Free Radicals

Vitamins AntioxidantsHerbs Brain Boosters

Antioxidants For extra protection against free radicals and to accelerate detoxification, there are certain vitamins and antioxidants that should be taken in the morning or during the day Grape seed extract is an antioxidant that is believed to be more potent than vitamin C or E, and can aid in the detoxification process and eliminate free radicals. (100-300 milligrams).

Front Line Antioxidant

It's this simple Vitamin C is the most important antioxidant in your body. You need Vitamin C as your front-line defense against free radicals (remember those destructive molecules from chapter 1 ). Job one for Vitamin C is to capture free radicals and neutralize them before they can do any damage to your cells. Dealing with free radicals is the main job of lots of other vitamins and minerals in your body. What makes Vitamin C so important First, because it's water-soluble, it's everywhere in your body inside all your cells and in the spaces in between. Because free radicals are also everywhere, Vitamin C is always on the spot to track them down. Second, and just as important, other powerful antioxidants such as Vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione need Vitamin C to work properly.

Increased Antioxidant

With the above in mind, it's clear that, when used correctly, antioxidants can give the bodybuilder an added edge. As such, you may want to go beyond the minimum amounts provided by the multivitamins to maximize the advantages antioxidants can bring. If so, I'd suggest something along the line of the antioxidant program below

Antioxidants Vs Free Radicals

Free radicals are unstable oxygen atoms created in the body from natural processes and environmental toxins such as smoke. These reactive molecules target protein bonds, DNA, and polyunsaturated fatty acids within your cells. Free radicals set off chain reactions that completely destroy healthy cells in your body. Free radical damage leads to many health problems later in life. In the more immediate future, free radicals damage your cells, thus impair athletic performance. Antioxidants are the body's defense against these cell-damaging radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, removing them from circulation. Be sure to consume a fair share of antioxidants. Vitamin A, Beta Carotene, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E all help to produce antioxidant enzymes that neutralize free radicals.

Super Antioxidants

- The antioxidant poweis of cysteine and selenium - What lipoic acid can do for you Antioxidants, antioxidants, antioxidants. By now you've gotten the message You need plenty of antioxidants to corral those damaging free radicals before they can wreck your body. The best antioxidant of all is the one you make naturally in your body an amazing substance called glutathione. Lots of this super antioxidant is everywhere in your body. But glutathione does more than just mop up free radicals like a very thirsty sponge. It also rounds up all sorts of dangerous toxic wastes in your body and whisks them quickly away, before they can do any harm. The best news of all about glutathione You can easily get more of it into your system just through the foods you eat.

Antioxidant Treat

Another option is to take bilberry, blueberry, or elderberry powder. Take it out of the capsule and mix it with 1 2 teaspoon of raw honey. You can then mix this paste with water or chew it as is first thing in the morning. The purple pigment in berries, like bilberries, blueberries, blackberries, or elderberries is a most effective antioxidant. This is a natural alternative to popping grapeseed or pignogenol capsules, is much cheaper, and you can enjoy it while benefiting from it at the same time. Ginseng could be especially helpful during the Undereating Phase. Besides being a wonderful aid against stress, it also contains antioxidant and healing properties. Both ginseng and ginkgo biloba are believed to be aphrodisiac herbs. They boost the body's own production of nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide plays a vital role in regulating blood pressure. Moreover nitric oxide is essential for getting and maintaining erections and for sexual potency. This ancient herb (ginseng) has been used...

Antioxidants

Many vitamins and minerals are consumed in high doses for their antioxidant effects. Vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, selenium and phenolic compounds are antioxidants, which have been shown to reduce incidence of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Antioxidants help stop the oxidation process, which is part of the aetiology of certain diseases. People therefore believe that consuming more of these antioxidants more means reducing risk of disease further. But, studies have shown that there are optimal intake levels. Consuming too high intakes of antioxidant supplements may have detrimental effects on health. antioxidants and others act as pro-oxidants, so they balance each other out. If there are too high levels of antioxidants in the blood, from consuming supplements, they can become pro-oxidants in certain circumstances, thereby increasing oxidation and risk of disease. Consuming too high intakes of antioxidant supplements may therefore have detrimental effects on health.

Detoxification and the Healing Process

If, for instance, you have a fever and do not take a drug to relieve it, in most cases the fever will kill the bacteria or other pathogens, thus helping the body to detoxify and heal. Taking drugs cuts short this process, so your body may not have the chance to finish the healing cycle. It's important to realize that some unpleasant symptoms are normal, and you should try to overcome them without interferencei (There are also natural ways to reduce them such as taking minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. We'll discuss these later.) The cleaner your body is, the fewer symptoms you will get. As noted, most people I know that have gone on the Warrior Diet did not face any unpleasant symptoms in fact, quite the opposite. Most felt better and almost immediately experienced a greater increase in energy.

Enzyme Loading for Antiaging

Research shows there's a connection between your bodys pool of enzymes and your health. When your enzyme pool is loaded, enzymes run directly to your blood from the digestive tract and create a chain reaction of beneficial health effects, including antioxidant effects. Research has revealed that there is a link between your enzyme pool and aging. In other words, the fewer enzymes you have in your body the faster you age.

What is it supposed to do

Beta-alanine is being touted as the new creatine and the latest breakthrough supplement in the world of sports nutrition. It's used by the body to synthesize carnosine (L-beta-alanyl-L-histidine). Carnosine performs a variety of valuable roles, including inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which can damage tissues, chelating metal ions, and scavenging free radicals. Carnosine's importance to athletic performance, however, lies in its ability to buffer hydrogen ions produced in skeletal muscle during high intensity exercise.

The Food Guide Pyramid

Following this program can add needed vitamins and minerals to your daily food intake cut your risk of heart disease, cancer and digestive diseases help control cholesterol prevent constipation and can help manage your body weight and percent body fat. Additionally, many fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants (see Glossary) and other nutrients that can be beneficial to your health. Some ideas to incorporate more fruits and vegetables in your diet can be found in Appendix A.

Everything else fiber alcohol vitamins and minerals

Finally, there are the vitamins and minerals which serve hundreds, if not thousands, of roles in the human body. Minerals like calcium, for example, are not only structural (bone is mainly calcium) but are also involved in cellular signaling. Vitamins act as nutritional cofactors for enzymes and are simply necessary for the body to function optimally. Vitamins and minerals are found in varying amounts in the food supply with fruit and vegetables being a key provider. As well, a class of nutrients called phytochemicals are found only in vegetables and are currently thought to provide many health benefits to the body. The various antioxidants (which help to protect cells from damage) are found in varying amounts throughout the food supply with fruits and vegetables being key sources.

Nuts and Seeds The Original Functional Foods

These little powerhouses are also densely packed with nutrients. Almonds are a rich source of calcium. Almonds, sunflower kernels and hazelnuts are particularly good sources of vitamin E. Nuts also provide a long list of other nutrients, including niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, copper and potassium, plus a number of phytochemicals, including many antioxidants.

What does the research say

One of whey's major effects is its apparent ability to raise glutathione (GSH). The importance of GSH for the proper function of the immune system cannot be overstated. GSH is arguably the most important water-soluble antioxidant found in the body. As mentioned previously, GSH is the major intracellular water-soluble antioxidant in the body, which is involved in the recycling of other antioxidants. Twenty healthy young adults (10 men, 10 women) were supplemented with either whey or casein for 3 months. The researchers looked at This is the first study to demonstrate that prolonged supplementation with a product designed to augment antioxidant defenses resulted in improved volitional performance.

Whey Protein and Other Quality Protein Powders

And doesn't lie on the stomach like many powders, and is generally palatable, and mixes well in water. Studies have also shown that whey protein has immunostimulating actions too, i.e. it also has the right profile of amino acids for the immune system, and exerts positive actions on immune proteins. It has also been found to increase levels of the antioxidant glutathione (Bounous, et al 1989 1989 1991).

Im a couch potato who plans to start working out

When you do head for the gym, take it slow, and take an extra dose of vitamin E. A study at the USDA Center for Human Nutrition at Tufts University (Boston) suggests that an 800 milligram vitamin E supplement every day for the first month after you begin exercising minimizes muscle damage by preventing reactions with free radicals (parts of molecules) that cause inflammation. After that, you're on your own The vitamin doesn't help conditioned athletes whose muscles have adapted to workout stress.

Green Tea Extract Catechin

Green tea is grown in China and it has a number of health benefits. Its caffeine content is lower than Indian black (normal) tea, and it is higher in antioxidant content. One prevalent antioxidant in green tea is the polyphenol catechin, which is now marketed as green tea extract nutritional supplement, as an antioxidant and as a fat-burner. A well-designed study in 1999 indicated that catechin was significantly effective in increasing 24hour energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans, independent of any effects of caffeine (Dulloo, et al 1999). Catechins may also have a small stimulatory effect, by inhibiting noradrenalin degradation. Catechins may also work well as a forth member of the eca stack. Green tea extract preparations are very expensive to be effective in the dosages required. Green tea extract doesn't get my vote as a top supplement, simply because I think it is better to drink green tea itself. This way you will get the above effects, plus benefits from an array of...

Multi Vitamin and Mineral Supplement

Another must-take for optimum results in and out of the gym. Taking a multivitamin each day is kind of like an insurance policy. You don' t really appreciate the fact that it' s there until something goes wrong. A multivitamin will ensure you a complete spectrum of all the vitamins and minerals your body needs to carry out the many vital functions it goes through each and every day. If you were to take one and only one supplement, it should be a multivitamin and mineral. For the human body to perform at its maximum potential, it must be fed a vast and complex array of vital nutrients, Becoming deficient in just one of these essential vitamins or minerals breaks down the metabolic pathways that produces optimum efficiency and performance declines. A high performance multi-vitamin that is rich in potent antioxidant and supplies demanding muscles with key vitamins and minerals is needed to perform optimally under stressful conditions.

Why You Need Vitamin E

You need Vitamin E for one big reason free radicals. We know, we know we're always talking about these dangerous little vandals. What makes Vitamin E so special Vitamin E is special because it's especially good at protecting your cell membranes against free Vitamin E works so well as an antioxidant because it's a fat-soluble vitamin and your cell membranes are made up mostly of fat. Vitamin E gets into the membrane and lassos any free radicals that try to get through. Vitamin E also teams up with Vitamin A, beta carotene, and Vitamin C, the other major antioxidant

The Inside Story on Whey

Whey proteins contain the highest concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). These amino acids are an integral part of muscle metabolism and are the first aminos sacrificed during muscle catabolism (muscle wasting), a process all too common in most weight loss regimens. Whey protein also enhances glutathione production. Glutathione is the body's most powerful, naturally occurring antioxidant and also plays a role in immune system support.

Evading Heart Disease

In the past few years, three really important studies have shown that people who take Vitamin E supplements have less heart disease. One of the studies, the Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS), looked at 40,000 men who already had heart disease and found that Vitamin E kept their heart disease from getting worse. In fact, the men who took at least 400 IU of Vitamin E cut The explanation for this excellent news about evading heart disease Vitamin E helps prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) caused by atheromas or plaque on the walls of the arteries that lead to your heart. And how does Vitamin E prevent this By its powerful antioxidant action, which helps keep cholesterol in your blood from oxidizing into those artery-clogging deposits in the first place and helps keep the deposits you may already have from getting worse. Vitamin E works because it is a powerful antioxidant that keeps your LDL ( bad ) cholesterol from being oxidized. Less oxidized cholesterol, less...

Spartan Diet Principle on Supplements

If you are eating a majority fruit diet plus sprouts and vegetables or vegetable juice you are going to be getting enough Vit C. But we live with a lot more pollution than tribal people so Vit C is an important antioxidant to help fight these toxins. Vitamin E 200 units daily. Also an antioxidant which is very important. This is a large dose but again eating a diet high in processed foods for many years can lead to a Vit E deficiency.

What does the research have to say

Several in-vitro (test tube) and animal studies have shown it has powerful antioxidant properties as well as impressive anti-cancer properties. It has been shown to modulate i nsulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP's) in mice and may also improve insulin sensitivity.

The Metabolic Fitness

Besides being a powerful antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 improves metabolic efficiency and endurance when taken before an exercise session, helps to decrease insulin resistance, and doubles your body's ability to eliminate metabolic toxins. I recommend 50 mg for women and 100 mg for men, which should be taken before cardiovascular exercise or interval training. Taking this supplement with a snack containing fat (like a small handful of nuts or a tablespoon of peanut butter) will help your body to absorb it.

Other Supplements That Show Promise

The first is alpha-lipoic acid, a powerful antioxidant that is both water and fat soluble. This supplement has been shown to be highly effective in reducing free radicals in the body. Most important, at appropriate doses it has been found to have a significant effect on increasing insulin sensitivity in people suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Raspberries and Other Berries

Depending on your taste, any berry will do (except Crunch Berries). I like raspberries as much for their power as for their taste. They carry powerful levels of antioxidants, all-purpose compounds that help your body fight heart disease and cancer the berries' flavonoids may also help your eyesight, balance, coordination, and short-term memory. One cup of raspberries packs 6 grams of fiber and more than half of your daily requirement of vitamin C.

Why You Need Trace Minerals

You might not need much of a trace mineral, but some are especially important when it comes to making the many different enzymes, hormones, and other chemical messengers your body uses every minute of every day. You need iodine to make thyroid hormones, which in turn control some very important parts of your metabolism, including your body weight. You need the trace mineral iron to carry oxygen in your blood and also to make other enzymes. Some trace minerals, such as selenium, are used to make the powerful natural antioxidants that protect you against free radicals. And some trace minerals work closely with vitamins to make them more active and long-lasting.

Vitamin and Mineral Needs

Any increased vitamin and mineral needs can be met by eating according to the Food Guide Pyramid (Chapter 3, Figure 3-1). Particularly, increase the number of fruits and vegetables you eat as these foods are good sources of many vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants (see Chapter 3, Table 22, Table 2-3, and Appendix A). Antioxidant (see Glossary) nutrients may protect you from environmental stressors and may accelerate your recovery from exhaustive exercise. Fresh fruits and vegetables also provide potassium, which is lost during prolonged strenuous exercise (see Table 2-3).

Selenium An Essential Element

Your body's most abundant natural antioxidant is an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase. We'll talk a lot more about glutathione in Chapter 23, so for now we'll just mention that without selenium, you can't make glutathione. A recent major study has shown that selenium can be a powerful cancer-prevention supplement. People in the study took 200 mcg of selenium daily to see if their skin cancer rate would drop. It didn't but their rates of colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer went down sharply.

Manganese Mystery Metal

Until 1972, when the first case came up, we didn't even know you could have a shortage of manganese. This mineral is still pretty mysterious. It seems to do a lot of the same things as magnesium, like help make your connective tissue, clot your blood, move glucose around your system, and digest your proteins. It may also be an antioxidant.

Enhancing flavor and aroma

When you heat fats, their molecules break apart into chemicals known as free radicals, molecule fragments that may hook up together to form potentially carcinogenic (cancer-causing) compounds. These compounds are produced in higher numbers at higher heats the usual safe cutoff is around 500 degrees Fahrenheit (right before broil on the oven dial). Burned fat or smoking oil, for example, has more nasties than plain melted fat or oil that is warm but not smoking.

Amino Acids The Building Blocks of Life

How your body uses amino acids to make hormones, enzymes, and antioxidants Your body is a very busy place. Every second of every day, all around the clock, year after year, you make thousands of different enzymes, hormones, antioxidants, and chemical messengers. Every day millions of new cells replace old cells. Your taste buds, for example, only last a day or so, while you replace your entire skin every 30 days. Every day you make millions of red blood cells to replace the ones that wear out as they pound through your blood vessels.

Take Vitamin And Mineral Supplements

Vitamin C and Vitamin E are great to take following strenuous exercise. They are valuable antioxidants that reduce soreness and enhance muscular recovery. Be sure to consume adequate amounts of magnesium and zinc. Once again, be careful not to take excessive amounts of these minerals. Your complete multivitamin and mineral should be one that has adequate levels of all major nutrients. It is safe to take these 2 times per day. Browse through your local pharmacy for those multivitamins that are designed for athletes and performance.

Vitamins And Minerals

Bodybuilders should be getting plenty of antioxidants 1 to 3 grams a day of vitamin C, 400 iu of vitamin E, and up to 20,000 iu of beta carotene. The antioxidants glutathione, selenium, and N-acytl cysteine, are also helpful in fighting free radical damage. An over production of free radicals from training can damage muscle cells, hamper glucose tolerance, promote muscle inflammation, and increase Cortisol levels. Cortisol is a hormone that acts the opposite of testosterone. It can destroy muscle mass. Taking a good supplement that includes the above antioxidants can reduce the net damaging effects of radicals, and boost the immune system.

The Crucial Role of Glutathione

Every second of every day, your body makes damaging free radicals. And every second of every day, your body makes a powerful substance called glutathione (abbreviated GSH) that grabs hold of those free radicals and smothers them. Glutathione also picks up any toxic substances (from air pollution, say) that have found their way into your body and escorts them out.

Are You Deficient

Your glutathione level naturally drops as you get older. That's bad, because this lowers your defenses against free radicals and toxins and leaves you open to disease. The higher your glutathione level, the less likely you are to get heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and a whole range of other problems. Glutathione protects your eyes against free radicals and helps prevent cataracts and other blinding eye conditions. Most important of all, glutathione boosts your immune system and helps it work at top efficiency and that keeps you healthy no matter what your age. You might be low on glutathione for a lot of reasons aside from just getting older. We could write a whole book about why (in fact, we did it's called Glutathione The Ultimate Antioxidant), but for now let's just give a few good reasons eliminate toxins that there's not a lot left to fight free radicals. You have a chronic disease such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. You need extra glutathione to boost your...

Which Nutrients Should I Take

Atkins Basic 3 Formula contains all the ingredients in my basic multiple vitamin, known as Basic 1, although in somewhat different dosages (see table beginning below). Basic 1 is a good formulation when weight loss is not an issue. Basic 3, on the other hand, is designed to be taken as three tablets daily, one with each meal. Compared to Basic 1, it contains greater amounts of certain nutrients-including chromium, pantethine, selenium, vanadium and biotin-all of which play a role in regulating blood sugar and insulin, as well as in burning fat. We've also included additional amounts of antioxidants. Although you will certainly be able to find a good multivitamin that contains most of the ingredients in Basic 3, you may choose to purchase separately the individual substances I've just cited so you can take them in the desired amounts. Basic 3 is formulated with intestinal flora, which helps your body use the nutrients more easily. It contains the following Selenium is a powerful...

Carotenoids Orange You Glad You Know

Carotenoids are orange- or red-colored substances found in many fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids are divided into two groups. Carotenes contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. They're found in carrots, squash, and many other orange- or red-colored foods. Your body can convert alpha and beta carotene into Vitamin A the carotenes are also very powerful antioxidants. Xanthophylls contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. These carotenoids are found in many dark-green leafy vegetables and in egg yolks. They're also orange or yellow (xantho means yellow in Greek), but the color is covered up by the green chlorophyll in these foods. Xanthophylls are great antioxidants, but they have no Vitamin A activity.

Have a Nice Cup of

When you brew yourself a nice cup of tea, you're actually brewing a potent antioxidant mix. Tea has two substances in the catechin family epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate that are the most potent antioxidants of all the flavonoids. That makes tea into more than just a relaxing hot drink it protects against heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Catechins help make your platelets, the tiny cells in your blood that make it clot, less sticky. When your platelets are less sticky, they're less likely to clot, which means you're less likely to have a heart attack or stroke from a clot in an artery. In one recent study, Dutch men who drank four cups of tea a day had a much lower risk of stroke than those who didn't whether or not they also took vitamins. The catechins in tea also act as powerful antioxidants that can keep cancer from getting started. Tea also has antibacterial action It kills the bacteria that cause cavities and gum disease. Japanese men who drink a lot of green...

Garlic Its Good for

Garlic is a member of the extended onion family, but it stands out from all the others because of one phytochemical allicin. This sulfur-containing compound is what gives garlic its pungent smell and taste. In folk medicine, garlic is used for everything from athlete's foot to influenza (to say nothing of its ability to ward off vampires). There's some truth to garlic's antibiotic activity, but recent research has concentrated on garlic as an antioxidant, a way to lower cholesterol, and a way to prevent cancer. Garlic is one of the most potent antioxidant foods around it's especially good for capturing peroxyl free radicals. The antioxidant effect of garlic could be why people who eat a lot of it tend to be healthier in general.

What about carcinogens

In reality, many factors have been linked to cancer. Diet, obesity, physical activity, and heredity all seem to play a large role. Total caloric intake and lack of available antioxidants have also been implicated here. Though totally unconvinced of any link between fat and cancer, anti-cancer agents like antioxidants have been built into our program, and will allow for protection against any possible cancer link.

Resveratrol Red Wine Rescuer

It's what scientists call the French paradox. What seems to save the French from their bad habits is what some might consider another bad habit They drink a lot of red wine. And red wine is high in healthful flavonoids, including catechins and anthocyanins. As we've already explained, these flavonoids are great antioxidants that help protect your heart. Resveratrol, another substance in red wine, lowers your cholesterol and helps prevent artery-clogging blood clots. Resveratrol has an extra benefit It blocks tumor growth and may even help precancerous cells return to normal.

K How do they cause oxidative damage

Unsaturated oils get rancid when exposed to air that is called oxidation, and it is the same process that occurs when oil paint dries. Free radicals are produced in the process. This process is accelerated at higher temperatures. The free radicals produced in this process react with parts of cells, such as molecules of DNA and protein and may become attached to those molecules, causing abnormalities of structure and function. (Raymond Peat unsaturated vegetable oils toxic copyright 1996)

Bragg Organic Olive

BRAGG ORGANIC OLIVE OIL - is made from a blend of 100 organically grown Arbequina and Frantoio Olives that continually provides the best quality and flavor. A heart healthy oil that's an antioxidant and vitamin E rich that helps to normalize cholesterol and blood pressure. It has a delicious, smooth body with a light after taste, adding the finest flavor and aroma to salads, vegetables, pastas, pestos, sauces, saut s, potatoes and most foods - even popcorn. Also it's a great skin tonic. In 400 B.C. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine used and wrote about olive oil's great health benefits.

Bottomline Bodybuilding

IP-6 This is a truly fascinating compound. IP-6 (Inositol Hexaphosphate Phytic Acid) is present in all living cells and has natural killer cell activity. It inhibits tumor cell formation and growth. It's being touted as the discovery of the century due to its potential for preventing cancer. (Time will tell.) Early studies suggest it has powerful antioxidant properties that ward off viruses and infections, increases blood circulation and prevents the formation of kidney stones. It also scavenges excess iron from the body. (Good news for steroid users since blood platelets may increase from the use of anabolics). A daily recommended dose is 2000mgs on an empty stomach. Highly recommended.

Fat Soluble Vitamins 2411 Vitamin A and Carotenoids

Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by UV detection for retinoids and carotenoids is the most common method of analysis. HPLC methodologies are given in AOAC Official Methods 2001.13 and 2005.07 5 . HPLC procedures for determination of retinoids and carotenoids in muscle foods 6-8 also have been published. During sample preparation and analysis, samples should be protected from heat, light, and oxidizing substances to avoid destructions and isomerizations of the retinoids and carotenoids. Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), pyrogallol, or ascorbyl palmitate are used to prevent oxidation of retinoids and carotenoids. HPLC methods using a UV absorbance detector are available for the quantitation of vitamin D from most food matrices. Several HPLC methodologies for vitamin D analyses are provided in published articles 15-17 including AOAC Official Method 995.05, which is the method for determination of vitamin D in infant formulas and...

The Ultimate New York Body Plan

Because your body will be under an enormous strain resulting from the extensive exercise and rigorous nutrition plan, I will be recommending that you beef up on your supplements, including antioxidants, minerals, amino acids, and Chinese herbs. If you have never taken any supplements, then you will need to read Chapter 8, Resources, very carefully, as I set forth the choices of supplements currently on the market and indicate some of my favorites. If you are already taking supplements, you may find it necessary to increase the amounts that you are taking.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) occurs naturally in many foods, particularly in beef, turkey and some dairy products. It is a form of the essential omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. It has been shown to be an anti-carcinogen, to reduce adverse catabolic effects of immune stimulation, to enhance growth, to improve blood lipid profiles (Belury & Vanden 1997) and to act as an antioxidant. It has also been indicated that CLA may enhance fat loss and increase lean body mass (Pariza, et al 1996 Chin, et al 1994). It has therefore been postulated that CLA is a growth factor in some animal species and maybe humans.

Milk Thistle Silymarin

Milk thistle, or silymarin, is a herbal supplement used by steroid-taking bodybuilders as a liver detoxifier, as the use of anabolic steroids (which are metabolised in the liver) can put tremendous strain on the liver. Studies have shown much improved liver enzyme levels in athletes who use drugs in sport when using milk thistle, compared with those who do not (Neuman, et al 1991). Silymarin is also a potent antioxidant.

Introduction Oxidation in Processed Meat and Poultry

Lipid oxidation has been largely recognized as a leading problem in the storage and processing of muscle foods. The oxidative degradation of fatty acids involves several molecular mechanisms that lead to the generation of oxygen-rich precursors of reactive, chain-propagating, free radicals. Though lipid oxidative reactions contribute to certain desirable quality attributes such as the development of pleasant flavors in cooked meats,1 the overall effect of lipid oxidation is negative, leading to adverse effects on sensory traits, nutritional value, and richness of muscle foods.2 Recent studies on meat systems have found that muscle proteins can be damaged by reactive-oxygen The relevant role played by oxidative reactions in the loss of quality in muscle foods has challenged scientists to develop a suitable methodology to evaluate the oxidative status of muscle foods. The assessment of oxidative reactions and their unpleasant effects in muscle foods is essential to assure the sensory...

Snake Oil Supplements

That being said, there are some wonderful supplements you should consider. A good multivitamin may be essential depending on your current nutrition and food sources. Fish oil is a great way to get your essential fatty acids. I prefer krill oil to fish oil for its higher antioxidant properties. Magnesium has been used for heart health and mental clarity. I find Ginkgo biloba helpful my mental focus. For sports performance, good old creatine is hard to beat when it comes to strength and muscle gain and glutamine when it comes to muscle recovery. My favorite sports performance supplement is Tribustol. Produced here in Dallas, Tribustol has been tested at the university level and used for years among top-level athletes.

Nutritional Supplements

On the two-week program I recommend you take supplements to make up for nutrients you may not get from your food. These include the following calcium, vitamin B12, ginseng, various antioxidants (vitamins C, E, and coenzyme Q10), and fiber. You can find these supplements at most health-food and supplement stores. They are sold separately, and sometimes

Ginkgo Biloba and Your Brain

One of the best-selling herbs on the market today is an extract made from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba tree. What makes this stuff so popular Flavonoids. The flavonoids in ginkgo are safe, very powerful antioxidants that can boost your memory and mental alertness. Ginkgo can also be very helpful for cerebral insufficiency, or poor blood flow to your brain, and for poor circulation in your feet, legs, and hands. Ginkgo can also help some cases of male impotence by improving circulation to the penis. Ginkgo's powerful antioxidant action is particularly good for squelching free radical attacks on your cell membranes. In fact, some researchers think ginkgo can actually reverse free radical damage to brain cell membranes. amount that had no side effects and worked almost as well as the prescription drug tacrine. The researchers think that the antioxidant powers of gingko are probably responsible for the improvement. The results of the study are very encouraging we feel that more...

Enzymes and Live Food Enzymes

A The enzymes that have the most healing effects are protease enzymes (enzymes that break down protein, thereby aiding in the purification of the blood and the intestinal tract). For example, bromelein (derived from pineapple) is a protease enzyme. In addition to breaking down protein, it's helpful for reducing water retention, inflammation, and therefore helpful in the healing process. Bromelein works like an antioxidant. All protease enzymes, including papaine (derived from papayas) and tripzine (pancreatic protease) have an antioxidant effect. It's preferable to take a combination of protease enzymes rather than just one, but they will still be effective in both cases. Some people believe, including myself, that plant enzymes are the most effective because they contain the widest variety. Although plant enzymes do contain proteolic enzymes, unfortunately they're not high in them. But the variety of enzymes in plant enzymes is enormous, so they are wonderful for you nonetheless....

Antiaging supplements

I believe that everyone needs to understand the theory proposed in 1954 by Dr. Denham Harmon, which is almost universally accepted by the medical community today. Dr Harmon's theory goes directly to the heart of the aging process that occurs in every human being. He stated that the body contains free radicals. These unfriendly little atoms or groups of atoms are created, in part, by the way our cells utilize oxygen to produce energy. Free radicals are unstable oxygen molecules created during the body's basic metabolic functions, such as digestion and breathing. All these little guys have one thing in common They contain at least one unpaired electron. This creates a problem. If an electron is unpaired, another molecule or atom can hook up with it This bonding creates a chemical reaction which may not always be positive. Picture someone hooking up with someone else after a few drinks at a cocktail party. Maybe it's a right match. Maybe not. So, what does all this scientific information...

The First Defense Against Radioactive Environmental Toxins

Occurs, there's less possibility for the radioactive minerals to be absorbed into your body's organs. The best way to ensure mineral saturation is by following a daily detoxification routine, in which you ingest live fruits, as well as freshly prepared fruit and vegetable juices during the day. Besides supplying the body with live minerals, fruits and veggie juices are high in antioxidant nutrients and live enzymes, which defend the body against the free radicals created by radiation exposure. Moreover, alkalizing the system will strengthen your body's resistance to radioactive stressors.

The Biological Principles of Fat Loss

Be aware that effective detoxification increases the release of toxins into the bloodstream and may cause a temporary elevation of toxin levels in the blood. Whenever you detox, it is important to supplement and nourish with antioxidants to help protect the body from the oxidative stress of free radicals and neutralize harmful substances. Antioxidants are naturally found in fruits, vegetables, roots, seeds, nuts, mushrooms, bran, and sulfur-containing foods such as broccoli, cauliflower, eggs, and whey protein.

Other Supplements For Accelerated Fat Loss

This substance has been shown to help increase by 500 ,26 the levels of the powerful antioxidant glutathione, which aids in the support of lean body mass during low calorie diets. It also helps support increased levels of Glutamine in the bloodstream (necessary for muscle repair). This is a very powerful antioxidant. does not significantly increase blood levels of this antioxidant. It is

Riboflavin and Your Eyes

Whether riboflavin helps your eyes is open to debate. One good example is the cataract question. In theory, people with high levels of riboflavin should have fewer cataracts. Here's how the thinking runs You need riboflavin to utilize glutathione, one of your body's main antioxidants, most effectively. (We'll talk a lot more about glutathione in Chapter 23 on super antioxidants.) Your eyes need a lot of glutathione to counteract the damaging ultraviolet rays in sunlight, so a shortage of riboflavin leads to a shortage of glutathione, which could lead to cataracts from free radical damage. It's nice in theory, but it's never held up well in studies. Although about a third of the elderly are riboflavin-deficient, their cataract rate isn't any different from the rest of the population. On the other hand, too much riboflavin could cause cataracts or make them worse if you already have them. The reason is similar free radical damage. Riboflavin is sensitive to light, so the riboflavin in...

Misconceptions Of Muscle Soreness

Nutrition, particularly attention to electrolyte and water replenishment, may play a role, as may protein and fat intake to provide the necessary substrate for repair of the muscle cell. The various antioxidant formulas on the market may also be of use in the prevention and alleviation of DOMS. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be used as well, but consider an important caveat. NSAIDs inhibit the production of certain substances (prostaglandins) that may be closely associated with the muscle growth process. Whether this is relevant in the setting of DOMS is not entirely clear, but it is something worth considering when choosing these agents.

Glossary of Relevant Terms

Antioxidants Nutrients or anutrients that minimise tissue oxidation and help control free radicals and their negative effects. Free Radicals Highly reactive molecules possessing unpaired electrons that are produced during metabolism of food and energy and contribute to the molecular damage and death of vital body cells. Free radicals may be a factor in ageing and many diseases and may ultimately contribute to death.

Other Beneficial Supplements

Zinc appears in both the multi-vitamin and antioxidant formulas above, and there is good reason for this. It plays a significant role in the function of the testicles. In many cases, especially where a deficiency may be present, it's been demonstrated to increase the secretion of growth hormone and testosterone60 and to raise plasma testosterone and sperm count.61,62 Low zinc can lead to a decrease in testosterone production, so it's necessary as a supplement. In the formula above, I have it at the 50 milligram per day level, but if a deficiency is present or if there are concerns about zinc levels, another 50 milligram dosage can be added during the day. Coenzyme-Q10 is a promising antioxidant that can give you the antioxidant effects listed earlier in this chapter and may possess other properties useful in increasing exercise performance. It may also influence cell growth and serve some protective effect for muscular injury. 60 milligrams of Coenzyme-Q10 every day could provide a...

Nutritional Supplements Dont Even Think of Getting Along Without Them

Vitanutrients can benefit even people at the peak of health who eat an excellent diet. (Unfortunately, no matter how well we eat, our depleted soil no longer provides all the nutrients fresh produce used to yield.) I would go so far as to say that vitanutrients could extend one's lifespan. I'll cite just one example to prove my point The antioxidant group of nutrients has consistently proven to protect the body from damage by free radicals-those destructive electrons that have been implicated in cancer and heart disease as well as in accelerating the natural aging process. Even a person who eats the best possible food is not living in a perfect environment. Moreover, air pollution, tobacco smoke and other environmental toxins assault our bodies daily. Consequently, a person can maintain good health longer by taking effective doses of such antioxidants as vitamins A, C and E, plus selenium, glutathione, CoQ10 and bioflavonoids. However, actually ingesting adequate amounts of...

Myogenix

There is only one most important meal of the day, MAKE IT COUNT. AFTER SHOCK RECOVERY contains 27g of fast acting. Cross Flow, Microfiltered Whey Proteins, 35g of D-glucose, DC3 Creatine Complex and G3 Glvtamine complex, Arginine A KG and BCAA's, Micronized Taurine, an Antioxidant blend, and a joint blend are used to provide you wilh every advantage you deserve.

What is creatine

Creatine is directly related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is formed in the powerhouses of the cell, the mitochondria. ATP is often referred to as the universal energy molecule used by every cell in our bodies. An increase in oxidative stress coupled with a cell's inability to produce essential energy molecules such as ATP, is a hallmark of the aging cell and is found in many disease states. Key factors in maintaining health are the ability to (a) prevent mitochondrial damage to DNA caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and (b) prevent the decline in ATP synthesis, which reduces whole body ATP levels. It would appear that maintaining antioxidant status (in particular intracellular glutathione) and ATP levels are essential in fighting the aging process.

Protein Quality

With PDCAAS, the proteins with a high BV score also rank quite high, but it also ranks isolated soy protein as one of the highest (WHO FAO 1989), and casein scores higher than whey. Note that it is only isolated soy protein that has the high score, soy protein concentrate (which is used in many poor quality protein powders) does not. Isolated soy protein has also been shown to help boost thyroid hormone levels during calorie-restricted diets, a time when thyroid hormones decline (Barth, et al 1989 Forsythe 1995), thus boosting metabolic rate. A recent study showed isolated soy protein produced antioxidant beneficial effects in athletes who used it, compared with athletes who used whey protein (DiSilvestro 2000).

Preventing Cataracts

A cataract forms when the lens of your eye becomes cloudy, reducing or even blocking completely the amount of light that enters your eye. At one time cataracts were a leading cause of blindness, but today simple outpatient surgery can fix the problem. But wouldn't it be better if a cataract never developed in the first place There's solid evidence that a diet rich in carotenoids, especially beta carotene, helps prevent cataracts by mopping up free radicals before they can damage the lens.

Diet Terminology

Free Radicals Free radicals are unstable molecules that disrupt the functions of and sometimes kill normal cells. This not only makes you more prone to illness by weakening your immune system, but it is widely believed that they may be involved in numerous chronic and life threatening diseases. Along with city living and job stress, strenuous exercise has been proven to increase the number of free radicals throughout the body. This is where antioxidants come in. They are a group of compounds that seek out and destroy free radicals. Some powerful antioxidants include vitamin C, vitamin E, grape seed extract and NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine). Glutathione The most powerful antioxidant produced by the body.

High Sulfur Foods

Some foods are high in the mineral sulfur. As mentioned before, high-sulfur proteins like cysteine work as antioxidants, and can be helpful as a defense against cancer and radiation. Cysteine is necessary for optimum metabolism, and is destroyed by aggressive processing and heat.

Giving It a Number

One way to look at nutrient value is to measure the concentration of antioxidants in food. Antioxidants are a special group of vitamins and phytochemicals that protect your cells from the ravages of environmental pollution, stress, disease and aging. Researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston studied the antioxidant capacity of common vegetables and assigned each vegetable an antioxidant score. I've taken that score and divided it by the number of grams of carbohydrate in the same-size serving of each vegetable or fruit and thus computed what I now call the Atkins Ratio. The higher the number, the more antioxidant protection you get per gram of carbohydrate. Talk about bang for your buck. If you used this tool to maximize your nutrient intake and

Berries Are Best

One important lesson learned from the Tufts study previously mentioned is that, as evaluated by the Atkins Ratio, the lumping together of fruits and vegetables as being essentially equal in benefits is not true. Relatively speaking, vegetables have considerably more antioxidant value per carbohydrate gram than fruits and thus represent a much more valuable dietary choice. Even so, after the Induction phase of Atkins, you may use some of your daily carb ration to add the more valuable fruits to your menu. Berries, including blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and strawberries, are the fruits highest in antioxidant value. Berries are also lower in carbs than other fruit and are relatively low on the glycemic index scale. Moreover, the phytonutrients in certain fruits can slow pre-cancerous growths.

Peanuts

Pine nuts do not contain the ideal fat, but are a very good supplemental nut because of their antioxidant properties. Ancient Romans and Greeks used them often as a supplemental food, adding them mainly to grains to enhance taste and density. Pine nuts continue to be used in this way today, particularly in the Mediterranean.

Muscle Soreness

The exact cause of soreness is not entirely understood. There are several theories that are popular. Most agree that the intensity (poundage used) of the exercise as well as the volume (total number of sets) are contributing factors that effect muscle soreness. Short workouts with heavy weights can cause muscle soreness as can really long workouts with lighter weights. The negative portion of the exercise, also known as the eccentric part, has been shown to cause the most amount of soreness. Free radicals, a by product of exercise, may also cause soreness and hamper recovery.

Meal Replacements

In order to get the same benefits as some of the high quality meal replacements, you would have to put together a large whole food meal like a chicken breast (protein) a potato for some carbs, and a salad for the vitamins. You would have to intricately construct the unique amino acids profile for a huge variety of intact foods and you would have to combine enough different nutrient dense foods to yield a complete 100 recommended daily allowance of all vitamins or minerals and antioxidants. At the same time doing this while keeping unwanted fat and sugars to a bare minimum. Now imagine doing this five to six times a day.

Preventing Cancer

Study after study after study proves that Vitamin C can help protect you against cancer. People with high levels of Vitamin C and other antioxidants are markedly less likely to get cancer of the lung, cervix, colon, pancreas, esophagus, mouth, and stomach. Why We're still not sure, but it's very likely that the antioxidants gobble up free radicals and damaging toxins before they can damage your cells and trigger cancer. In the case of stomach cancer, Vitamin C blocks the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines from the nitrates and nitrites found in bacon, hot dogs, and other cured meats.

Treating Cancer

If you're being treated for cancer, there's no question that Vitamin C can really help you get through this difficult time. As mentioned previously, Vitamin C could help you bounce back from surgery more quickly. Many people getting radiation treatment or chemotherapy have low Vitamin C levels. Part of the reason is that the treatment can make you tired and nauseous, as well as giving you diarrhea. The other part is that the treatment is making you produce huge amounts of free radicals, so any Vitamin C you get from your food is going to mop them up. Unless you take supplements, you won't have any left over for other things, like keeping your immune system active. Cancer treatment lowers your immunity, making you more likely to get sick or pick up an infection.

Phytochemicals

Herbs produce a vast array of biologically active substances that have been shown to have many different effects. Many function as antioxidants, inhibit the growth of cancer cells, affect neurotransmitter levels, enhance glucose control, reduce inflammation and perform other useful functions. It's conceivable then, that phytochemicals exist that could stimulate muscle protein synthesis or improve performance.

Vegetables

These vegetables are not only low in calories but are high in fiber and or contain antioxidants (which have been shown in scientific studies to help prevent cancer), and they're just plain good for you, if they're not cooked in butter, covered with cheese, or deep-fat fried. You can buy them fresh or frozen and serve them lightly steamed or raw.

Clean Body Fuel

Carbohydrates are the cleanest fuel for energy. Your body breaks carbs into energy without any toxic byproducts. Conversely, when your body is forced to break protein and fat into energy, there will be toxic byproducts, such as ammonia, nitrates, free radicals or oxidized fatty acids which will tax your system. Carbs are the most efficient fuel for energy. They metabolize faster than proteins and fats. By rapidly replenishing depleted glycogen reserves in muscle tissues and the liver, carbs spare muscle breakdowni

Vitamin E

Most of what was said about Vitamin C above will be similar for Vitamin E. As with C, people are familiar with vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, etc.) as a simple vitamin and antioxidant needed for optimal health. Vitamin E is the major fat soluble antioxidant in the human body and plays a wide variety of roles in metabolism, ranging from immunity to fertility to hormone production. As with all antioxidants, Vitamin E works in conjunction with other antioxidants such as Vitamin C, glutathione, selenium and beta-carotines, as well as key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. As mentioned in the Vitamin C section Although exercise has been shown to improve antioxidant mechanisms, one well known side effect is that it raises oxidative stress and increases free radical production. Some studies have reported that supplementation with vitamin E and or antioxidant mixtures, can reduce oxidative stress from intense exercise and...

Osteoporosis

(Vitamin C ) supplies collagen, the adhesive that holds together all the cells in the bones and nerves and body tissues. Without C, we would literally fall apart. Since the body does not store this powerful antioxidant, we need a constant supply of vitamin C in the daily diet.

How To Pick Produce

Blueberries are also loaded with the soluble fiber that, like oatmeal, keeps you fuller longer. In fact, they're one of the most healthful foods you can eat. Blueberries beat out 39 other fruits and vegetables in the antioxidant power ratings. (One study also found that rats that ate blueberries were more coordinated and smarter than rats that didn't.)

Folate

The traditional food folate extraction method includes heat treatment to release folate from its binding proteins and folate conjugase treatment to hydrolyze polyglutamyl folate to di- or monoglutamyl folate. Insufficient enzymatic deconjugation may result in underestimation of folate when measured by either microbiological or HPLC methods using single-enzyme digestion. Several studies have reported that treatment of food homogenates with a-amylase, protease, and folate conjugase (trienzyme extraction) enhances the yield of measurable folate in folate assays 89-91 . The use of a-amylase and protease allows for a more complete extraction of folate trapped in carbohydrates or proteins in foods. This trienzyme extraction method has become widely used in the extraction of folate from food samples. To prevent the destruction of labile folates during heat treatment, antioxidants, both ascorbic acid and mercaptoethanol, should be added.

Adding nutrients

Some nutrients also are useful preservatives. For example, vitamin C is an antioxidant that slows food spoilage and prevents destructive chemical reactions. Manufacturers must add a form of vitamin C (isoascorbic acid) to bacon to prevent the formation of potentially cancer-causing compounds.

Flavor

Rancid flavor of the deteriorated fat is due to the lipid autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids. The course of the reaction is the same if the acids are esterified or free and occurs in three steps. Initiation step produces a small number of highly reactive free radicals (molecules with unpaired electrons). In the propagation step, the oxygen reacts with the free radicals produced in the initiation step, forming hydroperoxides, which degrade to generate more free radicals that can attack more fatty acids and react with more oxygen to result in a chain of reactions. When the concentrations of free radicals are formed, they tend to react among themselves to form stable final products, a characteristic of the rancified fat aldehydes, alcohols, and cetons. The oxidation reactions with the formation of free radicals that are produced while cooking, as well as rancidity, follow the same basic paths previously described and generate similar types of volatile products. The flavor of the...

Vitamin A

Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds called tocopherols. Vitamin E is an antioxidant It protects the body from potentially oxidative damage incurred with heavy exercise, smoking, stress or from consuming a high saturated fat (fat common to meat and animals) or polyunsaturated fat (oils) diet. One study

Red wine

WHY IT MAKES THE LIST Red wine has a lot of resveratrol, an antioxidant that's also found in peanuts and grapes. Moderate alcohol consumption two or fewer drinks per day has been linked to lower risk of coronary calcification, the deposit of artery-clogging plaque on blood vessels. Red wine in particular has been linked to lower cancer rates one proposed reason is that the resveratrol causes cancer cells to self-destruct.

Vegetarian

The antioxidants in eggplants may protect against heart disease and relieve pain from inflammatory diseases. The best eggplants are firm and heavy for their sire and spring back when pressed lightly Store them unwashed in a plastic bag in the refrigerator and they'll stay fresh far three days.

Berries

Pterostilbene (ter-o-STILL-bean) is a tongue twister. But USDA researchers at the Natural Products Utilization Research Unit in Oxford, Mississippi, think they may be synonyms. Pterostil-bene, an antioxidant found primarily in blueberries (as well as cranberries, lingonberries, and huckleberries), appears to step up the activity of cells in your liver that reduce the production of cholesterol and other artery-clogging fats. In fact, the USDA people hint that pterostilbene could be extracted from blueberries to make commercial anticholesterol meds with fewer side effects than those currently on the market. Until human tests are run, nobody will know how many blueberries you have to eat to lower your cholesterol, but some nutrition studies suggest that ounce for ounce, blueberries have one of the highest antioxidant contents in the whole wide vegetable and fruit world. So enjoy.

Appendix C Glossary

Alpha carotene A carotene found in red- and orange-colored foods. It is a powerful antioxidant. Anthocyanins Flavonoids found in blue foods such as blueberries and grapes. They help protect your eyes against free radicals. Antioxidants Enzymes that protect your body by capturing free radicals and escorting them out of your body before they do any more damage. Catechins Antioxidant flavonoids found in tea. Flavonoids Substances found in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids give these foods their color and taste. Flavonoids are also powerful antioxidants. See also Anthocyanins Carotenoids Catechins Quercetin. Free radicals Unstable, destructive oxygen atoms created by your body's natural processes and also by the effects of toxins such as cigarette smoke. Glutathione Your body's most abundant natural antioxidant enzyme. Lipoic acid A vitamin-like substance you need to make energy in your mitochondria. It's also a powerful antioxidant. Lutein Xanthophyll that helps protect your eyes against...

Whole Grains

Nobody yet knows exactly why this should be so. But they do know that whole grains are a treasure trove of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemicals (plant compounds such as antioxidants) that protect by lowering blood pressure and cholesterol while improving the body's ability to process nutrients, particularly carbohydrates.

Treatment

Treatment with coenzyme Q10 (ubidecarenone) and other cofactors and vitamins is given with the aim to improve ATP production. Coenzyme Q10 functions as an electron shuttle from complex I and II to complex III. It is also a scavenger of oxygen free radicals protecting mitochondrial inner membrane proteins and lipids and mitochondrial DNA against oxidative damage (Walker and Byrne, 1995). Patients with coenzyme Q10 deficiency benefit from coenzyme Q10 supplementation (Ogasahara et al., 1989 Sobreira et al., 1997 Boitier et al., 1998 Di Giovanni et al., 2001). Coenzyme Q10 has also been shown to improve cerebral metabolism in patients with mitochondrial disease (Nishikawa et al., 1989 Gold et al., 1996). However, improvement has not always been documented (Bresolin et al., 1990 Matthews et al., 1993).

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin and occurs in two forms, the reduced ascorbic acid and the oxidized dehydro ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is reversibly oxidized to dehydro ascorbic acid. Further oxidations convert dehydroascorbic acid into the inactive and irreversible compound dike-toglutamic acid. There are two enantiomeric pairs, L- and D-ascorbic acid and L- and D-isoascorbic acid. L-Ascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid (known as D-araboascorbic acid and erythobic acid) have the biological activity of vitamin C. D-Isoascorbic acid has 1 20 the activity of L-ascorbic acid 122 . L-Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid are naturally occurring forms of vitamin C, but D-isoascorbic acid is not found in foods. D-Isoascorbic acid is synthesized commercially and used as an antioxidant in foods, usually processed and canned meats. Muscle meats except organ meats do not contain significant amounts of vitamin C. Liver, kidney, and heart are fair to good sources of the vitamin. Vitamin C...

Altitude

Vitamin and mineral needs are likely to increase at altitude. In particular, the increased metabolic rate and the lack of oxygen can increase the production of harmful free radicals. Preliminary research indicates that taking 400 IU per day of vitamin E, an antioxidant, at high altitude reduces free radical production.

Diet and Nutrition

For individuals engaged in intense exercise, a greater intake of fruits and vegetables is advised. These foods help provide antioxidant nutrients (e.g., vitamin C and beta-carotene) which may protect the body from a potential increase of harmful free radicals. By purchasing a food composition guide or nutritional analysis software, you can figure out your calorie and nutrient intake. Remember that supplements will not take the place of a healthy diet. If you feel you need more individualized nutrition counseling, please contact SCAN3 (sport and cardiovascular nutritionalists).

Special Fats

GLA promotes the release of a recognized good prostaglandin called P-l or PGE-1. PGE-1 enhances blood flow to training muscles, it supports the immune system for optimal workout recovery, and it fights inflammation associated with hard workouts. PGE-1 also helps make important anabolic hormones like growth hormone and thyroid. Both are necessary for muscle growth and normal fat metabolism. At first glance, it appears GLA can be readily made by the body from linoleic acid, the omega-6 essential fatty acid common in every day vegetable oils. That is, you should be able to add a tablespoon of canola oil to your nutrition strategy giving your body plenty of linoleic acid which the body should convert into GLA. Problem is, the oils in your grocery store are, for the most part, spoiled much akin to a loaf of bread turned bad or a chicken breast decayed filled with bacteria. Commercial oils are made to have a long shelf life. Manufacturers use a heating and bleaching process to prolong the...

Calcium

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and is also involved in immune function, but more does not mean a better immune system. There is an optimal level. While evidence suggests that both the UK RNI and the US RDA are too low, megadoses are not required. Intakes of people consuming plenty of fruit and vegetables as part of a balanced diet are way in excess of the RDAs anyway.

Unsaturated fats

An unsaturated fat is a fat cell that has some of the hydrogen atoms removed thus the name unsaturated . This makes the structure susceptible to attacks by free radicals. Free radicals do sound a little frightening and intimidating especially if you do not know what they are Let's state a few general qualities of Free radicals Free radicals are damaging residues of oxygen every breath you take. Free radicals cause oxidation in your body. Exercise, stress, work, tension, etc., all increase free radicals because they increase oxygen in your body. Air pollution and other chemicals produce more free radicals. Free radicals are responsible for aging and degenerative disease. Unsaturated oils create an atmosphere which is a catalyst for the damage that free radicals have on our bodies. Otherwise the damage of free radicals is increased by the ingestion of unsaturated fats

The Formulas

Formula 2 The Alternate Energy Antioxidant Cholesterol Fighter Compound Methionine leads to a natural increase of glutathione, one of the most effective antioxidants in the body. Methionine, choline, betaine, and inositol are also very useful in the anabolic diet for their fat burning potential. Taurine is another antioxidant of value which lowers blood cholesterol and increases the burning of fat as an energy source. 4. Providing antioxidant protection from free radical buildup caused by increased stress of workouts.

Protein Powders

Yet another study from McGill University in Montreal, Canada showed whey to reign supreme over casein. This study of 10 men and 10 women each taking either 10 grams of whey twice daily or 10 grams of casein twice daily showed the whey group lost more fat than the casein group and showed an increase in lymphocyte glutathione levels. Glutathione is an antioxidant derived from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine. It's found in the inner part of cells. The theory goes more glutathione suppresses the activity of free radicals and less free radical activity translates in less sore muscles or better recovery and possibly less muscular fatigue.