Endurance Training Programs
AC We spoke before about doing very short high speed interval work for endurance training Can you expand on that for
NG Slow and steady may be appropriate for come clients (overweight, sedentary, recovering from illness operation, ultra endurance athletes), but if you've got an average aerobic capacity 45-50ml.kg.min forget it, intervals are where its at. Because most of the sports I work with are not pure endurance sports - they are repeated effort speed and power sports.
Since my first article on endurance training in the November 2007 issue of the CrossFit Journal, I've received numerous questions and inquiries from people who'd like more information on the what and how of our philosophies and using CrossFit in training for longer-distance events. I wish I could have some program that would look at each individual
Visually, the idea that endurance exercise makes you lean seems irrefutable. Running burns calories. Runners tend to be thin. Case closed. We've also known for some time that endurance exercise doesn't increase metabolism beyond the calories burned during exercise, and those burned for a few hours afterward. (We exercise geeks call this excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC.) Endurance exercise doesn't increase post-workout metabolism aside from a short And if you're good at endurance exercise, and do a lot of it every day, you don't need a huge metabolic boost to come out ahead. Let's say you have a 150-pound guy who runs an average of an hour a day, six days a week. His average speed is six miles an hour, or ten-minute miles. That's 680 calories a day, 4,080 a week. If you start off with a naturally fast metabolism, burning fat won't be an issue. You may worry more about the opposite situation if you don't eat enough, you'll waste away. My point in this New Rule, as it...
To develop muscular endurance, the soldier should choose a resistance that lets him do more than 12 repetitions of a given exercise. This is his 12+ repetition maximum (12+ RM). With continued training, the greater the number of repetitions per set, the greater will be the improvement in muscle endurance and the smaller the gains in strength. For example, when a soldier trains with a 25-RM weight, gains in muscular endurance will be greater than when using a 15-RM weight, but the gain in strength will not be as great. To optimize a soldier's performance, his RM should be determined from an analysis of the critical tasks of his mission. However, most soldiers will benefit most from a resistance-training program with an 8-12 RM.
Almost without exception, the studies of short-term glycogen depletion on endurance exercise below 85 of maximum heart rate find similar results. The primary result is a decrease in glycogen use during exercise (35,59-64). This simply reflects a lack of availability of glucose, prompting the body to find an alternative fuel source (i.e. FFA). The initial decrease in glycogen utilization (and increase in fat utilization) during exercise occurs around 70 mmol kg (65). Other studies suggest that muscle glycogen breakdown does not decrease until very low glycogen levels (around 40 mmol kg) are reached (66).
When I talk about strength training, here's what I mean. Most of the time, we squat every week, doing sets of ten at 80 percent of max, then adding five pounds for eight reps, then adding five pounds for six reps. This usually scares the newbie endurance athletes to death, but they get over it soon because we won't train them any other way. They learn that the strength training actually speeds up recovery and lets them get back to training much sooner than they thought. Brian MacKenzie is an expert in strength training for endurance athletes as well as a coach for Multisports Orange County. He currently holds a double certification through the International Sports Sciences Association (ISSA, CFT, and SSC) and is a level-2 POSE-certified running coach. In addition to owning CrossFit Newport Beach Genetic Potential, Brian founded and operates one of the only internship programs for professional trainers in California.
Pre-workout carbohydrates may substitute for the weekend carb-up if preferred. 3. Endurance athletes will benefit from heavy weight training and it should be performed 2-3 times per week (full periodization of strength for athletes is beyond the scope of this book). A sample week of training (assuming a 2 day carb-up) appears in table 6. Table 6 Sample week of training for and endurance athlete Table 6 Sample week of training for and endurance athlete An alternate and probably superior dietary strategy for endurance athletes is to vary the diet based on performance needs. That is, during off-season training, when primarily low-intensity aerobic training and some weights are being done, the SKD or CKD can be used. During higher performance periods (preseason, competitive season), a higher percentage of carbohydrates should be consumed for optimal performance.
Many individuals wish to combine strength and endurance training in their exercise program. Whether it's a pre-contest bodybuilder looking to shed fat or an individual looking for basic fitness, the combination of weight and aerobic training is a topic of interest. Keep in mind that the general adaptations to aerobic interval training are to make muscle fibers more aerobic and enduring while the adaptations to weight training are to make the fibers larger and stronger. These two adaptations are somewhat at odds with one another (77). Therefore, we might expect the combination of both types of training to impair overall adaptations. In direct contrast to the data presented above, when endurance athletes (cyclists and runners) perform heavy resistance training, endurance performance improves (82,83). This further supports that the studies above were simply measuring overtraining rather than true interference effects of strength and aerobic training.
At the same time, it was found that the rate of glycogen used during exercise was related to the amount of glycogen present in the muscle. When glycogen levels were the highest, glycogen breakdown was also the highest. As muscle glycogen levels dropped, the rate of glycogen utilization decreased as well. Since that time, glycogen stores have been assumed to be the ultimate determinant of endurance exercise performance, but that viewpoint has recently been challenged (58). Additionally, it is currently unclear why depleted muscle glycogen would necessitate a reduction in exercise intensity when FFA are so readily available (54). As discussed in chapter 10, normal glycogen levels are roughly 100-110 mmol kg. One interesting observation in the afforementioned study (35) was that glycogen utilization was severely impaired below a level of 40 mmol kg of muscle suggesting an impairment in the glycolytic pathway. Additionally, below 10 mmol kg, a further decrease in glycogen utilization was...
If only two days are available for PT, both should include exercises for improving CR fitness and muscular endurance and strength. Roughly equal emphasis should be given to each of these fitness components. If there are only three days available for PT, they should be evenly dispersed throughout the week. Two of the days should stress the development of muscular endurance and strength for the whole body. Although all of the major muscle groups of the body should be trained, emphasis should be placed
The best technique is to train alternate muscle groups and or fitness components on different days. For example, if the Monday-Wednesday-Friday (M-W-F) training objective is CR fitness, soldiers can do ability group running at THR with some light calisthenics and stretching. If the Tuesday-Thursday (T-Th) objective is muscular endurance and strength, soldiers can benefit from doing partner-resisted exercises followed by a slow run. To ensure balance and regularity in the program, the next week should have muscle endurance and strength development on M-W-F and training for CR endurance on T-Th. Such a program has variety, develops all the fitness components, and follows the seven principles of exercise while, at the same time, it minimizes injuries caused by overuse.
The person who wants to concentrate on muscular strength should use weights which let him do three to seven repetitions before his muscles fatigue. Thus, for strength development, the weight used should be a 3-7 RM. On the other hand, the person who wants to concentrate on muscular endurance should use a 12+ RM. When using a 12+ RM as the training intensity, the more repetitions performed per set, over time, the greater will be the improvement in muscular endurance. Conversely, the greater the number of repetitions performed, the smaller will be the gains in strength. For example, a person who regularly trains with a weight which lets him do 100 repetitions per exercise (a 1OO-RM) greatly increases his muscular endurance but minimally improves his muscular strength. (See Chapter 3 for information on resistance training.)
The preparatory phase for improving muscular endurance and strength through weight training should start easily and progress gradually. Beginning weight trainers should select about 8 to 12 exercises that work all the body's major muscle groups. They should use only very light weights the first week (that is, the first two to three workouts). This is very important, as they must first learn the proper form for each exercise. Light weights will also help minimize muscle soreness and decrease the likelihood of injury to the muscles, joints, and ligaments. During the second week, they should use progressively heavier weights on each resistance exercise. By the end of the second week (four to six workouts), they should know how much weight will let them do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure for each exercise. At this point the conditioning phase begins.
The maintenance phase sustains the high level of fitness achieved in the conditioning phase. The emphasis here is no longer on progression. A well-designed, 45- to 60-minute workout (including warm-up and cool-down) at the right intensity three times a week is enough to maintain almost any appropriate level of physical fitness. These workouts give soldiers time to stabalize their flexibility, CR endurance, and muscular endurance and strength. However, more frequent training may be needed to reach and maintain peak fitness levels. An effective program uses a variety of activities to develop muscular endurance and strength, CR endurance, and flexibility, and to achieve good body composition. It should also promote the development of coordination as well as basic physical skills. (See Chapter 10 for guidance in constructing a unit program.)
The type of exercise the soldier does affects the amount and nature of the weight loss. Both running and walking burn about 100 calories per mile. One pound of fat contains 3,500 calories. Thus, burning one pound of fat through exercise alone requires a great deal of running or walking. On the other hand, weight lost through dieting alone includes the loss of useful muscle tissue. Those who participate in an exercise program that emphasizes the development of strength and muscular endurance, however, can actually increase their muscle mass while losing body fat. These facts help explain why exercise and good dietary practices must be combined. Soldiers should be weighed under similar circumstances and at the same time each day. This helps avoid false measurements due to normal fluctuations in their body weight during the day. As a soldier develops muscular endurance and strength, lean muscle mass generally increases. Because muscle weighs more per unit of volume than fat. caution is...
Muscular fitness has two components muscular strength and muscular endurance. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to do repeated contractions against a less-than-maximum resistance for a given time. Although muscular endurance and strength are separate fitness components, they are closely related. Progressively working against resistance will produce gains in both of these components.
A resistance-training program should provide resistance to the specific muscle groups that need to be strengthened. These groups can be identified by doing a simple assessment. The soldier slowly does work-related movements he wants to improve and, at the same time, he feels the muscles on each side of the joints where motion occurs. Those muscles that are contracting or becoming tense during the movement are the muscle groups involved. If the soldier's performance of a task is not adequate or if he wishes to improve, strength training for the identified muscle(s) will be beneficial. To improve his muscular endurance and strength. in a given task, the soldier must do resistance movements that are as similar as possible to those of doing the task. In this way, he ensures maximum carryover value to his soldiering tasks.
The chart labeled Figure 3-5 will help the soldier select appropriate exercises for use in developing a good muscular endurance and strength workout. For example, if the soldier wants to develop his upper leg muscles, he has several options. He may choose from the following 1) PREs, concentrating on the split- or single-leg squat 2) exercises with equipment, doing free weight squats or, 3) exercises with a machine, doing leg presses, leg curls, and leg extensions.
Circuits are designed to provide exercise to groups of soldiers at intensities which suit each person's fitness level. Circuits can promote fitness in a broad range of physical and motor fitness areas. These include CR endurance, muscular endurance, strength, flexibility, and speed. Circuits can also be designed to concentrate on sports skills, soldiers' common tasks, or any combination of these. In addition, circuits can be organized to exercise all the fitness components in a short period of time. A little imagination can make circuit training an excellent addition to a unit's total physical fitness program. At the same time, it can provide both fun and a challenge to soldiers' physical and mental abilities. Almost any area can be used, and any number of soldiers can exercise for various lengths of time.
The designer must consider the specific parts of the body and the components of fitness on which soldiers need to concentrate. For example, increasing muscular strength may be the primary objective, while muscular endurance work may be secondary. On the other hand, improving cardiorespiratory endurance may be the top priority. The designer must first identify the training objective in order to choose the appropriate exercises.
Performing grass drills can improve CR endurance, help develop muscular endurance and strength, and speed up reaction time. Since these drills are extremely strenuous, they should last for short periods (30 to 45 seconds per exercise). The two drills described here each have four exercises. Leaders can develop additional drills locally.
Guerrilla exercises, which can be used to improve agility, CR endurance, muscular endurance, and to some degree muscular strength, combine individual and partner exercises. These drills require soldiers to change their positions quickly and do various basic skills while moving forward. Figures 7-7 and 7-8 show these exercises.
Workouts can be done in a small space by diverse groups of varying fitness levels. Heart rates should be taken during the conditioning phase to be sure the workout is sufficiently intense. If strengthening exercises are included, the workout addresses every component of fitness. Holding relatively light dumbbells during the workout is one way to increase the intensity for the upper body and improve muscular endurance. Warm-up and cool-down stretches should be included in the aerobic workout.
Although it is not the heart of the Army's physical fitness program, the APFT is the primary instrument for evaluating the fitness level of each soldier. It is structured to assess the muscular endurance of specific muscle groups and the functional capacity of the CR system.
Ligaments, and tendons are properly prepared for exertion. A warm-up should include some running-in-place or slow jogging, stretching, and calisthenics. It should last five to seven minutes and should occur just before the CR or muscular endurance and strength part of the workout. After a proper warm-up, soldiers are ready for a more intense conditioning activity.
Calisthenics can be used to exercise most of the major muscle groups of the body. They can help develop coordination, CR and muscular endurance, flexibility, and strength. Poorly-coordinated soldiers, however, will derive the greatest benefit from many of these exercises Although calisthenics have some value when included in a CR circuit or when exercising to music, for the average soldier, calisthenics such as the bend and reach, squat bender, lunger, knee bender, and side-straddle hop can best be used in the warm-up and cool-down periods. Exercises such as the push-up, sit-up, parallel bar dip, and chin-up pull-up, on the other hand, can effectively be used in the conditioning period to develop muscular endurance or muscular strength.
Conditioning drills are intended to supplement muscular strength and endurance training Some large units prefer to use sets of calisthenic exercises as part of their PT sessions. Figure 7-4 shows three calisthenic conditioning drills for both the poorly conditioned and physically fit soldiers. The drills are designed to be done progressively and are intended to supplement muscular strength and endurance training sessions.
Resource that details the strength and conditioning requirements of today's combat athlete. Throughout this manual, I will present an intense training system designed to improve functional strength and muscular endurance. This comprehensive training regimen promises both physical and mental challenges. A dedicated effort on your part will harvest improvements directly applicable to the combat arena.
Studies that have focused on weight loss in people using carnitine as a supplement are few and conflicting. There are far more studies that look at carnitine as a sport and energy enhancing supplement, but the majority of them are not very impressive, but some studies suggest carnitine may help endurance athletes. The general consensus is that healthy people have plenty of carnitine within the cell (from the body's own production and dietary intake) for the carnitine shuttle system to work, though it has been shown that very low calories diets do alter carnitine metabolism.
Several studies have found that eating low GI foods, prior to endurance exercise, results in more fat burned and improvements in performance. One study found women who consumed a moderate GI food 45 minutes before an exercise test, lasted 16 percent longer when fed low GI foods. Another study found that consuming low GI carbs before a cycling trial effectively increased the time to exhaustion, and decreased ratings of perceived exertion. It should be noted, however, that not all studies have found this effect of GI on performance.
Sandbag training will force your body to work as an integrated, functional unit. You will be forced to maintain balance and stabilization, while lifting and moving an uncooperative sandbag. Do not make the mistake of training muscles on an individual basis. Competition does not isolate individual muscles, so do not deceive your body by training this way. Functional training will improve strength, flexibility, core stability, coordination and applicable muscular endurance.
It should be noted that each of the fiber types has different recruitment patterns, and typically the Type lib fiber is only recruited for use during maximal effort. The other fibers contract during light as well as moderate activity. Moreover, physical training can lead to changes in the characteristics of the fibers. Thus, endurance training would lead to changes in the Type Ha fiber such that they take on more characteristics of the Type I, or slow twitch fiber. Table 1-1 presents the distinguishing characteristics of the various fiber types.
These data suggest that the RDA for those engaged in regular endurance exercise should be about 1.2 -1.4 grams of protein kilogram of body mass (150 - 175 of the current RDA) and 1.7 - 1.8 grams of protein kilogram of body mass per day (212 - 225 of the current RDA) for strength exercisers. MThese data suggest that the RDA for those engaged in regular endurance exercise should be about 1.2 -1.4grams of protein kilogram of body mass (150 -175 of the current RDA) and 1.7 -1.8 grams of protein kilogram of body mass per day (212 - 225 of the current RDA) for strength exercisers. This same group found in later research that endurance athletes also need far more protein than the RDA RNI and that men catabolize (break down) more protein than women during endurance exercise. They concluded It should be noted that there is still some confusion on this point. In fact, some prominent researchers have suggested that protein metabolism actually becomes more efficient with training, and that there...
But to be completely fair, let's assume for the moment that the 30 grams rule turns out to be true. As discussed earlier, some of the studies done by researchers over the last decade on the protein requirements of athletes recommend intakes that exceed the RDAs by as much as 225 percent These range from approximately 1.2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight for endurance athletes, and up to 1.8g of protein per kg for strength training athletes.
Typical V02max values range from 30 ml (of oxygen) kg min for an unfit person up to 80 ml kg min for an exceptionally fit, endurance athlete. If the unfit and highly fit persons both weighed 70 kg (155 lb) then their respective absolute maximal aerobic capacities would be 2.1 liters (of oxygen) min and 5.6 liters (of oxygen) min.
Bodyweight Squats should be conducted at a fairly brisk pace. This is not a slow paced movement with rest periods between repetitions. The movement is continuous. The pace of the Bodyweight Squat adds to its difficulty. You will combine strength training and endurance training into one exercise. This exercise will test your willpower as you approach several hundred repetitions. It should take approximately 15 minutes to finish 500 Bodyweight Squats. 100 squats should take 3 minutes or less.
Other athletes may also have a need to drop fat weight quickly to improve their performance. Think about an endurance athlete who may improve their power to weight ratio by dropping weight or someone of that nature. I should note, and I'll come back to this, that dehydration beyond even a small level can really destroy performance capacity (extreme dehydration can cause death) so the crash diet should be used several weeks prior to the main event to drop a few pounds of fat such that normal hydration can be reattained before competition.
However, it's not as hopeless as it may seem. Even if you do possess a higher-than-average proportion of slow-twitch fibers, you can still build significant amounts of muscle mass. After all, no one has only slow-twitch fibers. Even the best world-class endurance athletes still have 40 percent fast-twitch fibers, and these fibers are the ones that can be targeted for growth. The program presented in this book does just that target those fast-twitch fibers for hypertrophy.
Chapter, but we have two reasons for doing so. The exercises we highlight in this chapter are what make Wii Fit Plus the excellent fitness software that it is, and yoga and strength training actually have a lot in common, with both activities helping you develop strength and increase endurance. Yoga does this by stretching the muscles by holding poses, while strength training builds the muscles through strenuous, repetitive motions, also known as reps.
While there is scientific evidence to suggest that some strength and ultra-endurance athletes may benefit from protein intakes of as much as 1.5 to 2.0 times the RDA, this is probably not necessary or helpful for the vast majority of people. The Catch-22 is that you're probably already downing well over the RDA and just don't know it. So before you start doing a Rocky Balboa on us and slurp raw-egg shakes before heading
Creatine has had spotty results in research that examined its effects on endurance oriented sports such as swimming, rowing and long distance running, with some studies showing no positive effects on performance with endurance athletes. Whether or not the failure of creatine to improve performance with endurance athletes was due to the nature of the sport or the design of the studies is still being debated. But one thing is for sure the research is stronger in high intensity sports of short duration.
Endorphins and enkephalins are hormones in the body that are related to narcotics. They often come into play in pain reduction, and you might be aware of the endorphin rush and feeling of well being that can come to the athlete during extended endurance training and performance. Testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin all work to vary levels of endorphins and enkephalins in the body. In the carb-based diet, hormonal swings are so great, especially with insulin, that you'll find yourself on an endorphin and enkephalin roller coaster. Irritability and mood swings can be great. You'll find these swings far less dramatic and manageable on the Anabolic Diet.
The main problem with linear periodization is that you constantly move away from the quality you've just developed, Alwyn says. For example, in one stage you develop muscular endurance, then steadily progress toward heavier lifts, with fewer reps, thus losing some of the endurance you worked to improve. So if it was important to develop that quality in the first place, why not at least maintain it That's the idea behind conjugate periodization each program combines some heavy lifts for strength, some fast lifts for power, some medium-rep sets for muscle growth, and some high-rep sets for muscular endurance and overall conditioning.
If sufficient amounts of carbohydrates are consumed for a long enough period of time, glycogen levels can reach greater than normal levels, a process called glycogen supercompensation. The process of glycogen depletion and supercompensation has been used for years by endurance athletes to improve performance (2). Only recently has it been applied to bodybuilders and other strength athletes. The carb-load can be classified by three distinct variables duration and amount, type, and timing of carbohydrate intake. Each is discussed in detail below. Other factors which can affect the carb-load are also discussed in this chapter.
Some times by as mush as 225 As mentioned in the chapter, some researchers came to the conclusion that protein intakes for athletes should range from approximately 1.2 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight, for endurance athletes and up to 1.8g of protein per kg for strength training athletes.
Another issue regarding the carb-up is the type of exercise that precedes the carb-up. Typical carb-ups have been studied in endurance athletes, but not weight trainers so extrapolations must be made with care. It has been long known that only the muscles worked immediately prior to the carb-up are supercompensated. Recall from above that a delay of even several hours slows glycogen resynthesis greatly.
If you spend a lot of time reading scientific research, you'll notice that the phrase exercise training always means endurance training. That's because there's still a pervasive idea in the world of exercise science, as well as among the general public, that movement designed to take you long distances is real exercise, and strength training is something different. Embedded in the phrase is the idea that only endurance exercise improves health and contributes to a longer life.
There's one sure and easy way to start an argument, if you're the combative type Go to a fitness-oriented website's message boards and either praise or condemn endurance exercise. You can bet you'll find plenty of disagreement from your fellow posters, no matter which position you take.
You are in exercise category 1 if you are performing some type of weight training a minimum of 2-3 times per week for an hour or so. I'm not talking about just waving around little baby pink weights either, I mean real weight training. Category 1 also includes endurance athletes such as runners or cyclists who are either doing fairly long workouts (1-4 hours at a decent intensity) or intensive workouts (near lactate threshold or above). If you don't know what the term lactate threshold means, you're most likely not exercising anywhere close to it, put yourself in category 2.
Another point you need to understand is that an increase in the number of reps will translate into an increase in strength. Some people believe they're capable of gaining strength only by increasing the amount of weight they lift. Not so Strength can also be enhanced by increasing the number of reps. Muscular endurance comes from taking shorter breaks between sets, and muscular density metabolic enhancement comes from persistently working on improving muscle strength and or muscular endurance.
It is this author's opinion that a variety of dietary approaches can be effective and that no single dietary approach is optimal for every goal. For example, a bodybuilder dieting for a contest has different dietary needs than an endurance athlete preparing for an event or the average person trying to lose a few pounds. As with any approach to fat loss, the ketogenic diet has various benefits and drawbacks. Although most of these have been mentioned within a specific context in previous chapters, they are briefly discussed again. Additionally, certain medical conditions preclude the use of a ketogenic diet, which are discussed in the next section.
It is not feasible to train with each exercise at once. Instead, you should incorporate variety by mixing and matching various conditioning drills. Your body will adapt in time, so keep the muscles guessing by training with different movements. It is best to reap the benefits of ten exercises, rather than focusing all of your energy towards one. By performing the conditioning drills from this chapter, you will dramatically improve work capacity and muscular endurance.
Adaptation to exercise It is customary to differentiate between high-intensity strength activities and low-intensity endurance exercises. The different types of exercises elicit different patterns of neural activity to muscle resulting in specific adaptation. High intensity strength activities, such as weight lifting and bodybuilding, induce hypertrophy of the muscle with an increase in strength. Endurance exercises, such as swimming and running, increase the capacity of muscle for aerobic metabolism with an increase in endurance. During prolonged endurance exercise, e.g. marathon-running, depletion of muscle glycogen, decrease in blood glucose, dehydration, or increase in body temperature contribute to fatigue. During intense muscular activity, e.g. short-distance running, lactic acid is formed via anaerobic glycolysis. The H+ ions dissociated from lactic acid decrease the pH of the muscle this may inhibit metabolic processes, disturb excitation-contraction coupling, Ca2+ fluxes,...
The second type of power we need to analyze is sustainable power. This is the ability to carry out lots of work in a longer, sustained, period of time. Using another strongman contest analogy, sustainable power is the ability to load a bunch of beer kegs onto a truck quickly. In this instance, a constant weight is being moved over a constant distance, so the only way to improve power is to reduce the amount of time it takes to complete the task. The faster you load the truck, the more powerful you are. This is also the type of power important in endurance sports, since races have set distances and competitors are moving relatively similar body masses. So, because force acts to move only the body and the distance of the race doesn't change, only the rate of work, or power output, is changeable and relevant to winning. Sustainable power is also relevant to the factory floor, the firehouse, the theater of combat, or any other environment where work rate over a finite period of time is...
Aerobic exercise affects two major tissues in the body the heart and the muscles. With regular aerobic training, the heart becomes stronger and more efficient, pumping more blood with every beat. Heart rate at rest and during exercise decreases indicating a greater efficiency. Normal resting heart rate is around 70 to 80 beats per minute (bpm), but elite endurance athletes may have resting heart rates of 40 bpm. (1)
The increase in glycogen utilization at higher intensities is related to a number of factors including greater adrenaline release (1,15), decreased availability of FFA (16), and greater recruitment of Type II muscle fibers (15,17,18). The ketogenic diet shifts the crossover (i.e. lactate threshold) point to higher training intensities (15) as does regular endurance training (1,5). As discussed further below, this means that endurance athletes are able to maintain higher exercise intensities while relying on FFA for energy.
Chew on this amusing looks can be deceiving tale. Jonathan used to work with a nutritionist who had enormous arms. Whenever they were together at the gym, people approached him with questions about arm exercises despite the fact that he had no real exercise background, and Jonathan, a lean endurance athlete who had a master's degree in Exercise Physiology, knew far more arm exercises than there are amino acids. Conversely, when people had questions pertaining to diet and losing weight, they came to Jonathan, assuming he was the man to ask, even though Mr. Biceps had a Ph.D. in nutrition. Go figure.
Hindu push-ups are a long time staple of the combat sport athlete. They develop overall strength and done in high repetitions, muscular endurance. This is a very advanced exercise, which should be done initially by locking the Swiss ball in place. Do this by lodging the ball into a corner of a room, so the ball cannot roll from side to side, or front to back. When you can do several Hindu push-ups in this manner, move the ball out of the room corner, and merely rest it against a wall, now you must fight against the ball moving from side to side.
Several studies have found low GI foods eaten prior to endurance exercise results in more fat burned and improvements in performance (Burke LM et al. 1998). One study found women who consumed a moderate glycemic food 45 minutes before an exercise test lasted 16 longer when fed low GI foods (Kirwan JP et al, 1998), though It should be noted however that not all studies have found this effect of GI on performance.
As discussed in chapter 18, the impact of a total lack of carbohydrates on endurance training is very consistent performance is maintained or improved at low intensities (below 75 of maximum heart rate) but decreased at higher intensities (75-85 of maximum heart rate or approximately the lactate threshold). However, the effects of a ketogenic diet on weight training are not as well established.
Fats should comprise approximately 10 of your overall food intake. Be sure to remember that fats, like carbohydrates, were not all created equal. Fat is a secondary source of energy (particularly for aerobic activity). Many endurance athletes rely on fat as an energy source following their depletion of carbohydrates.
16.74 Unless you are already fit, moderate safe aerobic training will increase your fitness, i.e., your cardiorespiratory efficiency and muscular endurance. Improved fitness will help you to weight train more intensively, and probably help your recovery process. 16.79 Moderate-intensity aerobic training is important or else you will kill your gains in muscle and might. If you cannot talk, albeit haltingly, while you do your aerobic work, you are training too intensively. You should be breathing much heavier than when you are at rest, but you do not need to be gasping. Always keep in mind that you cannot focus on getting a stronger and better physique if you are training like a competitive endurance athlete.
Relatively few studies have examined the effects of carbohydrate depletion on resistance training. Typically, researchers measure maximal force production during a single isometric contraction or muscular endurance during multiple rep sets during isokinetic exercise. Isokinetic exercise machines are special types of weight training equipment that control speed of movement. They are typically not found outside the laboratory and may not be an applicable model to normal strength training. As a general rule, the maximum amount of force generated ultimately depends on Type II muscle fibers while muscular endurance depends more on Type I fibers. The effects of glycogen depletion on force production is fiber type specific. Glycogen depletion of only Type I fibers does not impair maximum force but decreases muscular endurance as would be expected (109,110). Glycogen depletion in both Type I and Type II fibers causes a decrease in both maximal force production and muscular endurance (109). In...
Ever since Ken Cooper's book, Aerobics was first published in 1968, aerobic exercise has been sold - and oversold - as the primary form of exercise for losing weight and or getting fit. Thousands of books and articles have been published since then, all extolling the virtues of aerobic exercise - particularly endurance training - for improving health and body composition. You can't swing a cat without hitting a jogger. Visit any city recreation center, and you'll see a number of cardio classes being offered. Even in most gyms, the floor space devoted to cardio machines and classes vastly exceeds the space devoted to free weights and associated equipment (e.g., benches, power racks, etc.). It's not surprising that when people start a fitness program, the first thing they think of is cardio.
Routine is the enemy is essentially a restatement of the overload principle. Routine is to be avoided for three main reasons. First, as discussed above, research has consistently shown that athletes quickly reach plateaus in training. The second reason to avoid routine is to make you work on your weaknesses. You can easily avoid your weaknesses when sticking to routines. How many people come to CrossFit after doing lots of single-mode aerobic work and some high-rep low-weight resistance training and then say Hey, I thought I was fit. but I just found out I wasn't. Well their aerobic conditioning (in their favorite modality) and muscular endurance may have been good, but those are only two out of ten components of fitness You can't hide from your weaknesses when following CrossFit programming.
In addition to the type of exercise done, total caloric intake has an impact on fat loss when combined with exercise. At moderate caloric deficits, both weight training and endurance exercise can increase fat loss. However, if caloric intake is too low, exercise can have a negative effect on fat loss.
Interval training can include fast walking, sprinting, bicycling, working on the cross-trainer, and so on, as long as you vary your intensity levels according to the plan. Interval training gives you the best of both worlds since it strengthens your body both anaerobically and aerobically. Like resistance exercise, it is anaerobic and will elevate your metabolism and enhance the thermic effect of food digestion for up to 48 hours. A recent study published at MuscleMedia.com reported that interval training caused greater fat loss than endurance training. The study group that exercised over time using short bursts of high-intensity interval training lost nine times as much fat as the study group that performed 45 minutes of high-intensity training. Levels of HGH, testosterone, and estrogen were also significantly higher after bouts of interval training as opposed to endurance training. Interval training is a type of exercise where less effort short bursts of intensity will get you much...
At maintenance calories, in both men and women, the performance of resistance training causes a loss of bodyfat with no changes in dietary habits. (14-18) At this calorie level, weight training alone generally causes a greater fat loss and muscle gain than endurance exercise alone (14,15). In 8 weeks, beginning trainees can expect to gain 2-4 pounds of lean body mass and lose 2-4 lbs of fat with weight training alone as little as 30 minutes three times per week (17-19).
Depending on activity levels, total daily energy expenditure usually ranges from about 12 calories per pound of bodyweight for relatively sedentary individuals to 15-16 calories per pound for relatively average activity levels (3-4 hours week of exercise plus normal daily activity) with extremely active individuals (think endurance athletes training 2 or more hours per day) going up to 20 cal lb or more.
If you're new to endurance sports, you may have approached meals by counting calories to figure out only how to reduce them or burn them off. For tri-athetes, it isn't so much about how to get rid of calories as it's about how to get them in in the form that will best fuel your workouts.
To the bodybuilder, sufficient sleep is essential in that, loss of sleep is extremely catabolic. Endurance athletes prove this in an interesting and convincing manner. Those engaged in six-day bicycle races eat four or five times as much food as they would normally, yet, at the end of the contest, these world class athletes wind up looking like cadavers. They're incoherent, hollow-eyed and weak. It's the loss of sleep, more than the physical exertion, that prevents them from transforming food into tissue.
The adaptations seen in training are specific to the type of training done. This is sometimes called Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands or SAID by exercise physiologists. For example, aerobic training improves the body's ability to perform aerobically (by making muscle fibers smaller and more oxidative), but does not improve strength. Strength training improves the body's ability to generate strength (by making muscle fibers bigger and more glycolytic) but does not improve aerobic endurance (2,3).
Today many claims are being made for carnitine. Some people say it improves athletic performance and endurance, helps Alzheimer's disease, improves memory, and treats depression. At this point, the research for athletes doesn't prove much, although it may help people who do endurance sports like triathlons. The research on Alzheimer's and depression in the elderly is much more solid. Carnitine, in the form of acetyl-L-carnitine, is often helpful to these people, with no real side effects. It may be worth trying, but be warned It's expensive. The going price of a 500 mg capsule is over a dollar and the suggested dosage is four capsules a day for people with Alzheimer's and similar problems.
Most of the information that you have read about protein intake probably does not apply those who are actively training. Most study data is ALWAYS referring to sedentary, non-active individuals. 40 protein is definitely too much for them, but not for us. Studies with both strength and endurance athletes have clearly indicated that exercise increases the need for protein and 31 J.E. Friedman, and P.W.R Lemon, Effect of Chronic Endurance Exercise on the Retention of Dietary Protein, Int. J.Sports Med. 10 (1989) 118-123.
High tension low fatigue 1-5 RM develops 1RM strength primarily (18) Low tension high fatigue 25+RM develops muscular endurance Moderate tension moderate fatigue 6-20RM develops muscle size (19) The above chart does not take set time into account. It is more accurate to say that low set times will develop primarily strength, medium set times hypertrophy, and long set times muscular endurance. However, this is highly variable and many individuals can develop hypertrophy with very low or very high reps.
Prolonged exposure to altitude will bring about several physiologic changes and result in improved exercise tolerance at submaximal effort levels. At levels above 10,000 feet 3,050 meters), maximal aerobic capacity is limited and is lower than what would be measured at sea level. Below 10,000 feet, maximal aerobic capacity may approach sea level values, but usually only after a 2 week acclimation period. Because of this inability to achieve maximal aerobic capacity above 10,000 feet, elite endurance athletes may experience mild to moderate aerobic deconditioning with extended stays at altitude.
You've probably heard of marathoners and other elite athletes inhaling gargantuan amounts of pasta before big endurance events, often referred to as carb-loading. It turns out that fat-loading may be more effective. More scientific research is required however, studies on both animals and humans have suggested that a fat-rich diet may increase endurance. A 1994 study compared the effects of a highcarb low-fat diet and a high-fat low-carb diet on two groups of trained cyclists. During high-intensity exercise, the groups performed equally well during prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise, endurance was significantly enhanced among the cyclists on the high-fat low-carb regimen. Two other studies on humans suggest that increasing dietary fat from fifteen percent to forty-two percent increases maximum oxygen consumption and endurance capacity. My review of the published research suggests to me that increases in dietary fat may be beneficial-not only for general health, but also for...
During the Energy Phase, we recommend drinking a liquid protein carbohydrate supplement just prior to your workout (about 10 to 15 minutes before). In addition, you should be sipping another one during the workout. Since these supplements are in liquid form, if sipped throughout the workout, dehydration, a potent performance killer in both strength and endurance athletes, can be prevented as well. But just any old liquid protein carbohydrate drinks won't do. Since the body needs those nutrients quickly, you've gotta pick rapidly digesting proteins and carbohydrates. Even a standard meal replacement powder drink can take up to an hour or more to be fully digested. Therefore, a drink containing simple sugar (sugar is quickly digested) and fast-digesting protein like whey protein is optimal. As mentioned, without adequate nutrition, the period immediately after strength and endurance training is marked by a net muscle catabolism in other words, muscles continue to break down after...
The overtraining syndrome can present with a wide range of symptoms (See Table 13-2). Overtraining is generally associated with endurance sports, such as swimming or running. Cross-training, rest, and taking time off from certain physical activities will all reduce or prevent overtraining symptoms. The person who continues training despite the symptoms listed in Table 13-2 will only become more overtrained, continue to have decreases in performance, and will be at an increased risk for injury.
Weight, confident that my superior conditioning methods would carry me through. It usually did, and as a light middleweight fighter I managed to beat the national champions at both middleweight and at light-heavyweight in the same year. My training was actually ahead of it's time back then. My only mistake was I did way too much endurance training and not enough raw strength work.
In fact, all cardiac patients should defer resistance training until after four to six weeks of cardiorespiratory endurance exercise has been completed. Every precaution should be taken to ensure that proper breathing techniques are used throughout each and every repetition for each and every set to make sure you don't hold your breath, which can send your blood pressure through the roof. Strength training should incorporate all major muscle groups legs, calves, back, chest, shoulders, and arms. The following exercises are appropriate for cardiac patients beginning a resistance program.
Despite increases in the muscle's ability to utilize fat for fuel, exhaustion during exercise is still related to a depletion of glycogen in Type I muscle fibers (73). As discussed previously, the exact cause of fatigue is unknown in this case but may relate to a decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates such as citrate which are necessary for oxidation of FFA (79). This means that endurance athletes following a ketogenic diet will still require carbohydrates for optimal performance. As with short-term carbohydrate depletion, there is a drop in RQ both at rest and during exercise indicating greater reliance on fat for fuel (73-76). At least part of the long-term adaptation to a ketogenic diet is an increase in the carnitine palmityl transferase 1 (CPT-1) system allowing for greater utilization of fats during exercise (79). This may in part explain the difference between short-term glycogen depletion and long-term adaptation and it has been suggested that These adaptations to a chronic...
Caffeine is believed to have a very positive effect on muscular contraction and fatigue, and many bodybuilders use it to increase endurance. Caffeine also aids in the breakdown of bodyfat and increases the use of free fatty acids, but only in the low carb high fat diet.18,19 The moderate or high carb diet renders caffeine useless for the bodybuilder.20
Training INTENSITY is considered to be the most critical aspect of strength and conditioning. Intensity of weight training can be referred to as load, which is the amount of weight per repetition. It is defined as the percentage of the RM that is being used to perform an exercise. Various intensities are recommended for optimal results. The program phase focusing on muscular endurance would involve training at 30 to 50 of your 1RM with 20 to 60 repetitions per set, whereas the phase focusing on strength with 20 to 60 repetitions per set, whereas the phase focusing on strength development would require training at 65 to 90 of your 1RM, with 1 to 12 repetitions per set, depending on the week of training (Table 6-1). SEAL training should focus on both strength and muscular endurance, and cycle between 30 and 90 of maximal strength. This approach will yield maximum results and increase your performance as a SEAL operator.
Muscle strength and endurance are both essential for operational performance. Muscular strength is also required for many Special Warfare missions. Muscular endurance is needed when work is required over longer periods of time (e.g., patrolling with a heavy load, climbing with equipment, swimming, or carrying a buddy).
As far as ab training for lower back pain, I don't go for the transversus abdominis isolation stuff. I do use a lot of isometric strength endurance exercise initially to promote activation and reestablish stability and then move to more dynamic work typically in PNF diagonals like chops and lifts. End stage training includes work-oriented activities like box lifts, sled work, and carrying heavy stuff to promote the involvement of the entire body not just isolated parts.
Although the science of resistance training has come along way in the past few years, its not, nor should it be as complicated as the theory of relativity and is ultimately nothing more than putting together your knowledge of basic human physiology, weight training theory, and realistic goals. The most important concept to know about weight training, as it relates to physiology and theory, is this weight training is a qualitative, not a quantitative, effort. It is not the amount of time spent doing it, but the intensity put into it, that will yield the results you want. Translated, weight training should not be seen as an endurance exercise
Overall, it appears that bodybuilding training has the effect of increasing muscular endurance (i.e. capillary density and mitochondrial density) probably due to the higher levels of lactic acid produced with a program of high volume and short rest periods. In essence, typical bodybuilding programs are similar to interval training in terms of the adaptations seen. It has been suggested that bodybuilding training preferentially cause sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, which is growth of non-contractile components such as mitochondria and capillaries, while powerlifting training causes the actual muscle fiber growth (3,23,24,33).
There are times when endurance athletes need to drop bodyfat while trying to maintain performance, just like other athletes. While most tend to stick with reduced calorie carbohydrate based diets, this can cause the same sets of problems that occur in natural bodybuilders of average genetic disposition. The UD2 can solve those problems. Additionally, current research has shown that following a 5 day low-carbohydrate period with a 1 day carb-load can actually increase performance in some endurance athletes. The low-carb days increase fat utilization while the carb-loading period increases muscle glycogen for high-intensity efforts. The UD2 fits that basic schedule. Now, a fairly recent approach to endurance training (especially among cyclists) is called block training (see Performance Cycling by Dan Morris for more information). Rather than the standard hard day easy day approach, block training advocates that athletes do two or three high intensity workouts followed by several...
For endurance athletes looking to maximize performance, this is an important adaptation as the majority of endurance events are performed close to or at the LT. Performance in endurance events has improved greatly in the past 15 years despite little or no increase in maximal aerobic capacity. This is explained by the greater amount of training time spent at or above LT by modern endurance athletes (5).
AC Who else in the field has influenced or helped you What are the best tips you learned from them and can pass on to
Train for long term progress by using a variety of effective training modalities under the conjugate or concurrent method - this ensures the qualities of strength, power, and muscular endurance (and all the other qualities) get worked regularly & equally to help build a complete athlete.
For example, study after study has shown that combining heavy strength training with heavy endurance training compromises the overall results. Why Strength training sends the muscle an adaptive signal to become bigger and stronger and more efficient at using glucose for fuel endurance training send a signal to become more energy efficient (which typically means smaller because smaller muscle fibers can get energy more readily) and use more fat for fuel. End result is that the body can't do both optimally and you get less than stellar results when you try to do both.
For instance, the Huntsville (Alabama) Hospital's Wellness Center offers assessments such as strength, flexibility, cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, body compositions, body measurements, blood pressure, and heart rate. Cardiac and cancer rehabilitation programs include exercise. They offer classes in Yoga, Pilates, Step aerobics, circuit training, water aerobics, stretching, indoor cycling, yogaball, kickboxing, and body sculpting.
Other athletes can probably utilize the block training approach as in the endurance athlete example above. The key is to put the hardest weekly workouts on Saturday, Sunday and Monday (when you have plenty of carbs and calories to train) and lower intensity workouts on Tuesday through Thursday. A short-high intensity workout should precede the carb-load as in the example above.
Additionally, individuals performing extensive amounts of aerobic training on a SKD typically report improved performance with carbs consumed before and during workouts. Even at low intensities, performance on a SKD is limited by glucose and muscle glycogen. For this reason, endurance athletes using a SKD are encouraged to experiment with carbohydrates around training.
Second, interval training should be gradually incorporated into training and the number and length of the intervals should be progressively increased as fitness level improves. Third, interval training may or may not be appropriate for bodybuilders. Done in excess, it may cause a loss of muscle size and strength by making Type II muscle fibers more Type I in nature. However, some individuals have found that interval training, performed judiciously, improves fat loss with no loss in muscle mass or strength. Finally, endurance athletes looking to maximize performance will need to perform interval training during specific periods of their training.
Fortunately, you can use the sled as an intense conditioning device. The sled is an excellent conditioning tool that can greatly increase work capacity, total-body strength, and muscular endurance. If you drag with the goal of strength and work capacity improvements, I recommend no more than two sessions per week. You will drag more weight, at a faster pace when training for work capacity. I personally find sled dragging to be one of the more enjoyable forms of conditioning, despite the intense nature of the work.
Recall from a few chapters back that the exercise categories are as follows Category 1 is for individuals involved in fairly intensive weight training 2-3 days per week for at least an hour, or long duration or high intensity endurance exercise and category 2 is for everyone else. That means that category 2 includes people who are not exercising, people only doing low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise, or people just lifting baby weights in the gym who don't work very hard.
At the beginning, each participant did. an 18.6-mile cycle time trial, and they concluded with the same at the end, to measure and compare progress alter three weeks. The results were all exactly the same. Despite the huge training time difference, everyone had improved to the same degree. Further, their V02 Max (the rate at which their muscles absorbed oxygen) had also improved by an identical amount. Gibala concluded Short bouts of very intense exercise improved muscle health and performance comparable to several weeks of endurance training.
Of all the types of exercise, low-intensity endurance exercise can be sustained by a ketogenic diet. Individuals who are involved in endurance activities can therefore use a ketogenic diet during their training. It should be recalled from chapter 18 that high-intensity aerobic exercise above the lactate threshold can not be optimally sustained without carbohydrates. As well, most individuals find that their overall performance is higher on a carb-based diet. For optimal endurance performance, some combination of aerobic training below and near LT as well as high-intensity intervals will be necessary. In general, endurance athletes tend to emphasize lower-intensity training during the off-season, incorporating more high-intensity efforts as the racing season draws near. As it is impossible to outline an entire annual plan for different endurance sports, athletes should keep the following guidelines in mind. 1. A standard ketogenic diet (SKD) can only sustain exercise intensities of 75...
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