forms the basis of the next two diets, it is discussed in detail. This includes a discussion of the effects of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fat) on ketosis, as well as discussions of how to determine optimal carbohydrate, protein and fat intake. Additionally, the effects of alcohol and other nutritional substances (such as caffeine and aspartame) on ketosis is discussed.

Section 2 Carbohydrates and the SKD

Under normal dietary conditions, most tissues in the body use carbohydrates, in the form of glucose, for fuel. There are exceptions such as the heart which rely primarily on fatty acids for fuel. Carbohydrates are generally subdivided into complex and simple carbohydrates. All carbohydrates are formed from the simple sugars glucose, fructose and galactose, called monosaccharides. Monosaccharides combine into chains of two, called disaccharides. As monosaccharides form into longer chains, they are called polysaccharides or simply starch, which is a chain of hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules attached to each other. The term 'complex carbohydrates' refers to starches such as breads, pasta, potatoes, rice, and all grains. Simple carbohydrates refer to sugars such as table sugar (sucrose), fructose and fruit. Carbohydrates can be further delineated based on the Glycemic Index (GI) which is discussed below. Despite dietary differences between...

Carbohydrates and the ketogenic diet

In addition to the standard ketogenic diet (SKD), this book also details two modifications which have been made to the SKD. As discussed in forthcoming chapters on exercise, a SKD cannot sustain high-intensity exercise performance such as weight training or high-intensity aerobic training and carbohydrates must be integrated to the SKD in some fashion. There are two primary types of 'modified ketogenic diets' which incorporate carbohydrate intake within the structure of a SKD. The first of these is the Targeted Ketogenic Diet (TKD) in which individuals consume carbohydrates around exercise only. This allows for a maintenance of exercise performance and glycogen resynthesis without interrupting ketosis for long periods of time. The second type of 'modified ketogenic diet' is the Cyclical Ketogenic Diet or CKD. The CKD alternates periods of a ketogenic diet (generally 5-6 days) with periods of high carbohydrate intake (1-2 days). Typically the TKD is used by those individuals who either...

The Cyclical Ketogenic Diet CKD

As with the TKD, the CKD attempts to harness the effects of a ketogenic diet while maintaining exercise performance. However, rather than providing carbohydrates only around exercise, the CKD inserts a one- or two-day period of high carbohydrate eating to refill muscle glycogen. This means that for the CKD to work, muscle glycogen must be depleted fully each week. A few calculations which appear below show that full depletion of muscle glycogen requires a fairly large amount of training. This means that the CKD is not appropriate for beginning exercisers or those who are unable to perform the amount of training necessary. The standard format for a CKD is to alternate 5-6 days of ketogenic dieting with 1-2 days of high carbohydrate eating, although other variations can be developed. Individuals have experimented with longer cycles (10-12 days) as well as shorter cycles (3-4) days with good results. A 7 day cycle is more a choice of convenience than anything physiological, since it fits...

Type of carbohydrates

Glycogen resynthesis during the second 24 hours has not been studied as extensively. It appears that the consumption of lower GI carbs (starches, vegetables) promotes higher overall levels of glycogen resynthesis while avoiding fat gain by keeping insulin levels more stable (9). Most individuals find that their regain of bodyfat, as well as retention of water under the skin, is considerably less if they switch to lower GI carbohydrates during the second 24 hours of carbohydrate loading. Fructose (fruit sugar, which preferentially refills liver glycogen) will not cause the same amount of glycogen resynthesis seen with glucose or sucrose (5,8). Whether liquids or solid carbohydrates are consumed also appears to have less impact on glycogen resynthesis as long as adequate amounts are consumed (10). Anecdotally, many individuals have had success consuming liquid carbohydrates such as commercially available glucose polymers during their first few meals and then moving towards slightly more...

Eat the Right Percentages of Protein Carbohydrates and Fats

The latest research shows that 30 percent lean protein, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent acceptable fats work best for metabolic efficiency. These percentages have been tremendously effective in my program for athletes who want to lose fat, build more lean muscle, and improve performance, and for people who are overfat and often suffering from either elevated triglycerides or high glucose levels. A recent article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition makes a convincing argument for this ratio in people suffering from type 2 diabetes, stating that eating 30 percent dietary protein and 40 percent carbohydrates appears to improve glycemic control without increasing the risk of heart disease. In as little as five weeks, the glucose levels of the study participants dropped an astonishing 40 percent, and blood lipids, especially triglycerides, were significantly lowered.

Carbohydrates in Mammalian Tissues

Simple carbohydrates serve as the primary source of readily available energy for muscle cell metabolism, while more complex forms serve as structural components for a variety of tissues, organs, and organelles. Carbohydrates provide a framework for connective tissue, act as lubricants, and are essential components of nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. In mammalian tissues, carbohydrates occur in the form of D-polyhydroxyaldehydes or D-polyhydroxyketones, and are classified as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides (glyceraldehyde, threose, ribose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose) are single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone units three to seven carbons in length, whereas oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) are composed of 2 20 monosaccharide units joined by an a or p glycosidic linkage. Polysaccha-rides or glycans are covalently linked polymeric monosaccharide units that can be hundreds of units in length, and are further...

Low Carb Diets For The Obese

Over the past ten years, a low fat diet emphasizing plenty of energy rich complex carbohydrates has been the diet regiment that Americans have adopted in a quest for a fat free body. Combined with exercise, a high carbohydrate diet, one that includes foods like potatoes, yams, beans, whole grain breads and low calorie fruit has been used by countless millions to reduce fat stores. However, during the same time, the nation as a whole has become fatter than ever. Many who successfully subscribe to the high carbohydrate diet believe a low carb approach to fat loss is dietary suicide. For those who have failed to attain a low level of body fat using a high carbohydrate diet, and for those who have exercised religiously, hour upon hour, week after week, and have failed to attain a six-pack-rack of abdominals, hard glutes, and a low level of body fat, the low carb approach may be suited for you. For the obese, who have over 50 pounds to lose, this may be a fast and easy to use plan that...

Why Starchy Carbohydrates May Not Be As Good For You As You Think

As I work with more bodybuilders from around the world, I'm beginning to realize the biggest problem for most of us (even the most disciplined among us) is over eating starchy or grainy carbohydrates. I think the biggest problem with starchy, complex carbohydrates is that they are very easy to overeat. It doesn't take very much rice or pasta to add up to a lot of calories. When you're on a strict bodybuilding diet, starchy carbohydrates are a godsend They taste awesome They give you that warm feeling throughout your body. They calm you and relax you. They get you out of that funky, bad mood you're sometimes in when your dieting. You don't get very much food in a single serving of starchy carbohydrates especially for the amount of calories that one serving contains. One serving of white rice contains about 150 calories and about 35 grams of carbohydrates. How often do you stop after eating only of a cup of cooked white rice when you are hungry, really Come on Be honest. Whoops, I guess...

Protein and Carb Requirements On A Low Carb Diet

When carbohydrates are reduced and glycogen stores are very low and fat breakdown is in high gear, protein is broken down to make new glucose which is used to feed the brain. If an individual consumes no carbohydrates at all, the body can use up to 200 grams of protein daily just to keep the brain for falling short on fuel. My recommendation is to first limit insulin release by cutting carbohydrates to 50 a day for those who exercise 2-3 times a week and 75 grams a day for those who exercise 4-6 times a week. Lowering blood glucose levels by limiting carbohydrates stimulates the fat mobilizing effects of glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, Cortisol and ketones. Protein must remain high as dietary protein supplied, in higher amounts, can offset some of the muscle wasting effects associated with a low carb plan. On a low carb diet, I suggest protein consumption rise to 1.5 grams of protein for each pound of goal body weight. For example, the individual weighing 188 pounds and wishes...

The Historical Role of Nutritional Carbohydrates And Their Applications Today

Ancient warriors' high consumption of carbohydrates during campaigns may raise questions about the role carbs should play in diet. Whether this high-carb diet was an ideal warrior diet or not has already been discussed. However, the role carbohydrates play as a main source of nutrition is still an open issue today and needs a fresh review. Ever since Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, The Zone, Protein Power Diet, and The Carbohydrate Addict's Diet hit bookstores and became bestsellers, carbs have become the the Bad Guys on the Block. Millions of people today, who desperately wish to lose weight, try these low- or no-carb fad diets. And many of these dieters lose weight in the short run. Unfortunately, in the long run, many gain back more weight than they've lost. According to the low-carb diet concept, one will lose weight when carbs aren't available, because the body is forced to burn fat. That's the main trick. However, the issue of carbohydrates as a body fuel isn't so simple. The...

Types of carbohydrates some general comments

So let's talk about types of carbohydrates I'll deal with amounts in the next chapter. For the most part, I like to see structured refeeds centered around dietary starches such as breads, bagels, pasta, rice, potatoes, etc. All of those foods that the low-carbohydrate diet books say are bad for you. Finally, I want to mention that some people simply do not feel good when they do structured refeeds this tends to be especially true of those folks who feel the best on low-carbohydrate diets. This is commonly true with individuals suffering from some degree of insulin resistance (roughly their bodies don't respond well to the hormone insulin). They get major blood sugar swings (highs and lows) which can cause some pretty large scale energy swings. Most people feel crappy when their blood glucose crashes (this also tends to stimulate hunger) and refeeds can cause that. Getting adequate protein, fiber and a small amount of dietary fat with each high-carbohydrate meal goes a long way towards...

Zero carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets are the best way to lose body fat permanently

No diet issue has created more confusion and controversy than the low carbohydrate vs. high carbohydrate debate. Contrary to what certain diet guru's tell you, carbohydrates are not fattening. It's a flat out LIE to say, carbohydrates are fattening. What's fattening is eating more calories than your body can use at one time. However, it's true that some people lose weight more quickly on a low carbohydrate diet (that's not the same thing as saying carbohydrates are fattening.) It's also true that almost every bodybuilder or fitness competitor uses some variation of the low carb diet to prepare for competitions. Despite these facts, very low carb diets are not the ultimate answer to permanent weight loss. At worst they are unhealthy. At best they're a temporary tool that should be used only for short periods to achieve specific fat loss goals (preparing for bodybuilding competition, for example). 1) Very low carb diets are difficult to stick to. If you remove most of your carbohydrates...

Section 4 Fatigue during interval training and the effects of a ketogenic diet

As stated, during exercise above lactate threshold, anaerobic glycolysis leads to a generation of lactic acid. During high intensity exercise of 20-60 seconds duration, lactic acid accumulation is the most likely cause of fatigue (13,14). At fatigue, glycogen levels in the muscle fibers typically remain high (15,16) further suggesting that fatigue is occurring from the buildup of waste products. Thus, it would not appear that a ketogenic diet would directly impair performance during this type of exercise as glycogen availability is not the limiting factor. During repeated bouts of high intensity exercise (i.e. sprint training), depletion of glycogen will become an important factor in fatigue (17). While on a ketogenic diet, although pH is rapidly normalized, there is a decrease in the body's buffering capacity due to lower bicarbonate levels (19,20,21,25). Since bicarbonate is used to buffer the lactic acid produced from anaerobic glycolysis, fatigue during a single interval may occur...

Carbohydrates For Energy

If you want results, you must train hard. In order to train hard, you must provide adequate fuel for your body. The fastest automobile in the world is useless without gasoline. Your body is equally useless when you lack energy. Many fad diets promise miracle results by avoiding carbohydrates. Without turning this into a science class, let's look at the facts. Carbohydrates provide the most efficient form of energy during exercise. Carbohydrates fuel the central nervous system and muscles during physical activity. Carbohydrates should comprise 50-70 of your nutritional intake. Our training program is intense. To keep up, you must fuel your body with an adequate supply of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are converted by the digestive system into blood sugar, also known as glucose. Carbohydrates refill glycogen stores in your muscles and liver. When you use up the sugar in your blood and muscles, your liver breaks down stored glycogen for release into your blood. There are three types of...

Insulin And Carbohydrates

Many so-called experts believe that carbohydrates are the enemy of successful fat loss. They claim that eating carbs make you fat. This is based upon the theory that high carb intake diets cause high insulin release levels, and that high insulin release levels lead to high fat storage levels.

Section 5 Effects of the Ketogenic Diet on Weight Training

Relatively few studies have examined the effects of carbohydrate depletion on resistance training. Typically, researchers measure maximal force production during a single isometric contraction or muscular endurance during multiple rep sets during isokinetic exercise. Isokinetic exercise machines are special types of weight training equipment that control speed of movement. They are typically not found outside the laboratory and may not be an applicable model to normal strength training.

Long term ketogenic diet and high intensity activity

At this time, only one study (112) has examined high intensity exercise performance after long term adaptation to a ketogenic diet, finding no decrease in performance. As performance at higher intensities are generally determined by non-oxidative metabolism, it seems unlikely that long term adaptation to a ketogenic diet would have an effect on exercise of this type. Since no research on this topic exists, any long term effects on performance are purely speculative at this time. The main determinant in performance in weight training is probably muscle glycogen levels. Thus, the amount of work that can be performed in a given workout will depend on starting muscle glycogen levels.

Underground Nutrient Timing Strategy Four Post Workout Carbohydrates

Take advantage of this by drinking a liquid source of simple carbohydrates like a pop or a carbohydrate drink This is an excellent time to satisfy your cravings for simple sugars and actually benefit from it Your bodies' insulin response to eating the simple sugars will partition the simple sugars very effectively into the muscle cells instead of fat cells when over eating carbohydrates. You can not only get away with eating more, it is beneficial for muscle growth to do so.

Controlling Carbohydrates

It's true that if there's any nutrient we eat too much of, it's carbohydrates. But your brain only runs on glucose, which is a particular kind of carbohydrate. You need those carbs going to your brain just to continue to regulate your breathing and maintain your heartbeat. Do not exclude carbohydrates completely from your diet, and be sure to eat on time every 3 to 4 hours. For healthy carb choices, choose whole-grain breads and pastas, brown rice, and sweet potatoes. Tn addition, watch your carb portion

For Maximum Results Eat Carbohydrates Only After You Workout

The common misconception is to eat carbohydrates before you train for energy and protein carbohydrates after. It is too soon before the workout to have an energy boosting benefit as the liver has to convert the carbohydrates to glycogen for energy. It takes energy to digest the carbohydrates and store them for fuel. The consumption of carbohydrates releases serotonin which may make you sleepy and not feel like working out. Combining protein and carbohydrates is difficult for your body to digest and effectively assimilate either.

Carbohydrate Sports Drinks

Carbohydrates are taken up by exercising muscles and used for fuel. Post exercise, they hasten glycogen replenishment. Fluids can also help keep a body hy-drated and keep body temperature in the comfort zone. This means the prevention of performance-killing dehydration. Numerous published studies have demonstrated the benefits of carbohydrate beverages on physical performance particularly with events over an hour in duration. They are also well documented to enhance recovery from muscle-depleting exercise both aerobic and anaerobic. While these types of drinks can also provide energy during strength exercise, as discussed in the previous chapter, the addition of protein and certain amino acids makes these drinks more effective for weight trainers.

Section 6 Longterm ketogenic diet and endurance activity

Although many studies have examined the effects of short-term glycogen depletion with a high fat diet, only a few have examined the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet on endurance performance. As we shall see, there appears to be a difference between short-term glycogen depletion and long-term ketogenic adaptation. Please note that these studies generally did not examine the effects of exercise on fat loss on a ketogenic diet. Rather, they simply examined what types of exercise could be sustained on a diet devoid of carbohydrates. Studies on longer term ketogenic (2 to 6 weeks) diets find either a maintenance (73,74) or increase (75,76) in endurance at low-intensity exercise (75 of maximum heart rate and below). At higher intensities (around 85 of maximum heart rate which is likely above the lactate threshold) performance decreases (77). As higher intensity exercise relies proportionally more on carbohydrate for fuel, this would be expected to occur. A recent review of the...

Section 1 Macronutrient intake on the ketogenic diet

Any diet which restricts calories will alter the intake of nutrients. This includes changes in caloric intake, the macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fat) and the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). Micronutrients were discussed in the last chapter, and only caloric intake and macronutrients are discussed here. Although discussed in detail in Chapter 8, the basic idea of calories and weight loss (as well as fat loss) is mentioned again here. One of the prime selling points of many low-carbohydrate diets is a dieter can lose weight while 'eating as much protein and fat as they like'. While this is loosely true, this was misinterpreted by dieters and physicians alike to claim that dieters would lose weight eating unlimited amounts of foods. This idea was criticized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as it seemed to suggest that a ketogenic diet could somehow break basic laws of thermodynamics (1). The AMA was correct that it is impossible for dieter's to lose weight...

Ending a ketogenic diet

Some individuals may choose to remain on some form of a ketogenic (or low carbohydrate) diet indefinitely while others will not. For those who remain on a ketogenic diet, there are fewer issues involved in moving from fat loss maintenance. Either calories can be increased (in the form of dietary fat or carbohydrate) or activity levels can be decreased until fat loss stops. Since the long term health implications of ketogenic diets are not known, this book cannot recommend that a ketogenic diet be sustained indefinitely. For individuals who do move away from the ketogenic diet, there are more issues which need to be discussed including the physiological ramifications of adding carbohydrates back to the diet, maintaining bodyfat levels, etc. Each is discussed in this chapter. Most of the information presented here applies to individuals on a SKD or TKD. Due to the structure of the CKD, it has its own set of implications and consequences.

Carbohydrates and your diet

Now that we have calculated your fats and protein the only thing left are carbohydrates. Before we do that I need to explain to you the 2 different types of carbohydrates. Each carbohydrate has a measurement on the glycemic index. Because when you eat high glycemic carbohydrates a lot of negative things happen. The worst thing that happens is the insulin released from the high glycemic carbohydrate will start to stimulate fat cells. Because of this most of your carbohydrates will be low glycemic. After calculating the protein and fat needs of the example we have been using we have 2,316 calories left. And at 4 calories per gram of carbohydrate that leaves 579 grams coming from carbohydrates. 2,316 calories left after fats and protein 4 calories per gram of carb 579 grams of carbohydrates On the following pages I have included a large list of carbohydrates that are approved on The Bio-Genetic Program. You have a lot to choose from. Carbohydrates For Muscle Gain Carbohydrates For Muscle...

BDaily Dosage of Starchy Carbohydrates

If you are gaining weight eat starchy carbohydrates first thing in the morning on their own and one more serving after your post workout protein meal. If you are still not gaining weight you may add a serving or two more of starches throughout your day. Always eat starches separately Do not eat fats or proteins at the same time as starchy carbohydrates. The only exception to this rule is with coconut oil or MCTS (medium chain triglycerides). If you are reducing fat only eat starchy carbohydrates at breakfast and a little after your workouts. As a last resort cut out the carbs after your workout if you are really having trouble losing weight and perform some exercise before breakfast in the morning.

The Targeted Ketogenic Diet TKD

Having examined glycogen levels and glycogen depletion in the last chapter, the details of the first 'modified ketogenic diet' can now be discussed. The targeted ketogenic diet (TKD) is nothing more than the standard ketogenic diet (SKD) with carbohydrates consumed at specific times around exercise. This means that the general guidelines for constructing a SKD in chapter 9 should be used with the exception that more carbohydrates are consumed on days when exercise is performed. If fat loss is the goal, the number of calories consumed as carbohydrates should be subtracted from total calories, meaning that less dietary fat is consumed on those days. The TKD is based more on anecdotal experience than research. Invariably, individuals on a SKD are unable to maintain a high training intensity for reasons discussed in chapters 18 through 20. However, for a variety of reasons,some dieters choose not to do the full 1-2 day carb-up of the CKD (discussed in the next chapter). The TKD is a...

The Importance Of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, next to water, are by far the most important nutritional element anybody, not just bodybuilders, could consume. The most important reason is that our nervous systems, our brains, our spinal cords, and our peripheral nerves derive 99.9 percent of their nutrition from the one thing that we've been taught is the worst thing we can eat sugar. In fact, your brain derives 99 percent of its nutrition from sugar. Carbohydrates are the most important thing you can eat because they are the body's source of glucose, the sugar that is its basic fuel. Anyone who goes on a low-carbohydrate diet notices a pronounced lack of energy almost immediately. They feel weak, tense, and edgy they suffer impairment of concentration and short-term memory. They start dreaming about chocolate instead of sex. What are these signals They're your nervous system sending out for the one thing it needs most sugar If you've ever been around a bodybuilder who's been on a low-carh diet for six weeks or so,...

What About Carbohydrates Protein and

Once you choose the calorie level best suited for your lifestyle, you'll need to set guidelines for protein, carbohydrates and dietary fat. Specifically, how much of your total calories should be comprised of protein calories, carbohydrate calories, and fat calories. Setting fat guidelines is rather easy. Just avoid extra fat found in butter, salad dressings, heavy sauces, avoid fattier cuts of meat, and watch out for restaurant meals that are notorious for mixing into meals, including salads and vegetables, globs of extra calories coming from hidden oils, butter and cream. Though low carbs is making headway into dieting circles, for those who are not obese and who remain active and exercise, especially with weights, low fat is still the way to go. Low fat means low calorie. And a low fat intake is a must when including moderate amounts of carbohydrates in your daily foods as fat + carbs body fat while lowfat + carbs low body fat and calorie control. 2) How many grams of carbohydrates...

How Much Fat Carbohydrates And Protein

This topic will always be the subject for debate. There are those who attempt to completely remove carbohydrates from their diets and others who completely remove fat. Others eat primarily protein with only small amounts of carbohydrates and fat. Regardless of your sport, competition, or training objective, carbohydrates will always be your most efficient form of energy. This holds true for both aerobic and anaerobic activities. Complex carbohydrates are best. Complex carbs will A good rule of thumb is to consume 1 part fat, 2 parts protein, and 4 or 5 parts carbohydrates. This ratio of 1 fat, 2 proteins, and 4 or 5 carbohydrates will leave you with plenty of energy and enough protein to foster recovery. You should never drop below a 1 fat, 2 proteins, and 3 carbohydrates ratio. Get over your fear of carbohydrates. All the nonsense about carbohydrates comes from self-appointed experts who do not understand the science of the human body. The bottom line is that if you want to perform...

Starvation and the ketogenic diet

In one sense, the ketogenic diet is identical to starvation, except that food is being consumed. That is, the metabolic effects which occur and the adaptations which are seen during starvation are roughly identical to what is seen during a ketogenic diet. The primary difference is that the protein and fat intake of a ketogenic diet will replace some of the protein and fat which would otherwise be used for fuel during starvation. The response to total starvation has been extensively studied, arguably moreso than the ketogenic diet itself. For this reason the great majority of data presented below comes from studies of individuals who are fasting. With few exceptions, which are noted as necessary, the metabolic effects of a ketogenic diet are identical to what occurs during starvation. Although it is discussed in greater detail in a later section, the critical aspect of developing ketosis is the quantity of carbohydrates in the diet and carbohydrate restriction mimics the

Water loss on the ketogenic diet

A well established fact is that low-carbohydrate diets tend to cause a rapid loss of water in the first few days. This occurs for several reasons. First and foremost, glycogen is stored along with water in a ratio of three grams of water for every gram of stored carbohydrate (37). As glycogen is depleted, water is lost. For large individuals, this can represent a lot of weight. Due to confusions about weight loss and fat loss (see chapter 8), many individuals are drawn to low-carbohydrate diets specifically for the rapid initial loss of water weight. During the first few days of a ketogenic diet, water loss has been measured from 4.5 to 15 lbs (17,39-41). Although transient, this rapid initial weight loss can provide psychological incentive for dieters, which may mean greater compliance with the diet. In one study of subjects on a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet adhered to their diet much more than individuals consuming more carbohydrate, and who lost less weight (8). Regardless of...

Timing of carbohydrates

While it would seem logical that consuming dietary carbohydrates in small amounts over the length of the carb-up would be ideal, at least one study suggests that glycogen resynthesis over 24 hours is related to the quantity of carbs consumed rather than how they are spaced out. In this study, subjects were glycogen depleted and then fed 525 grams of carbohydrate in either two or seven meals. Total glycogen resynthesis was the same in both groups (11). A similar study compared glycogen resynthesis with four large meals versus twelve smaller meals (12). Glycogen levels were the same in both groups. Both of these studies suggest that the quantity of carbohydrates is more important than the timing of those carbohydrates. From a purely practical standpoint, smaller meals will generally make it easier to consume the necessary carbohydrate quantities and will keep blood sugar more stable. (i.e. during sleep) without eating, which may affect glycogen compensation. In this situation, a large...

Carbohydrates The misunderstood nutrient

However, the problem with America's waistline doesn't NECESSARILY stem from eating too MANY carbohydrates. It comes from eating too many of the WRONG carbohydrates You see, just like protein (and fats as you'll see) not all carbohydrates are created equal. To simplify things, we can break them down into two categories HIGH-GLYCEMIC and LOW-GLYCEMIC carbs. Optimum Anabolic Principle 22 Eat LOW-GLYCEMIC CARBOHYDRATES throughout the day There is, in fact, one instance when you can actually BENEFIT from consuming high-glycemic carbohydrates. IMMEDIATELY AFTER YOUR WORKOUT, your body will be extremely DEPLETED of muscle glycogen that it used for fueling the intense demand you just placed on them.

Ketogenic diets and bodybuildersathletes

Low carbohydrate diets were used quite often in the early years of bodybuilding (the fish and water diet). As with general fat loss, the use of low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets by athletes fell into disfavor as the emphasis shifted to carbohydrate based diets. As ketogenic diets have reentered the diet arena in the 1990's, modified ketogenic diets have been introduced for athletes, primarily bodybuilders. These include so-called cyclical ketogenic diets (CKD's) such as The Anabolic Diet (20) and Bodyopus (21). In the early 1990's, Dr. Mauro DiPasquale, a renowned expert on drug use in sports, introduced The Anabolic Diet (AD). This diet alternated periods of 5-6 days of low carbohydrate, moderate protein, moderate high fat eating with periods of 1-2 days of unlimited carbohydrate consumption (20). The major premise of the Anabolic Diet was that the lowcarb week would cause a 'metabolic shift' to occur, forcing the body to use fat for fuel. The high carb consumption on the weekends...

Other effects of the ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet has numerous metabolic effects, many of which are discussed in the previous chapters. However there are numerous other metabolic effects that need to be discussed as well as concerns which are typically raised regarding the ketogenic diet. This chapter is a catch-all to discuss any effects on the body that have not been discussed in previous chapters. It examines the effects (and side-effects) of the metabolic state of ketosis on the human body. As well, some of the major health concerns which have been voiced regarding the ketogenic diet are addressed here. There are ultimately two main concerns regarding the ketogenic diet in terms of health risks. The first is the potential negative effects of the 'high protein' intake of the ketogenic diet. Additionally, there is the effect of high levels of ketones. They are discussed as needed below. There are few studies of the long term effects of a ketogenic diet. One of the few, which followed two explorers over a period...

Simple And Complex Carbohydrates

By the time carbohydrates get into your bloodstream, they have to be in the form of glucose. Therefore, simple and complex carbohydrates give your body the same form of fuel. It makes no difference at all whether it's from a candy bar, an apple, a baked potato the carbohydrate has to be in the form ot glucose for your brain to use it. However, it's nor good to eat too many refined foods or simple sugars because they get into your bloodstream too fast and cause all kinds of problems. It's preferable to get your carbohydrates from as many natural sources as possible. The reason nutritional experts advocate that you try to get your carbohydrates from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is that those foods lend themselves to a well-balanced diet. They contain vitamins and minerals and other important nutrients, along with fiber. But, if you have a hankering for an occasional candy bar, don't think the world's going to stop revolving.


Similar to amino acids and fats, when you link the simple units (the sugars) together you get carbohydrates with different properties. You can link glucose units together to get a glucose polymer and in fact the body stores units of glucose linked together in the liver and muscle called glycogen, a term most people are familiar with. Carbohydrates or sugars are made primarily of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms that cyclize into a ring. Carbohydrates can be simple or complex by the number of rings you hook together and the way in which they hook together. Though the rings can be slightly different, their common theme is You will notice I have not mention the essential carbohydrates because there is no such thing Though the body runs best on an intake of some carbs in the diet, the body can make its own carbohydrates from protein and other non-carbohydrate substrates as mentioned in the protein section. Going in reverse from digestion, the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into...

Ketogenic Diet

A diet involving the restriction of carbohydrates to the point of inducing ketosis (buildup of significant levels of ketones in the bloodstream). Usually this requires keeping carbohydrate consumption below 20 grams per day. Ketosis reduces appetite and some studies (but not all) have shown ketogenic dieters to lose relatively more fat and less I ean body mass than non-ketogenic dieters. Note, however, that ketogenic diets are not usually well-suited for actually gaining muscle.

Tip 3 Carbohydrates

For example if you trained three days per week with weights and aerobics as is suggested in the 'Ten Golden Laws of Fat Loss' then you should consume approximately 0.8 grams of carbohydrates per pound of lean body weight. If however you choose to train with weights four days per week and do aerobics four days week then you should eat 1 gram of carbohydrates per pound of lean body weight. It is the lean bodyweight we want to feed not the additional fat. Therefore, a person who weighs 200 pounds with 20 bodyfat would be eating between 128 and 192 grams of carbohydrates per day -- 200lbs total bodyweight less 20 bodyfat which in this case equates to 40lbs of fat and 160lbs oflean body mass. 160lbs X 0.8grams 128grams of carbohydrates. Avoid simple sugars and eat complex low glycemic carbohydrates in moderation to reduce insulin output and prevent blood sugar fluctuations. Insulin is the main hormone responsible for the storage of bodyfat and high insulin levels prevent the burning of...

Epilepsy compiled from references

The ketogenic diet has been used to treat a variety of clinical conditions, the most well known of which is childhood epilepsy. Writings as early as the middle ages discuss the use of fasting as a treatment for seizures. The early 1900's saw the use of total fasting as a treatment for seizures in children. However, fasting cannot be sustained indefinitely and only controls seizures as long as the fast is continued. Due to the problems with extended fasting, early nutrition researchers looked for a way to mimic starvation ketosis, while allowing food consumption. Research determined that a diet high in fat, low in carbohydrate and providing the minimal protein needed to sustain growth could maintain starvation ketosis for long periods of time. This led to development of the original ketogenic diet for epilepsy in 1921 by Dr. Wilder. Dr. Wilder's ketogenic diet controlled pediatric epilepsy in many cases where drugs and other treatments had failed. The ketogenic diet as developed by Dr....

Section 1 Bodily Fuel Stores

The body has three storage depots of fuel which it can tap during periods of caloric deficiency protein, which can be converted to glucose in the liver and used for energy carbohydrate, which is stored primarily as glycogen in the muscle and liver and fat , which is stored primarily as body fat. A fourth potential fuel is ketones. Under normal dietary conditions, ketones play a non-existent role in energy production. In fasting or a ketogenic diet, ketones play a larger role in energy production, especially in the brain. A comparison of the various fuels available to the body appear in table 1.

Section 2 Relationships in fuel use

The difference in the proportion of each fuel used will depend on the metabolic state of the body (i.e. aerobic exercise, weight training, normal diet, ketogenic diet fasting). Exercise metabolism is addressed in later chapters and we are only concerned here with the effects of dietary changes on fuel utilization. In general, tissues of the body will use a given fuel in proportion to its concentration in the bloodstream. So if a given fuel (i.e. glucose) increases in the bloodstream, the body will utilize that fuel in preference to others. By the same token, if the concentrations of a given fuel decrease in the bloodstream, the body will use less of that fuel. By decreasing carbohydrate availability, the ketogenic diet shifts the body to using fat as its primary fuel.

Glucose and protein use

With normal glucose availability, there is little gluconeogenesis from the body's protein stores. This has led many to state that carbohydrate has a 'protein sparing' effect in that it prevents the breakdown of protein to make glucose. While it is true that a high carbohydrate intake can be protein sparing, it is often ignored that this same high carbohydrate also decreases the use of fat for fuel. Thus in addition to being 'protein sparing', carbohydrate is also 'fat sparing' (3). If glucose requirements are high but glucose availability is low, as in the initial days of fasting, the body will break down its own protein stores to produce glucose. This is probably the origin of the concept that low carbohydrate diets are muscle wasting. As discussed in the next chapter, an adequate protein intake during the first weeks of a ketogenic diet will prevent muscle loss by supplying the amino acids for gluconeogenesis that would otherwise come from body proteins. Since protein breakdown is...

Quantity of nutrients consumed

The consumption of alcohol will almost completely impair the body's use of fat for fuel. Similarly the consumption of carbohydrate affects the amount of fat used by the body for fuel. A high carbohydrate diet decreases the use of fat for fuel and vice versa (15). Thus, the greatest rates of fat oxidation will occur under conditions when carbohydrates are restricted. As well, the level of muscle glycogen regulates how much fat is used by the muscle (20,21), a topic discussed in chapter 18. Using exercise and or carbohydrate restriction to lower muscle and liver glycogen levels increases fat utilization (22).

What are ketone bodies

The three ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetone. AcAc and BHB are produced from the condensation of acetyl-CoA, a product of incomplete breakdown of free fatty acids (FFA) in the liver. While ketones can technically be made from certain amino acids, this is not thought to contribute significantly to ketosis (1). Roughly one-third of AcAc is converted to acetone, which is excreted in the breath and urine. This gives some individuals on a ketogenic diet a 'fruity' smelling breath.

Functions of ketones in the body

Ketones serve a number of functions in the body. The primary role, and arguably the most important to ketogenic dieters, is to replace glucose as a fat-derived fuel for the brain (3,4). A commonly held misconception is that the brain can only use glucose for fuel. Quite to the contrary, in situations where glucose availability is limited, the brain can derive up to 75 of its total energy requirements from ketone bodies (3). brain (see chapter 5 for more detail) (6). While many tissues of the body (especially muscle) use a large amount of ketones for fuel during the first few weeks of a ketogenic diet, most of these same tissues will decrease their use of ketones as the length of time in ketosis increases (4). At this time, these tissues rely primarily on the breakdown of free fatty acids (FFA). In practical terms, after three weeks of a ketogenic diet, the use of ketones by tissues other than the brain is negligible and can be ignored.

Section 2 Ketogenesis and the two site model

The formation of ketone bodies, called ketogenesis, is at the heart of the ketogenic diet and the processes involved need to be understood. As described in the previous chapter, the primary regulators of ketone body formation are the hormones insulin and glucagon. The shift that occurs in these two hormones, a decrease in insulin and an increase in glucagon is one of the major regulating steps regulating ketogenesis.

The Insulin Glucagon ratio

With the two regulating sites of ketogenesis discussed, we can return to the discussion of insulin and glucagon and their role in establishing ketosis. When carbohydrates are consumed, insulin levels are high and glucagon levels are low. Glycogen storage is stimulated and fat synthesis in the liver will occur. Fat breakdown is inhibited both in the fat cell as well as in the liver (8). When carbohydrates are removed from the diet, liver glycogen will eventually be emptied as the body tries to maintain blood glucose levels. Blood glucose will drop as liver glycogen is depleted. As blood glucose decreases, insulin will decrease and glucagon will increase. Thus there is an overall decrease in the insulin glucagon ratio (I G ratio) (8,14).

What does ketosis represent

The development of ketosis indicates two things. First, it indicates that the body has shifted from a metabolism relying primarily on carbohydrates for fuel to one using primarily fat and ketones for fuel (4). This is arguably the main goal of the ketogenic diet to cause an overall metabolic shift to occur in the body. The reasons this shift may be desirable are discussed in the next chapter.

A brief overview of the adaptations to starvation

The fourth phase of starvation is ketosis, which begins during the third or fourth day of starvation, and continues as long as carbohydrates are restricted. The major adaptations during ketosis is increased utilization of ketones by the brain. The final phase, which begins in the second week, is marked by decreasing protein breakdown and gluconeogenesis, as the major protein sparing adaptations to ketosis occur. With the exception of the initial hours of carbohydrate restriction (phases 1 and 2), each of the above phases is discussed in more detail below.

Changes in hormones and fuel availability

Although some mention is made in the discussions below of the adaptations seen during this time period, most of the major adaptations to ketosis start to occur by the third day, continuing for at least 3 weeks (4-6). During the first 3 days of fasting, blood glucose drops from normal levels of 80-120 mg dl to roughly 65-75 mg dl. Insulin drops from 40-50 pU ml to 7-10 pU ml (5,7,8). Both remain constant for the duration of the fast. One thing to note is that the body strives to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels even under conditions of total fasting (5). The popularly held belief that ketosis will not occur until blood glucose falls to 50 mg dl is incorrect. Additionally, the popular belief that there is no insulin present on a ketogenic diet is incorrect (7). One difference between fasting and a ketogenic diet is that the slight insulin response to dietary protein will cause blood glucose to be maintained at a slightly higher level, approximately 80-85 mg dl (1). This most...

Section 3 Changes in Glucose and Protein Use During Starvation

At the same time that FFA and ketone use is increasing, the body's use of glucose and protein are going down. This is a critical adaptation for two reasons. First and foremost, there are tissues in the body which can not use FFA for fuel, requiring glucose. By decreasing their use of glucose, those tissues which do not require glucose for energy spare what little is available for the tissue which do require it. Thus, there is always a small requirement for glucose under any condition. As we shall see, this small glucose requirement can easily be met without the consumption of carbohydrates.

The brains glucose requirements

In a non-ketotic state, the brain utilizes roughly 100 grams of glucose per day (5,25). This means that any diet which contains less than 100 grams of carbohydrate per day will induce ketosis, the depth of which will depend on how many carbohydrates are consumed (i.e. less carbohydrates will mean deeper ketosis). During the initial stages of ketosis, any carbohydrate intake below 100 grams will induce ketosis (28). As the brain adapts to using ketones for fuel and the body's glucose requirements decrease, less carbohydrate must be consumed if ketosis is to be maintained. Please note that the following discussion is only truly relevant to individuals on a Standard Ketogenic Diet (SKD) who are not exercising. However the same information also applies to individuals using a TKD or CKD as some period is spent in ketosis. The impact and implications of exercise on carbohydrate requirements is discussed in later chapters.

Section 4 Ketosis and protein sparing

The question which needs to be answered is what mechanisms exist for ketones (or ketosis) to spare protein. There are at least four possible mechanisms through which ketogenic diets may spare protein, three of which are well established in the literature, the fourth less so. They are discussed in more detail below.

Decreasing the bodys glucose requirements

That is, the development of ketosis is a critical aspect of preventing excessive nitrogen losses during periods of caloric insufficiency. This suggests that non-ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (frequently used by bodybuilders) may actually cause greater protein losses by preventing the body from maximizing the use of fat for fuel, which is addressed in chapter 6 .

Affecting thyroid levels

A fourth possible mechanism by which ketosis may reduce protein breakdown involves the thyroid hormones, primarily triiodothyronine (T3). T3 is arguably one of the most active hormones in the human body (42-44). While most think of T3 simply as a controller of metabolic rate, it affects just about every tissue of the body including protein synthesis. A decrease in T3 will slow protein synthesis and vice versa. As a side note, this is one reason why low carbohydrate diets are not ideal for individuals wishing to gain muscle tissue the decrease in T3 will negatively affect protein synthesis. Below 800 calories per day, even if 100 of those calories come from carbohydrate, T3 levels drop (47). Within days of starting a ketogenic diet, T3 drops quickly. This is part of the adaptation to prevent protein losses and the addition of synthetic T3 increases nitrogen losses during a ketogenic diet (1). In fact the ability to rapidly decrease T3 levels may be one determinant of how much protein...

Changes in body composition

Having discussed the primary metabolic adaptations which occur during ketosis in the previous chapter, we can now examine the effects of ketogenic diets on body composition. The first issue to examine is the effect of food intake on ketosis. This will lead into an examination of protein sparing on a ketogenic diet, as well as issues involving weight, water, and fat loss. The question to be answered is whether a ketogenic diet does in fact cause greater fat loss with less loss of body protein than a more 'balanced' diet. Unfortunately, the lack of appropriate studies, as well as a high degree of variability in study subjects, make this a difficult question to answer unequivocally. Issues relating to water loss on a ketogenic diet are discussed as well.

Section 1 Macronutrients and Ketosis

Despite the generally 'high fat' nature of the ketogenic diet, or at least how it is perceived, dietary fat intake has a rather minimal effect on ketosis per se. Fat intake will primarily affect how much bodyfat is used for fuel. Although alcohol has been discussed within the context of ketoacidosis, the effects of alcohol intake on the state of ketosis are discussed again here.

How much dietary protein is necessary to prevent nitrogen losses

Assuming zero carbohydrate intake, during the first 3 weeks of a ketogenic diet a protein intake of 150 grams per day should be sufficient to achieve nitrogen balance. Therefore, regardless of bodyweight, the minimum amount of protein which should be consumed during the initial three weeks of a ketogenic diet is 150 grams per day.

Problems with nitrogen balance

Although nitrogen balance is one of the best methods for determining muscle loss while dieting, there are still problems. First and foremost, there tends to be a great degree of variability in total nitrogen losses among subjects in diet studies. For example, one study found that daily nitrogen losses on a ketogenic diet varied among the subjects between 1 gram of nitrogen day and 6 grams of nitrogen day. This represents a difference in bodily protein breakdown of 6-36 grams of protein day (10). Unfortunately most diet studies report nitrogen balances as average values for differing diet groups. This tends to overstate either how well or how poorly a diet works to spare protein. If one individual loses a significant amount of nitrogen while another loses very little, reporting an average does not provide accurate information.

Section 4 Water and weight loss

Having discussed the topic of nitrogen sparing we can finally examine the effects of ketogenic diets on the other aspects of body composition water, weight and fat loss. The question then to be answered is whether a ketogenic diet will cause more weight and or fat loss than a non-ketogenic diet with the same calories. As with the sections on protein sparing, study methodology makes makes it impossible to absolutely answer this question. Prior to discussing the effects of the ketogenic diet on body composition, a few comments about the various studies cited by both the pro- and anti-ketogenic groups are in order.

Problems with the studies

Most of the early ketogenic diet studies looked at weight loss only, making no distinction between fat, water and muscle loss. As discussed in chapter 8, a dieter's goal should be maximal fat loss with minimal muscle loss. Since water weight can be gained or lost quickly, it should not be used as the factor to determine whether a ketogenic or balanced diet is the optimal approach. Likewise, many early studies, which are frequently cited by pro-ketogenic authors, confused water loss with fat loss due to methodological problems. These studies should not be considered as evidence either for or against a ketogenic diet. Many early diet studies were extremely short in duration, five to ten days in some cases. This makes drawing valid conclusions about the effectiveness of a given diet approach impossible as results are confounded by the rapid water losses which occurs in the first few days. In very short term studies, a ketogenic diet will almost always show greater weight loss because of...

Section 1 Fat loss versus Weight loss

Most individuals starting a diet as well as most diet books tend to focus solely on one measure of progress changes in bodyweight. The scale has been used for years as the only indicator of whether or not a diet is working. While this is a problem on any diet (for reasons discussed below), it can be of even greater importance when discussing low-carbohydrate diets and low-carbohydrate diet studies, due to shifts in water weight. To accurately know whether a diet is working or not, we have to be more specific in our measurements than simply bodyweight. Individuals beginning a weight training program often gain one or two pounds by the scale from increased water storage in the muscles. This weight gain is temporary and should not be confused with true fat gain. Similarly, consuming carbohydrates after a period of low carbohydrate dieting will cause a large, but transient, increase in bodyweight from increased body water. This weight gain also should not be confused with true fat gain....

Section 3 Protein and the SKD

Having discussed the details of carbohydrate intake on a standard ketogenic diet (SKD) last chapter, we can now discuss issues pertaining to protein. Although carbohydrate intake is arguably the most important aspect of successfully inducing ketosis, protein intake is extremely important in order to prevent muscle loss. While an easy solution is to simply eat as much protein as possible, too much protein can prevent ketosis as well, disrupting the adaptations which ketogenic dieters seek. Therefore, protein intake must fall within a narrow range high enough to prevent muscle loss but low enough that ketosis is not disrupted. A common criticism of the ketogenic diet is that ketosis is catabolic. This is true in that any diet which is restricted in calories is catabolic . The question, addressed in chapters 5 and 6, is whether the ketogenic diet is inherently more catabolic than other dietary approaches. As discussed in chapter 6, one of the problems with many diet studies comparing...

Section 4 Fat and the SKD

Having discussed the details of carbohydrate and protein amounts in the last two chapters, the only remaining macronutrient to be discussed is dietary fat. Although a ketogenic diet can be constructed with only protein and a small amount of carbohydrate, the caloric intake is so low that metabolic slowdown will occur. Fat is in essence a caloric ballast, a nutrient which has a relatively neutral effect on insulin levels or ketosis, and which is used to adjust calories. With regard to blood cholesterol levels, readers need to understand that the liver produces more cholesterol (up to 2000 milligrams per day) than most individuals would ever consume, even on a ketogenic diet. Additionally, when dietary cholesterol intake increases, the body's synthesis of cholesterol will typically go down. When dietary cholesterol intake goes down, the body's synthesis of cholesterol typically goes up. This supports the contention that dietary cholesterol generally has little impact on blood...

Section 1 Glycogen levels

Muscle glycogen is measured in millimoles per kilogram of muscle (mmol kg). An individual following a normal mixed diet will maintain glycogen levels around 80-100 mmol kg. Athletes following a mixed diet have higher levels, around 110-130 mmol kg (1). On a standard ketogenic diet, with aerobic exercise only, muscle glycogen levels maintain around 70 mmol kg with about 50 mmol kg of that in the Type I muscle fibers (2,3).

Amounts types and timing of carbs

Although experimentation is encouraged, most individuals find that 25-50 grams of carbohydrates taken thirty minutes before a workout enhance performance. The type of carbohydrate consumed pre-workout is not critical and individuals are encouraged to experiment with different types of carbs. Most seem to prefer easily digestible carbohydrates, either liquids or high Glycemic Index (GI) candies to avoid problems with stomach upset during training. A wide variety of foods have been used prior to workouts glucose polymers, Sweet Tarts, bagels, and food bars all result in improved performance. One concern of many SKDers (especially those who are using a ketogenic diet to control conditions such as hyperinsulinemia) is the potential insulin response from carbohydrate ingestion on a TKD. Generally speaking, insulin levels decrease during exercise. Exercise training itself improves insulin sensitivity as does glycogen depletion (3,4). So hyperinsulinemia should not be a problem during...

Summary of the guidelines for the TKD

Chapter 9) should still be used to develop a TKD. The only difference is that calories must be adjusted to account for the carbohydrates being consumed around training. 2. The safest time to consume carbs, in terms of maintaining ketosis, is before a workout and ketosis should be reestablished soon after training. Depending on total training volume, 25-50 grams of carbohydrates taken 30-60' prior to training seems to be a good amount. The type of carbohydrate is less critical for pre-workout carbs but quickly digested, high GI carbs seem to work best to avoid stomach upset. 3. If more than 50 grams of carbohydrates must be consumed around training, it may be beneficial to split the total amount, consuming half 30' before training and the other half at the beginning (or during) of the workout. 4. If post-workout carbohydrates are consumed, an additional 25-50 grams of glucose or glucose polymers are recommended. Fructose and sucrose should be avoided as they can refill liver glycogen...

Section 2 The carbload

The unique aspect of the CKD is the carb-loading phase which has its own set of implications and guidelines. Quite simply, the key to refilling muscle glycogen stores following depletion is the consumption of large amounts of carbohydrates (1). In fact many individuals find that the carb-load phase works just fine without much attention to the details of percentages and amounts. Simply eating a lot of carbohydrates for 24 to 36 hours works quite well for many people. However many individuals want the details of how to optimize the amount of glycogen stored without gaining any fat. The amount of glycogen resynthesized depends on a number of factors including the degree of depletion, the amount and type of carbohydrates and the timing of carbohydrate consumption. If sufficient amounts of carbohydrates are consumed for a long enough period of time, glycogen levels can reach greater than normal levels, a process called glycogen supercompensation. The process of glycogen depletion and...

Duration and amount of the carbload

The rate limiting step in glycogen resynthesis appears to be activity of the enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis (1). Regardless of carbohydrate intake, there is a maximal amount of glycogen which can be synthesized in a given amount of time, meaning that consuming all the necessary carbohydrates in a 4 hour time span, with the goal of returning to ketogenic eating that much sooner, will not work. Only when the proper amount of carbohydrates is consumed over a sufficient period of time, can glycogen compensation and or supercompensation occur. With 36 hours of carb-loading, roughly 150 compensation can occur, reaching levels of 150-160 mmol kg of muscle glycogen. To achieve greater levels of muscle glycogen (175 mmol kg or more) generally requires 3-4 days of high carbohydrate eating following exhaustive exercise (2). Over 24 hours, at 50 grams every 2 hours, this yields 600 grams of carbohydrates total to maximize glycogen resynthesis. These values are for a 154 pound (70...

Fat gain during the carbup

In a study which looked surprisingly like a CKD, subjects consumed a low-carb, high fat (but non-ketogenic) diet for 5 days and depleted muscle glycogen with exercise (22). Subjects were then given a total 500 grams of carbohydrate in three divided meals. During the first 24 hours, despite the high calorie (and carb) intake, there was a negative fat balance of 88 grams. This suggests that when muscle glycogen is depleted, incoming carbohydrates are used preferentially to refill glycogen stores, and fat continues to be used for energy production. Additionally, the excess carbohydrates which were not stored as glycogen were used for energy (22). In general, the synthesis of fat from glycogen (referred to as de novo lipogenesis) in the short term is fairly small (23,24). During carbohydrate overfeeding, there is a decrease in fat use for energy. Most fat gain occurring during high carbohydrate overfeeding is from storage of excessive fat intake (25). Therefore, as long as fat intake is...

Long term effects of a CKD

Although the myriad effects of ketogenic diets are discussed in detail in chapter 7, another concern is what long term metabolic effects a CKD will have. There is unfortunately no answer. It seems logical that any long-term adaptations to ketosis will be reversed when a non-ketogenic diet is followed for a sufficient period of time but this is mere speculation. Anecdotally, it appears that some of the adaptations to ketogenic diets continue even after a non-ketogenic diet has been followed. The easiest one to examine is the aforementioned fatigue and 'mental fuzziness' during the first week. In general, individuals (including this author) returning to a CKD after a period of more 'balanced' dieting do not experience the same level of fatigue as when they first started the diet. This seems to suggest that some of the changes in the brain (especially with regards to ketone usage) may be longer lasting. Once again, the lack of long term data prevents any conclusions from being drawn....

A recap of the lowcarb week

Recall from previous chapters that the ketogenic part of the CKD lowers insulin and thyroid levels, while raising glucagon. The data on GH is less clear, with some studies showing an increase, others a decrease. The effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone and cortisol are less established. Thus, the overall effect of the ketogenic phase is a catabolic one, although ketosis appears to be selectively catabolic (i.e. the protein sparing effect of ketosis).

Insulin and amino acids

When carbohydrates are refed after even a few days of a ketogenic diet, the insulin response is higher than it would be under normal dietary conditions (38). This is probably due to the slight insulin resistance which occurs during a ketogenic diet, discussed in chapter 7. Hyperinsulinemia also increases the transport of some amino acids into muscle (39). These metabolic effects might contribute to muscle growth during the carb-up. To maximize insulin levels during the carb-up, high glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates are preferred. Additionally, one study examining carb-loading after depletion found that insulin levels were higher with 4 large meals, versus smaller smaller hourly meals although the total amount of carbohydrates given was the same, as was the glycogen compensation (12).

Getting out of ketosis beginning the carbload

To shift the body out of ketosis and toward a more anabolic state, dieters will need to begin consuming carbohydrates approximately 5 hours prior to the final workout. At this time, a small amount of carbohydrates, perhaps 25 to 50 grams, can be consumed along with some protein and unsaturated fats, to begin the upregulation of liver enzymes. The type of carbohydrate needed has not been studied and individuals are encouraged to experiment with different types and amounts of foods.

The carbload Two methods

There are essentially two methods for carb-loading on the CKD. The first is to ignore specific macronutrient ratios and simply consume a large amount of carbohydrates for the time period chosen. This approach, while more haphazard than paying attention to specific ratios, works well for many individuals. In fact, it is this aspect of the CKD that draws many individuals to the diet you can essentially eat whatever you want during your carb-load phase. Having a 24 to 36 hour time period where you can consume whatever foods you want, without paying attention to calories or nutrient percentages, makes dieting psychologically easier. For those individuals who find that haphazard carb-loading leads to a lack of results in terms of fat loss, a more exacting approach can be used. Guidelines for optimizing the carb-load period appear below.

Improve the nutrient quality of the lowcarb week

The nature of the ketogenic diet is such that most individuals tend to consume a lot of saturated fats while on the diet. Substituting some of the saturated fat intake inherent to the ketogenic diet with unsaturated fats such as fish oils and vegetable oils, may increase thermogenesis (the burning of calories to produce heat) and increase fat loss. Many individuals report a significant amount of bodily warmth following a meal high in unsaturated fats, probably due to increased thermogenesis. Note that this further limits the food choices available on a ketogenic diet.

Take a week off the diet

The body ultimately adapts to anything including diet and calorie levels. Taking a week off of the diet can help raise metabolic rate as well as rebuild any muscle which may have been lost. However, fat gain during a one week break is generally minimal as long as individuals do not overdo caloric intake. Keep in mind that adding carbohydrates back into the diet can cause a rapid but transient weight regain for individuals on an SKD or TKD.

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