Water loss on the ketogenic diet

A well established fact is that low-carbohydrate diets tend to cause a rapid loss of water in the first few days. This occurs for several reasons. First and foremost, glycogen is stored along with water in a ratio of three grams of water for every gram of stored carbohydrate (37). As glycogen is depleted, water is lost. For large individuals, this can represent a lot of weight. Additionally, ketones appear to have a diuretic effect themselves causing the excretion of water and electrolytes...

Metabolic causes of fatigue

The potential metabolic causes of fatigue during weight training depend on the length of the set being performed and the energy system which is being primarily used. During very short weight training sets (less than 20 seconds), the metabolic cause of fatigue is most likely depletion of creatine phosphate (CP). Although ATP never drops more than 20 below resting values even at exhaustion (93), CP may be fully depleted after 20 seconds of maximal intensity exercise. Although CP may be 96...

Detraining

For various reasons, athletes frequently have to take time away from training and a discussion of detraining is necessary. The deadaptations from stopping weight workouts are essentially the opposite of the initial adaptations. Recall that the initial adaptations to strength training are neural with adaptations in the muscle occurring later. Detraining occurs in the reverse order. Maximal strength begins to drop within a week but muscle size does not begin to decrease for at least 2 weeks...

The carbload

The carb-up section of the CKD is one area where specific supplements can help to maximize glycogen synthesis while minimizing fat regain. There are three major ways that supplements may improve the quality of the carb-up. The first is by improving insulin sensitivity, which is an index of how well or poorly a given tissue can utilize insulin. By keeping muscle insulin sensitivity high, there is less likelihood that fat cells will be stimulated to store fat. The three main insulin sensitizers...

Pyruvate

Supplemental pyruvate is a new supplement which has entered the fat burner market. Studies have shown that pyruvate slightly enhances fat loss on very low calorie diet (30,31). However, the doses necessary, 30 or more grams per day, to achieve this fat loss are cost prohibitive. Additionally, since commercially available pyruvate supplements typically contain half their weight as sodium or calcium, the risk for overload exists. Finally, pyruvate can inhibit ketosis. Pyruvate supplements are not...

Exercise Physiology

Chapter 17 Muscular physiology and energy production Chapter 18 The physiology of aerobic exercise Chapter 19 The physiology of interval training Chapter 20 The physiology of strength training Chapter 21 The effects of exercise on ketosis Chapter 22 Exercise and fat loss As more and more research is performed, the conclusion is fairly unequivocal if there is one thing that improves overall health, it is regular exercise. The best diet and all of the supplements in the world cannot make up for a...

Vanadyl sulfate

Vanadyl sulfate is a specialized form of the mineral vanadate. Although this seems a minor distinction, it becomes important when considering the issue of toxicity. While vanadate (a heavy metal) can be extremely toxic, vanadyl sulfate (the mineral salt) has not shown as great of toxicity. Vanadyl has been suggested to work similarly to chromium picolinate, by improving insulin sensitivity in tissues of the body. It has shown some benefit in the treatment of Type II diabetes in this regard...

Gout

Individuals with a past history or genetic propensity for gout should seriously consider whether or not a ketogenic diet is appropriate. As discussed previously, a rise in uric acid levels occurs when the ketogenic diet is started and this may trigger gout in predisposed individuals. Since even small amounts of dietary carbohydrates (5 of total calories) appear to alleviate problems with uric acid buildup, a less restrictive ketogenic diet may be possible for individuals who are prone to gout.

Starvation and the ketogenic diet

In one sense, the ketogenic diet is identical to starvation, except that food is being consumed. That is, the metabolic effects which occur and the adaptations which are seen during starvation are roughly identical to what is seen during a ketogenic diet. The primary difference is that the protein and fat intake of a ketogenic diet will replace some of the protein and fat which would otherwise be used for fuel during starvation. The response to total starvation has been extensively studied,...

Training

In terms of training, mass gains are best achieved with an emphasis on basic movements like squats, benches, deadlifts, pulldowns chins, etc, with few isolation movements. Recall that the growth range is somewhere between 6-20 reps or about 20-60 per set. Emphasis should be placed on the negative (lowering) portion of the movement as this seems to be a primary stimulus for strength and mass gains. Most advanced lifters find that training a muscle once every 5-7 days is an ideal frequency,...

Info

Dangerous levels of ketones in the bloodstream. Alcohol may affect ketone body production in the liver and alcohol itself can be converted to ketones. As well, the production of ketones from alcohol tends to result in less fat loss since less FFA is converted to ketones. Strictly speaking there is no reason that small amounts of alcohol cannot be consumed during a ketogenic diet although it should be realized that fat loss will be slowed. Additionally, anecdotal reports suggest that alcohol may...

Exercise guidelines

Chapter 23 General exercise principles Chapter 24 Aerobic exercise Chapter 25 Interval training Chapter 26 Weight training Having discussed the underlying physiology behind aerobic, interval, and weight training exercise, we can now develop some general guidelines for each type of exercise. Chapter 23 discusses several general principles such as progressive overload and the FITT equation. Chapters 24 through 26 give general guidelines for implementing the different types of exercise, depending...

Interval training guidelines

Interval training is an advanced technique that can be used to improve fitness level and increase fat loss. Generally defined, interval training is any activity which alternates periods of high intensity activity (i.e. sprinting) with periods of lower intensity (i.e. walking or slow jogging). Weight training can be considered a special case of interval training but is discussed separately. As with aerobic exercise, interval training is discussed relative to the FITT equation. Recall that...

Warm ups

A warm muscle can produce more force than a cold muscle (28,29). Thus a proper warm-up prior to training will ensure maximal strength as well as help to prevent injuries. The warm-up can be broken into two components 1. General warm-up This is 5-10' of light aerobic activity to raise the core temperature of the body. The general warm-up need only be continued until a light sweat is broken, as this indicates that the body is as warm as it will get. This will also increase liver glycogen output...

Frequency

The frequency of aerobic exercise depends solely on one's goals. For general health, a minimum of three times per week is required. For fat loss, three times per week also appears to be the minimum. For individuals wishing greater fat loss, a frequency of four to five days per week is frequently recommended (1,2). However, too much aerobic exercise can be as detrimental as too little. Many individuals find that their fat loss can slow with too much aerobic exercise. As well, excessive aerobic...

The Targeted Ketogenic Diet TKD

Having examined glycogen levels and glycogen depletion in the last chapter, the details of the first 'modified ketogenic diet' can now be discussed. The targeted ketogenic diet (TKD) is nothing more than the standard ketogenic diet (SKD) with carbohydrates consumed at specific times around exercise. This means that the general guidelines for constructing a SKD in chapter 9 should be used with the exception that more carbohydrates are consumed on days when exercise is performed. If fat loss is...

The Hardgainer CKD fat loss workout

A potential problem with CKD for fat loss is that a fairly high volume of weight training is required to deplete glycogen between carb-ups. Additionally, training bodyparts twice each week can cause overtraining in those with poor recovery ability. As discussed in chapter 12, one option is to perform less heavy tension sets on Monday and Tuesday and deplete muscle glycogen with light, high rep sets not taken to failure. Another option is to make the CKD a 14 day cycle rather than a seven day...

General Dieting Principles

Before discussing the details of the ketogenic diet, it is necessary to first discuss some general concepts which relate to body composition, metabolic rate, dieting, and fat loss. Most dieters tend to focus on bodyweight as the only measure of a diet's effectiveness. This is an incomplete approach and may be partly responsible for the failure of many mainstream weight loss approaches. Simply put, changes in bodyweight do not tell the entire story during a diet. Rather the prospective dieter...

The Advanced CKD for fat loss

Advanced trainees frequently want to know how to optimize the CKD for fat loss. This chapter presents a routine which incorporates all of the information presented in the previous chapters. The goal of this routine is to co-ordinate training to take maximal advantage of the peculiar format of the CKD. This goal incorporates the following factors 1. Deplete muscle glycogen in all bodyparts to approximately 70 mmol kg by Tuesday to maximize fat utilization by the muscles but not increase protein...

How much protein is needed to prevent nitrogen loss

Having examined this question theoretically in the previous section, we can examine a few studies to see if the suggested 150 grams of protein per day is correct. Since only a few studies provided an appropriate amount of protein to its subjects, we will look at these studies in detail. In a maintenance calorie diet study, six subjects were given 2,800 calories with 135 grams of protein, 40 grams of carbohydrate and 235 grams of fat for a period of 6 days (15). This was compared to a diet...

Protein losses and nitrogen balance

There are many methods of measuring protein losses during dieting and starvation (7). Without exception all make assumptions and simplifications. From the standpoint of the ketogenic diet, some methods are better than others, but none are perfect. Many early ketogenic diet studies simply subtracted muscle loss from total weight loss and assumed the difference represented fat loss. The problem with this method was that assessment of muscle loss can be seriously affected by the glycogen loss seen...

Section 1 Adaptations to interval training

At intensities around LT, both Type I and Type IIa muscle fibers are recruited (1). As exercise intensity approaches maximum, Type IIb fibers are also recruited (2,3,4). Similar to aerobic exercise, the primary adaptation to interval training is an increase in the oxidative capacity of the recruited muscle fibers (i.e. Type IIa and IIb fibers) (5). Additionally, with regular exercise above LT, there is a gradual shift in LT to the right during exercise (5). That is, higher exercise intensities...

Ending a ketogenic diet

One important aspect of any fat loss diet is how it should be ended. Realistically, one can not, and should not, be on a fat loss diet forever. At some point, an individual will have reached their goal and the focus will change to maintenance. Bodybuilders will frequently move from fat loss phases back into mass gaining phases, where some regain of bodyfat is accepted as an end result of gaining muscle mass. A sad reality of fat weight loss is the dismal statistics for long-term weight...

Gender Differences

Under a microscope, there is no physiological difference between women's muscle and men's. By the same token, men and women's muscle respond similarly to training. When placed on the same training program, women respond as well if not better than men do (84-86). Women can gain muscle in the same fashion as male trainees do, just not to the same levels typically seen in males (12,19). The largest difference between male and female trainees is in the ultimate level of muscular development which...

References Cited

Komi Blackwell Scientific Publications 1992. 2. Hortobagyi T et. al. Greater initial adaptations to submaximal muscle lengthening than maximal shortening. J Appl Physiol (1996) 81 1677-1682. 3. Kraemer WJ et. al. Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise Implications for athletic conditioning. Sports Med (1988) 6 246-256. 4. Ploutz L et. al. Effect of resistance exercise on muscle use during exercise. J Appl Physiol 5. Fleck S and Kraemer W....

The Push Pull legs split

The second type of 2 day split is the Push Pull + legs split. With this workout, the body is split into pushing muscles (chest, shoulders, triceps) and pulling muscles (back, biceps). Legs are trained with pulling muscles to keep the workouts approximately the same length. Sample workouts appear in tables 6 and 7. Table 6 Sample pushing workout + abs Table 6 Sample pushing workout + abs * Perform 1-3 warmup sets prior to these exercises. Table 7 Sample pulling workout + legs Table 7 Sample...

Differences between bodybuilders vs powerlifters

As stated above, some training authorities have suggested that neural factors and muscle CSA can be developed differentially (23-25). Although little research appears to have directly examined this assumption, we may be able to gain insight from comparisons of the adaptations seen in elite powerlifters and bodybuilders. Powerlifters typically train with low reps often considered the 'neural' training zone while bodybuilders typically train with higher reps, often considered the 'growth' zone....

Questions about fat metabolism

One question that arises is why fats cannot be used as the sole source of energy during exercise, especially considering their abundance compared to carbohydrate stores. (25) The limiting factor in fat oxidation is related to the muscle's oxidative capacity (i.e. mitochondrial density, enzyme activity). Recall that the major adaptation to aerobic training is an increase in the amount and activity of mitochondria and the enzymes needed for fat oxidation. At high exercise intensities the...

Section 3 Setting calorie levels

Having determined maintenance calories levels, it is now time to discuss the concept of energy balance, fat loss and muscle gain. Energy balance refers to the difference in caloric intake via diet and caloric expenditure via metabolic rate and activity. It is given by Energy balance calories in - calories out When energy balance is positive (i.e. calories in exceeds calories out), energy is stored in the body as glycogen, protein and fat. When energy balance is negative (i.e. calories out...

Gender Differences in fuel metabolism

There are differences between men and women in terms of the physiological response to aerobic exercise. While the exact implication of these differences are unclear, they have one major consequence with regards to the ketogenic diet, especially the CKD. At any aerobic intensity, women use more fat and less carbohydrate and protein during exercise (42-45). Studies also show that women do not respond to carb loading the same as men do, most likely because they deplete less muscle glycogen less...

Creatine Monohydrate

If there is a single sports supplement that has been shown to work under a variety of conditions, it is creatine. Recall from chapter 19 that creatine phosphate (CP) is used to provide short term energy for exercise lasting approximately 20-30 seconds. Numerous studies have shown that supplementing with creatine monohydrate can increase muscular stores of CP and enhance high intensity exercise performance (for recent reviews of the effects of creatine, see references 3-5). Improvements are...

Section 2 Recommendations for ending a SKD or TKD

There are few practical recommendations for ending a ketogenic diet in the literature. In research studies of the protein sparing modified fast (PSMF), carbohydrates are typically reintroduced slowly to minimize weight gain and gastric upset, which occurs in some people. Ending a SKD or TKD can be done in one of two fashions. If an individual no longer wishes fat loss, but chooses to stay on the SKD TKD, fat intake can be increased (to raise calories to a maintenance level of approximately...

Section 5 Other dietary effects on ketosis

Other than protein, carbohydrate and fat, a number of other nutritional substances can affect the ability to establish and maintain ketosis. While not all have been studied with respect to their effects on ketosis, anecdotal evidence can help to determine which substances may or may not affect ketosis. The substances discussed in this chapter are water, alcohol, caffeine, and citric acid aspartame. Strictly speaking, water intake should have no direct effect on ketogenesis at least in terms of...

Section 1 Adaptations to weight training

In general, the adaptations to resistance training improve the body's ability to generate force. In the laboratory, strength is defined as the amount of force an individual can produce during an isometric contraction where the muscle contracts but the limbs do not move . This measurement of strength is referred to as maximal voluntary isometric contraction MVIC . Many lifters are familiar with the term 1 Repetition Maximum 1RM which is the weight which can be lifted only once in perfect form....

Highintensity aerobics and interval training

Interval training is an advanced exercise technique alternating short periods 15-90 seconds of near maximal intensity activity with periods 1-2 minutes of very low-intensity activity. Several recent studies have found that either high-intensity endurance activity 38 or interval training 39 yields greater fat loss than lower intensity continuous activity when diet is not controlled. This is probably due to an appetite blunting mechanism or a greater EPOC from higher intensity exercise. Tremblay...

Hypothyroidism and euthyroid stress syndrome ESS

There are two common syndromes associated with low levels of T3 which need to be differentiated from one another. Hypothyroidism is a disease characterized by higher than normal thyroid stimulating hormone TSH and lower levels of T3 and T4. The symptoms of this disease include fatigue and a low metabolic rate. The decrease in T3 due to hypothyroidism must be contrasted to the decrease seen during dieting or carbohydrate restriction. Low levels of T3 with normal levels of T4 and TSH as seen in...

Combining yohimbe with the ECA stack

As mentioned above, ephedrine has non-specific beta receptor agonist effects which are generally geared towards increasing fat burning. However, some of its effects are also felt at the alpha receptor, specifically the alpha-2 receptor. Recall from above that the alpha-2 receptor inhibits the use of fat for fuel when it is stimulated. So by stimulating alpha-2 receptors, ephedrine is limiting some of its fat burning potential. Adding an alpha-2 antagonist could conceivably increase fat loss...

Infusion studies

Several studies have examined the effects on protein breakdown during the infusion of ketone bodies at levels that would be seen in fasting or a ketogenic diet. Of these studies, three have shown a decrease in protein breakdown 33-35 while two others have not 36,37 . One study suggested that ketones were directly anabolic 38 . One oddity of these studies is that the infusion of ketones usually as a ketone salt such as sodium-acetoacetate causes an increase in blood pH 36,38 , contrary to the...

Calorie burned during exercise

Most exercisers tend to overestimate the number of calories expended during exercise 1 . During aerobic exercise, caloric expenditure averages about 5 calories minute at low intensities increasing to 10 calories minute as intensity increases. As a point of reference, a threshold calorie expenditure of 300 calories three times per week or 200 calories four times per week has been established as the minimum amount of aerobic exercise that will cause fat loss 2 . Additionally, exercising two days...

Alpha lipoic acid

Alpha lipoic acid is a substance which acts as an anti-oxidant 10 as well as improving insulin sensitivity and the removal of glucose from the bloodstream 11, 12 . Although human data on the effects of alpha lipoic acid is limited, anecdotal evidence suggests that lipoic acid is far more potent than either chromium or vanadyl. In this respect it is considered one of the best supplements to use on a carb-up, although it is somewhat expensive. Typical dose for lipoic acid during carb-ups are...

Section 5 The Final 2 weeks before the contest

The final two weeks prior to a bodybuilding contest differ from the rest of the pre-contest diet. Table 2 provides a fairly generic schedule for the two weeks before the contest. Unfortunately it is impossible to say what will work ideally for every competitor. Novice bodybuilders should not be surprised if they don't come in perfectly at their first contest. With practice and repetition, they can determine what type of contest carb-up schedule works best. Table 2 Overview of the 2 weeks...

Yohimbe by itself

The primary use of yohimbe for fat loss has been in women although some men have reported good results. Since the combination of yohimbe with ECA cannot be recommended because of the potential for side effects, the use of yohimbe by itself is discussed here. As mentioned above, yohimbe blocks alpha-2 receptors with the ultimate result of increased fat breakdown and dosing yohimbe has been shown to increase fat loss on a diet 2427 . Since the presence of insulin blocks the effects of yohimbe, it...

The Physiology of Aerobic Exercise

The word 'aerobic' literally means 'with oxygen' and aerobic exercise is fueled by reactions which require oxygen to proceed. Typical aerobic activities are walking, running, cycling and swimming. While activities like basketball and soccer could be considered aerobic as they rely on aerobic energy systems , their stop and start nature would cause them to be more typically referred to as interval training discussed in the next chapter. We will define aerobic exercise as any activity that is...

Exercise with verylowcalorie diets less than 800 calories per day

In a very low-calorie diet situation VLCD, 800 calories per day or less , there are significant changes compared to higher calorie levels. VLCD without exercise causes a large drop in LBM and metabolic rate. The addition of aerobic exercise alone does not improve fat loss or prevent the drop in LBM and metabolic rate 27-30 . In severe dieting situations, aerobic exercise may actually be worse than just dieting health benefits excepted . In one study, the addition of aerobic exercise 27 hours...

Ketonemia and ketonuria

The general metabolic state of ketosis can be further subdivided into two categories. The first is ketonemia which describes the buildup of ketone bodies in the bloodstream. Technically ketonemia is the true indicator that ketosis has been induced. However the only way to measure the level of ketonemia is with a blood test which is not practical for ketogenic dieters. The second subdivision is ketonuria which describes the buildup and excretion of ketone bodies in the urine, which occurs due to...

Section 5 Effects of shortterm carbohydrate depletion on endurance exercise

As early as 1967, it was established that overall endurance performance was dependent on the availability of glycogen in the muscle, finding that exhaustion during aerobic exercise occurred when muscle glycogen decreased below a certain level 35 . At exhaustion, glycogen levels in the working muscle were almost entirely emptied. At the same time, it was found that the rate of glycogen used during exercise was related to the amount of glycogen present in the muscle. When glycogen levels were the...

The ECA stack and yohimbe

The ECA stack is quite potent as an appetite suppressant in and of itself, especially when it is first used 9 . Typically any anorectic effects of ECA go away within a few weeks of use. However, animal research suggests that combining ECA with the amino acid L-tyrosine may maintain the appetite blunting effect of ECA for longer periods of time 22 . Individuals who find it hard to control their hunger on a ketogenic diet, may want to consider this combination. Yohimbe may also suppress appetite...

Ketostix tm

Probably the most common tools used by ketogenic dieters are Ketostix tm or Diastix tm , which measure the urinary concentrations of either ketones or ketones and glucose respectively. Typically, they are used by Type I diabetics for whom the presence of high urinary ketones glucose can indicate the start of a diabetic emergency. Since a non-diabetic individual shouldn't show glucose in the bloodstream, there is no reason for most ketogenic dieters to use the Diastix tm . Only Ketostix tm are...

Section 1 Aerobic exercise

It has been known for almost a century that ketones appear in higher concentrations in the blood following aerobic exercise 1 . During aerobic exercise, liver glycogen decreases, insulin decreases, glucagon increases and there is an increase in FFA levels in the bloodstream. During aerobic exercise, there is a slight increase in blood glucose uptake which peaks around ten minutes. To maintain blood glucose, the liver will increase liver glycogen breakdown, keeping blood glucose stable for...

Hormone levels

There are a host of regulatory hormones which determine fuel use in the human body. The primary hormone is insulin and its levels, to a great degree, determine the levels of other hormones and the overall metabolism of the body 2,16,23 . A brief examination of the major hormones involved in fuel use appears below. Insulin is a peptide protein based hormone released from the pancreas, primarily in response to increases in blood glucose. When blood glucose increases, insulin levels increase as...

Combining strength and endurance training

Many individuals wish to combine strength and endurance training in their exercise program. Whether it's a pre-contest bodybuilder looking to shed fat or an individual looking for basic fitness, the combination of weight and aerobic training is a topic of interest. Keep in mind that the general adaptations to aerobic interval training are to make muscle fibers more aerobic and enduring while the adaptations to weight training are to make the fibers larger and stronger. These two adaptations are...

Section 1 Macronutrient intake on the ketogenic diet

Any diet which restricts calories will alter the intake of nutrients. This includes changes in caloric intake, the macronutrients protein, carbohydrates, fat and the micronutrients vitamins and minerals . Micronutrients were discussed in the last chapter, and only caloric intake and macronutrients are discussed here. Although discussed in detail in Chapter 8, the basic idea of calories and weight loss as well as fat loss is mentioned again here. One of the prime selling points of many...

Glutamine

Glutamine is one of the most popular supplements on the market right now. Glutamine is typically considered a non-essential amino acid AA since it can be made within the body. However, in times of high stress, it may become essential 2 . Glutamine is involved in maintaining the immune system 1 and low glutamine levels have been linked to overtraining in endurance athletes 1 . Weight training is a form of stress and, although not directly studied, glutamine supplements have been suggested to...

Blood pH and ketoacidosis

A major concern that frequently arises with regards to ketogenic diets is related to the slight acidification caused by the accumulation of ketone bodies in the bloodstream. Normal blood pH is 7.4 and this will drop slightly during the initial stages of ketosis. While blood pH does temporarily decrease, the body attains normal pH levels within a few days 21 as long as ketone body concentrations do not exceed 7-10 mmol 22 . Although blood pH is normalized after a few days, the buffering capacity...

Section 5 Fat loss

The basic premise of the ketogenic diet is that, by shifting the metabolism towards fat use and away from glucose use, more fat and less protein is lost for a given caloric deficit. Given the same total weight loss, the diet which has the best nitrogen balance will have the greatest fat loss. Unfortunately a lack of well done studies for reasons discussed previously make this premise difficult to support. Before discussing the studies on ketogenic diets, a related approach, called the protein...

The depletion workout

Another option for the Friday workout is a high-rep, circuit depletion workout. If a trainee chooses to do this workout, he or she should simply pick one exercise per bodypart and work the body in a giant loop. For best recovery between body parts, alternate a leg exercise, a pushing exercise, and a pulling exercise. A possible order would be legs, chest, back, hamstrings, shoulders, lats, calves, triceps, biceps, and finally abdominals. Each set should consist of 10-20 quick reps per set 1...

Fat and ketone use during short term starvation

Measurements of fuel use show that approximately 90 of the body's total fuel requirements are being met by FFA and ketones by the third day 20 . After three weeks of starvation, the body may derive 93 of its fuel from FFA 10, 21 . For an individual with a metabolic rate of 2700 calories per day, roughly 2400 calories of FFA approximately 260 grams of fat are used to fuel the body. Considering that one pound of fat contains 3,500 calories, this represents a loss of almost two-thirds of a pound...

Pregnancy

This author is unaware of any research looking specifically at the effects of the ketogenic diet in pregnant humans. However, malformations of the neural tube occur with increased frequency in diabetic mothers and exposure of pregnant female rats to high ketone levels can increase the risk of these same neural tube defects, suggesting that ketones may be a cause 6 . Additionally, it appears that glucose is the primary fuel for the developing fetus 7 . Considering the above data, as well as the...

Section 6 Longterm ketogenic diet and endurance activity

Although many studies have examined the effects of short-term glycogen depletion with a high fat diet, only a few have examined the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet on endurance performance. As we shall see, there appears to be a difference between short-term glycogen depletion and long-term ketogenic adaptation. Please note that these studies generally did not examine the effects of exercise on fat loss on a ketogenic diet. Rather, they simply examined what types of exercise could be...