Section 1 Glycogen levels

To understand the basis of both the TKD and the CKD, a discussion of glycogen levels under a variety of conditions is necessary. To achieve optimal results from either the TKD or CKD requires that some estimations be made in terms of the amount of training which can and should be done as well as how much carbohydrate should be consumed at a given time.

Muscle glycogen is measured in millimoles per kilogram of muscle (mmol/kg). An individual following a normal mixed diet will maintain glycogen levels around 80-100 mmol/kg. Athletes following a mixed diet have higher levels, around 110-130 mmol/kg (1). On a standard ketogenic diet, with aerobic exercise only, muscle glycogen levels maintain around 70 mmol/kg with about 50 mmol/kg of that in the Type I muscle fibers (2,3).

As discussed in greater detail in upcoming chapters, fat oxidation increases, both at rest and during aerobic exercise around 70 mmol/kg. Below 40 mmol/kg, exercise performance is impaired. Total exhaustion during exercise occurs at 15-25 mmol/kg. Additionally, when glycogen

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