The three macronutrients are carbohydrate, protein and fat. All three nutrients have differing effects on ketosis due to their digestion and subsequent effects on blood glucose and hormone levels. Carbohydrate is 100% anti-ketogenic due to its effects on blood glucose and insulin (raising both). Protein is approximately 46% ketogenic and 58% anti-ketogenic due to the fact that over half of ingested protein is converted to glucose, raising insulin. Fat is 90% ketogenic and ten percent anti-ketogenic, representing the small conversion of the glycerol portion of triglycerides to glucose. While alcohol has no direct effect on the establishment of ketosis, excessive alcohol intake can cause ketoacidosis to occur.
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