Diabetes Holistic Treatment

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Halki Diabetes Remedy Summary


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The Insulin Glucagon ratio

With the two regulating sites of ketogenesis discussed, we can return to the discussion of insulin and glucagon and their role in establishing ketosis. When carbohydrates are consumed, insulin levels are high and glucagon levels are low. Glycogen storage is stimulated and fat synthesis in the liver will occur. Fat breakdown is inhibited both in the fat cell as well as in the liver (8). When carbohydrates are removed from the diet, liver glycogen will eventually be emptied as the body tries to maintain blood glucose levels. Blood glucose will drop as liver glycogen is depleted. As blood glucose decreases, insulin will decrease and glucagon will increase. Thus there is an overall decrease in the insulin glucagon ratio (I G ratio) (8,14). As insulin drops, FFA are mobilized from the fat cell, providing adequate substrate for the liver to make ketones. Since liver glycogen is depleted, CPT-1 becomes active, burning the incoming FFA, which produces acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA accumulates as...

What The Heck Is Diabetes

If someone you love has ever struggled with the scourge of diabetes, you know what a devastating disease it can be. In the year 2000, diabetes was the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. But chances are that this demonic disorder probably contributes to many more deaths it's a leading cause of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke, and its other complications include blindness, amputation, impotence, and nerve damage. It's also highly preventable and the Abs Diet and the Abs Diet Workout are near-perfect prescriptions. Diabetes works like this Your digestive system turns brunch into glucose the form of sugar your body uses for energy and sends it into the bloodstream. When the glucose hits, your pancreas a large gland located near your stomach produces insulin, a hormone, and sends that into the bloodstream as well. Insulin is your body's air traffic controller It takes command of all your glucose and directs it into your cells, where it can be used for rebuilding...

Understanding the Importance of Insulin

I'm going to talk to you about the hormone whose name you've heard many times insulin. Some of the content of this chapter is fairly complex, but I think you ought to read it carefully. Because for many of you, the answers to your battle with the bulge and concerns about long-term health issues are here. Almost everyone knows that insulin is given to people with a certain kind of diabetes, to help control their blood sugar levels when their own supplies become depleted or insufficient. Insulin is one of the most powerful and efficient substances that the body uses to control the use, distribution and storage of energy. At its most basic, insulin is the control hormone for glucose, a basic form of sugar. So listen up. Your body is an energy machine, never resting, always metabolically active-and it powers its operations mainly through the use of glucose in the blood, which is why glucose is interchangeably called blood sugar. The body must maintain a certain level of glucose in the...

As Your Blood Sugar Rises

Consuming carbohydrates impacts your blood-sugar levels. The amount of carbs-and the typewill determine how your blood sugar responds. For example, a food full of refined sugar and white flour, such as a jelly doughnut, will raise blood sugar much more dramatically than does a salad. To be useful to your body, blood sugar has to be transported to your cells. Think of insulin as the barge that transports glucose from your blood to your cells. Once it reaches the cells, three things can happen to that glucose It can be mobilized for immediate energy it can be converted into glycogen for later use as a source of energy or it can be stored as fat. Let's delve in a little deeper. Insulin is manufactured in a part of your pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans. As the sugar level in your blood goes up, the pancreas releases insulin to move the sugar out of the blood. It then transports the blood sugar to your body's cells for their energy needs. But as we previously mentioned, when these...

What Is Hyperinsulinism

Simply put, hyperinsulinism is the condition that results from too much insulin being produced by your body. It's easy to see how this might happen when you realize that there's a relationship between the kinds of foods you eat and the amount of insulin in your bloodstream. Foods rich in carbohydrates-especially sugar, honey, milk and fruit, which contain simple sugars, and refined carbohydrates such as flour, white rice and potato starch-are readily absorbed through the stomach, so they speedily convert to glucose. When these foods are eaten in excess, they require a lot of insulin for transport. Foods made of protein and fat, on the other hand, require little or no insulin. (Protein in excess converts to glucose in the liver and requires some insulin to transport it to the cells fat requires essentially none.) And what happens when there is too much insulin As an overweight person becomes heavier, insulin's effectiveness may decline. The cells become desensitized to the action of...

Insulin The Twofaced Hormone

The hormone insulin is like your pack-rat grandmother It likes to store stuff. The only problem is that it's also as schizophrenic as old Uncle Judd. Sometimes it makes your muscles grow sometimes it makes your fat cells grow. Different foods create different insulin responses. Foods that have high-glycemic index rankings (including white bread, most cereals, grapes, and bananas) dump a lot of sugar into your bloodstream soon after eating, causing insulin levels to spike. In this case, insulin works quickly to turn that blood sugar into fat. Some foods, though, cause a different reaction. Dairy products milk, yogurt, ice cream create dramatic insulin surges without the corresponding effect on blood sugar. You also get this insulin response from some foods that are virtually carbohydrate-free, such as beef and fish, which have hardly any effect on blood sugar. When blood sugar remains relatively constant, it allows insulin to use the nutrients in your blood to build and repair cells,...

IGF1 Insulin Like Growth Factor1

I do not believe either worked best for growth without exogenous insulin. But IGF-1 was better than GH alone when dosages were above 60mcg daily. Since there have been numerous studies performed with children employing as much as 9mg (9000mcg) of IGF-1 daily, 60-1 20 mcg per day was not a major issue in my opinion. It is bound by a protein called IGF-1 BP-3 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Binding Protein-3). When it is freed much of the IGF-1 is destroyed before it can even tickle one cell into growth. This means much of an administered dosage of rIGF-l is lost before it can have any fun, as well.

Insulin and amino acids

As mentioned above, both insulin and amino acids have profound effects on protein synthesis and breakdown. Insulin appears to primarily act by decreasing protein breakdown while excess amino acids directly stimulate protein synthesis (33,34). Therefore, it might be expected that increasing both insulin and amino acid levels would increase net muscle gain. When carbohydrates are refed after even a few days of a ketogenic diet, the insulin response is higher than it would be under normal dietary conditions (38). This is probably due to the slight insulin resistance which occurs during a ketogenic diet, discussed in chapter 7. Hyperinsulinemia also increases the transport of some amino acids into muscle (39). These metabolic effects might contribute to muscle growth during the carb-up. To maximize insulin levels during the carb-up, high glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates are preferred. Additionally, one study examining carb-loading after depletion found that insulin levels were higher...

Diabetes and Vitamin C

Diabetics, especially those with non-insulin dependent, adult-onset (Type II or NIDDM) diabetes, often have low Vitamin C levels. Diabetics also often have gum disease, slow wound healing, frequent infections, and problems with the tiny blood vessels of the circulatory system. Sounds a little like scurvy, doesn't it In a way, it is and Vitamin C can help. The hormone insulin, which is made in your pancreas, carries glucose into your cells, where you use it for energy. Insulin also carries Vitamin C into your cells. People with Type II diabetes, however, are resistant to their own insulin. Not enough insulin enters their cells, so not much Vitamin C does either. Diabetics need to take in much more than the RDA to be sure enough reaches their cells. If you have diabetes, your doctor will probably recommend that you take 500 or 1,000 mg a day of extra Vitamin C. Some diabetics say that their circulatory problems and other complications get a lot better when they take larger doses, as...

Warning Insulin Science Geek Stuff

Insulin stimulates the all-important activity of the cell Sodium Potassium Pump (SPP) which in turn increases the rate and level of nutrient transport into cells. (Cell feeding mediator) Though the three macronutrients Protein (in the form of amino acids), fats (in the form of fatty acids) and carbohydrates (in the forms of glucose and glycogen) are all paramount to the growth process, it is amino acid (AA) transport potential that we are most focused upon in this article. The reason is obvious in that the growth rate or hypertrophy of muscle cells is proportionate to the rate and level of AA entry into them. No one makes freak status with a low AA transport potential. Insulin and other anabolic substances increase the process of protein synthesis (anabolism) and RNA activity. Insulin is believed to affect DNA in a way that causes an up-regulation in DNA initiated protein synthesis. Of all anabolics, insulin is far more powerful and important in this respect due to the Sodium...

Insulin Insensitivity

Many people suffer from insulin insensitivity. As a result of this, they often convert carbohydrates into triglycerides, which leads to high cholesterol, water retention, weight gain, hyperglycemia, and prediabetes. People develop insulin insensitivity as a result of eating sweets and overly processed carbohydrate foods throughout the day. Other reasons for developing it are due to overconsumption of bad fats or deficiencies of essential fats, especially omega-3. Consequently, the pancreas becomes overtaxed by the continual oversecretion of insulin and pancreatic enzymes, which desperately work to break down the carbs and remove glucose from the blood to avoid raising blood sugar. Eating frequent meals throughout the day doesn't leave the body enough time to recuperate. Over time the insulin receptors become insensitive, and so the body secretes even more insulin in order to reduce blood sugar. This leads to high fluctuations of blood sugar, and one may feel hungrier as a result, and...

Magnesium and Diabetes

High blood pressure is often a problem for people with diabetes and people with diabetes often have low magnesium levels. Is there a connection Some doctors think there is and recommend magnesium supplements for diabetic patients. Magnesium may also help diabetics control their blood sugar better and help prevent complications later on, like eye problems and heart disease. There's also some evidence that older people who are at risk for diabetes can prevent it by taking extra magnesium. If you have diabetes or are at risk for it, try to get as much magnesium as you can from your diet and consider taking between 200 and 300 mg a day in supplements. Talk to your doctor about taking supplements before you try them, especially if you have kidney problems because of your diabetes.

Insulin And Carbohydrates

Many so-called experts believe that carbohydrates are the enemy of successful fat loss. They claim that eating carbs make you fat. This is based upon the theory that high carb intake diets cause high insulin release levels, and that high insulin release levels lead to high fat storage levels. They further the claim of evil insulin by pointing out the fact that insulin is the body's main storage hormone. And after all, fat is the body's main energy storage place. For the most part, this is total bull-shit with the exception of simple sugars. But for those doubters (and nutritionist dietitians) who scoff at this, read the Study Differences in insulin resistance do not predict weight loss in response to hypocaloric diets in healthy obese women McLaughlin, T., et al. (1999) Journal of Clinical Endocrine Metabolism 84 578-581. There are several other studies to support the facts also. But as most bodybuilders are aware, most nutritionist and dietitians still believe that the RDA for...

Insulinlike Growth Factori

Insulinlike growth factor (IGF1) is regarded as a powerful anabolic stimulator that has the fastest and most immediate growth impact on muscle tissue. IGF1 is a single-chain polypeptide. Like its name, IGF1 has an insulinlike short-term metabolic effect and growth factorlike long-term effects on cell proliferation and differentiation. The IGF1 receptor (IGF-1R) is structurally similar to the insulin receptor. Both have a cell's surface receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase-related activities. The tyrosine kinase domains of IGF1 and insulin receptors possess similar structure and actions. Despite the high degree of homology, experimental evidence suggests that the two receptors have distinct biological roles. The insulin receptor is known to be a key regulator of glucose transport and biosynthesis of glycogen and fat, whereas the IGF1 receptor is a potent regulator of cell growth and differentiation. Note that insulin can have an anabolic effect on muscle cells. Under specific...

When Insulin Is Out of Whack

We've discussed the issue of excessive insulin output-what the medical profession calls hyperinsulinism-and the inefficiency of insulin usage-what is called insulin resistance. There can be no question that overweight individuals whose weight control difficulties are caused by hyperinsulinism respond best to the Atkins controlled carbohydrate nutritional approach. Even the majority of people who do not lose weight on a 1,000-calorie low-fat diet will lose weight on an 1,800- to 2,000-calorie meal plan-if carbohydrates are limited to 20 grams per day.

Do Diabetics Need Insulin And Other Drugs

A large number of diabetics are overweight because they put out too much insulin. As you might imagine, nothing would be more inappropriate than to give insulin to these overweight diabetics, who already put out excessive insulin and have elevated blood sugar resulting from insulin resistance, rather than lack of insulin. Are you a Type II diabetic taking insulin, or one of the oral drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by increasing your insulin levels And do you seem to be metabolically resistant to weight loss Then chances are a hundred to one that you are a diabetic who is simply a victim of a poor assumption on the part of your physician. My approach with those already diagnosed diabetics on oral medications and or insulin who come to me is to determine if they can produce insulin on their own. Here's how you find out if the insulin you are taking is necessary or not Have your doctor run a test of insulin levels (as well as glucose levels) both before and ninety minutes after a...

Fish Oil and Diabetes

If you have diabetes, be extremely cautious about fish oil supplements. They could raise your blood sugar and lower your insulin production. If you want to try fish oil as a way to lower your triglycerides, talk to your doctor first. Use small amounts (no more than 1,000 mg a day) and keep a very close eye on your blood sugar. GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid, is sometimes helpful for nerve damage cause by diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). The doses needed are low less than 500 mg a day. If you want to try this, talk to your doctor first and also read about lipoic acid in Chapter 24.

American Diabetes Association

Http www.diabetes.org The American Diabetes Association is a nonprofit health organization that provides diabetes research, information, and advocacy. The Web site provides information about diabetes, treatments, and the latest news, plus research, prevention, a dictionary, a store, and information about local events. A large part of the Web site is devoted to diabetes-friendly recipes, weight loss, and exercise. There are also a number of active message boards on the site.

The Two Types of Diabetes

At this point we should take one step back to clarify that the two types of diabetes are truly so different that they should be considered two quite different illnesses. This chapter addresses only Type II diabetes. Type I diabetes typically occurs in childhood or early adulthood and is unrelated to dietary habits. It appears to be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body mistakenly attacks the pancreas, largely or totally destroying its capacity to produce insulin. Only five to ten percent of all diabetics are Type I. Type II diabetes is caused by a genetic propensity for the disease combined with improper eating habits. The research done by Cleave (referred to on page 314) showed that certain genetically predisposed races and cultures do not get Type II diabetes until exposed to significant amounts of refined carbohydrates. (I should point out, however, that it is possible to be at risk for Type II diabetes even if you don't have a family history of the illness.) The great majority...

Diabetes May Be Creeping Up on

Traditionally physicians have diagnosed diabetes in people in their fifties and sixties. According to a recent survey, however, the average age of onset in the baby boomer generation is now 37 The crucial point is that whether you get this illness in your thirties or in your fifties, you've been building up to it over decades. Type II diabetes never springs forth out of nowhere. We eat our way toward it, three meals a day, a thousand meals a year, ten thousand meals a decade. Type II diabetes is Diabetes is insidious. It exists as pre-diabetes, usually for several decades. It is during this period that a simple glucose-tolerance test (GTT) can establish its presence. Although the ADA currently estimates that one diabetic in three is unaware that he or she has the condition, we find, by doing GTTs on patients with symptoms and or a family history, approximately three prediabetes for every one with established diabetes.

What Is the Nutritional Answer to Diabetes

Earlier in this chapter I pointed out that I have yet to see a study that showed that a high carbohydrate level in a diet is more helpful to diabetics than is Atkins. But I didn't tell you why. Even though the controlled carbohydrate approach was the standard diabetic therapy until 1950, the ADA abandoned it without ever doing a single test comparing it with a controlled carbohydrate eating plan that followed the Atkins approach. Here is a small sample of the research done over the last seven or eight years. In the mid-1990s, researchers began to compare the effects of high monounsaturated-fat diets with the effects of high-carbohydrate diets in diabetic patients. A study by Dr. Abhimanyu Garg at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center showed that compared with the high-fat diet, the high-carbohydrate diet increased risk factors for heart disease-in the form of triglyceride levels and VLDL (very-low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels-by twenty-four and twenty-three...

Can the Course of Diabetes Be Reversed

If you want to know why I am so certain that the comparison testing will prove Atkins to be so effective, it is because in our clinical practice we have treated over five thousand Type II diabetics. Of those taking insulin-stimulating drugs (sulfonylurea) we were able to get the vast majority off those drugs. And of Type II diabetics taking insulin, more than half were able to cease their injections. Here is one of thousands of exciting case histories. Janet Drake credits doing Atkins with saving her life and her leg. Only 47 years old, she had been diabetic for seventeen years. When she got a blister on one toe, it turned into cellulitis, with a red line extending up her leg to her knee. One of the doctors at the hospital where she then worked as a nurse warned her that she might have to have the toe or the whole leg amputated if she didn't get her blood sugar down fast. Janet knew that her glucose level was around 290, far too high despite the fact that she gave herself insulin...

Hyper Recovery Benefits of Insulin

By triggering the storage rate-limiting enzyme responsible for glycogen replacement (Glycogen Synthase) Insulin increases cellular synthesis and storage of glycogen. Endogenous Insulin misuse can be deadly and administration should never be undertaken without qualified supervision. AGR Nutrition is soon releasing an orally active insulin replacement. Most beasts realized an increase in net lean tissue mass of 20 or more pounds during a first time insulin protocol. After the initial protocol, gains decreased with each subsequent cycle. In many cases athletes reached a point where fat anabolism exceeded lean tissue gains. All to often, athletes assumed more is better. (Okay re-think the day time talk show issue) Actually, the right amount was perfect. (Huh ) Rather than continuously increasing dosages of Insulin, or any substance, some athletes that became beasts had realized that the problem with decreasing positive results was often due to receptor insensitivity. In the case of...

Insulins Essential Role in Muscle Gain and Fat Loss

Insulin is probably the most misunderstood hormone in the body. Insulin's actions are often claimed to be the main culprit for the current epidemic of weight gain. But what many people fail to realize is that, despite its reputation as a fat loss inhibitor, insulin's biological functions are critically important for muscle gain as well as for fat loss. Nevertheless, many people still choose to follow low-carb diets, hoping to minimize insulin activity by chronically restricting carb consumption and thereby forcing the body to burn fat. Low-carb diets, with their extreme restrictions, often lead people to frustration, but seldom to long-term leanness. In the long run, most people on low-carb diets gain more weight than they initially lose. Insulin and IGFi Insulin plays a critical role in promoting the actions of insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF1), which facilitates muscle development. Insulin and IGF1 are peptide hormones with almost identical molecular structures. The difference...

The Perilous Path to Diabetes

From the standpoint of saving lives, this chapter should prove to be the most significant one I have ever written. Here's why For the past two decades, two illnesses have escalated so rapidly that they are considered twin epidemics-obesity and Type II diabetes. I might go so far as to say they are Siamese twins. Obesity and Type II diabetes are actually two aspects of a single illness, characterized by insulin resistance (insulin not doing its job in your body) and hyperinsulinism (excess production of insulin). The overlap between the two is impressive. Over eighty percent of Type II diabetics are obese.' And in my experience, the vast majority of obese people have the identical problems that lead to diabetes. The most convincing connection of all is that these twin epidemics escalated at exactly the same time, coinciding perfectly with dramatic changes in the American diet. During the generation in which these conditions reached unprecedented heights, the intake of dietary fat fell...

Sugar Insulin and Fat Dynamics

Insulin has positive and negative effects on the body. In terms of controlling body fat, the ultimate success one achieves depends on total calorie intake and the hormones effected by the types of calories we eat. Elevated insulin levels for the person hoping to control body fat is, possibly, as detrimental as total caloric intake. High or elevated insulin levels result from overeating carbohydrate foods - either complex carbs or simple carbs. When you overeat carbohydrates, you increase the amount of glucose in the blood above 110 which promotes an insulin burst which drags the excess sugar out of the blood allowing glucose levels to return to normal, around 70 to 110. Here's the tough part. It is possible to stay within your caloric limits and create an environment where insulin levels remain chronically elevated making it almost impossible to get lean. This occurs when one follows either a diet that is extremely low in fiber or when a person obtains the majority of his calories...

Insulin Is A Powerful Proteasome Inhibitor

Insulin's anti-catabolic effects are well known. In most cases it is assumed that this quality can be attributed to insulin's cortisol suppressing capabilities. This is true, but insulin's greatest anti-catabolic effect is inhibition of the proteasome-pathway. Oh ya, but insulin molecules experience difficulty when attempting to bind to their receptor-sites on cells that are experiencing low ATP levels. (That blows) Training decreases circulating insulin levels while increasing the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway and BCAKAD. Sipping a carbohydrate drink during training mediates this to some extent due to elevated insulin secretion. Some chemically enhanced beasts administered 4-10 iu of a fast acting insulin, such as Humalog, immediately after a work-out and downed a drink providing the following Editor's Note For some or many, taking that much L-glutamine (25 grams) is a lot_ for the stomach to handle and most want to throw up. Mainly because there is a massive insulin...

Chromium Boon for Diabetics

One of the hottest supplements today is chromium picolinate. Diabetics swear it helps them control their blood sugar better. Body builders swear it helps them build muscle faster. Some people claim it helps lower high cholesterol, while others claim it boosts your production of the anti-aging hormone DHEA. Is chromium such a miracle mineral Maybe, for some diabetics but the other claims don't hold up as well. Let's start with how much chromium you really need. Nobody knows. The Safe and Adequate range for adults is anywhere between 50 and 200 mcg. Why do you need it In ways we still don't fully understand, chromium is involved with using fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. It's also needed to help the hormone insulin deliver glucose to your cells. Because of the insulin connection, chromium is often touted as a way for diabetics to control their blood sugar. Chromium does seem to help some people with Type II, or adult-onset, diabetes, get glucose into their cells better. We suggest...

Muscle Reverses Insulin Resistance

Resistant Versus Sensitive

Adding muscle via a solid weight training program coupled with a low sugar, low saturated fat diet that includes lots of fiber-type vegetables and adequate amounts of lean protein foods to maintain glucagon levels can, over time, reverse the negative and fat storing effects of insulin resistance. Weight training calls upon glucose from carbohydrates as an energy source. The longer and harder one trains, the more adaptive the muscles become to storing glucose as muscle glycogen. As the demand for glycogen increases with ever greater training loads, the glycogen storing pathways, including the receptiveness of insulin receptors located on muscle tissue become upgraded and are much more ready to accept insulin and glucose. The result glucose is more readily deposited into muscle. The benefit on body fat is two fold. First, if glucose is being deposited into glycogen stores, then it is not being deposited into body fat stores. Second, when glucose is easily stored as glycogen, it does not...

Control Blood Sugar

Exercise is one of the lifestyle tools now known to help control type 2 diabetes and quite possibly reverse its course. A study conducted at the University of Western Australia underscores this exercise connection. In studying the effect of an 8-week circuit-training program on the health of 16 subjects with type 2 diabetes, researchers found that this method of exercise improved hlood sugar con

Thiamin and Diabetes

Because thiamin is involved in glucose production, one symptom of thiamin deficiency is that you don't use glucose normally. That's similar to the problem people with diabetes have, but unfortunately the similarity ends there. A diabetic who is deficient in thiamin and some are will use glucose better once the deficiency is fixed, but after that, there won't be any improvement. Diabetics with normal thiamin levels aren't helped by taking thiamin supplements, and thiamin won't help control blood sugar levels.

Niacin and Diabetes

A serious form of diabetes called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM or Type I) strikes children and young people. This disease is pretty mysterious, but we do know that something destroys the part of the pancreas that makes insulin, the hormone that controls your blood sugar. It's possible that the diabetic's own immune system has something to do with causing the destruction. Powerful drugs that suppress the immune system can sometimes slow down or stop the destruction in the pancreas. IDDM is not the same thing as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, also called adult-onset or Type II diabetes. If you have Type II diabetes, niacin will not help it, it will make it worse

Insulin sensitivity

Human beings require periodic bursts of high muscular effort. In the absence of such activity, glycogen is not drained out of the muscles to any meaningful degree. When this state is coupled with routine consumption of large amounts of refined carbohydrates, a level of glucose is produced that can no longer be stored in the muscles. The muscles are already full, because an insufficient number of glycolytic fibers have been tapped. Glucose therefore begins to stack up in the bloodstream, and the body's insulin levels rise. Because the glucose cannot get into the muscle cells, the receptors on the surface of those cells become insensitive to insulin. The body then produces even more insulin and now has large amounts of circulating glucose and large amounts of circulating insulin. That glucose gets transported to the liver, where, in the face of high insulin levels, it will attach to fatty acids (triacylglycerol), and all future carbohydrate ingestion now is partitioned exclusively to...

Creatine And Insulin

We know that Frank's insulin use facilitated metabolization, transport, and storage of amino acids (proteins), glucose (carbohydrates) and fatty acids (fats) as well as electrolytes and minerals. We also know that insulin triggered anabolism through multiple pathways. Several companies market great creatine product that they claim is 880 more effective than regular creatine monohydrate. It is more effective due to 75 grams of glucose to trigger increased endogenous insulin release and 200 mg of alfa lipoic acid to aid in insulin receptor-site sensitivity. They also added a few other minerals necessary for ATP regeneration. Good product (for those who do not fear fat accumulation). The key fact here is that insulin secretion must be elevated to significantly increase cellular stores of creatine for ATP regeneration ( amino acids to build contractile and structural proteins, glucose as glycogen to fuel hard-core training, and fatty acids to fuel formation of prostaglandins). Add...

Insulin resistance

As discussed in chapter 7, one effect of long term low-carbohydrate diets is an increase in insulin resistance, sometimes called 'starvation diabetes', when carbohydrates are refed (4). This effect is briefly discussed again here. In brief, the initial physiological response to carbohydrate refeeding looks similar to what is seen in Type II diabetics, including blood sugar swings and hyperinsulinemia. Several possible hypotheses for this effect have been considered including a direct effect of ketones, but this is not the case (5,6) and ketones may improve insulin binding (4). The change in insulin sensitivity is In practice, many individuals report what appears to be rebound hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) either during the carb-up or during the first few days of eating carbohydrates when ketogenic eating is ended, for the reasons discussed above. Ketones themselves do not appear to alter how cells respond to insulin (6) which goes against the popular belief that ketogenic diets...


Insulin is notably the most anabolic substance there is in the average hard-core beast's chemical muscle enhancement arsenal. Unfortunately insulin's anabolic action is not lean tissue specific. Yup This means that the employment of insulin includes an anabolic response to fat cells leading to an increase in adipose tissue growth almost equal to lean tissue growth for many wanna-be beasts.


As previously discussed, Type I (insulin dependent) diabetics may have problems with ketoacidosis if insulin levels drop too low. Since these individuals rely on injections to normalize insulin, a ketogenic diet conceivably poses no problems. However, the lack of carbohydrates, as well as changes in insulin sensitivity, on a ketogenic diet will affect insulin requirements (1). Any Type I diabetic who wishes to try a lowered carbohydrate diet must consult with their physician or health provider to determine changes in their insulin regimen. Type II (non-insulin dependent) diabetics are frequently drawn to low carbohydrate or ketogenic diets as they may help to control blood glucose and insulin levels (2). Individuals with severe hyperinsulinemia and or hypoglycemia will need to be careful when implementing a ketogenic diet to avoid problems with blood sugar crashes and related difficulties. Individuals with Type II diabetes may have greater difficulty establishing ketosis, as some data...

The Path to Diabetes

Let's outline the journey that diabetes typically takes. As you now understand, the modern American diet is grossly tipped toward refined carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour, both of which comprise most junk foods and rank high on the glycemic index. Your caveman body is totally befuddled by such foods. When you eat them, so much blood sugar gets poured into the bloodstream that your pancreas has to pump out insulin as if it were handling an emergency. When you were 18, the superb efficiency of your body may have meant that you hardly noticed any symptoms resulting from this flood of blood sugar and resultant insulin overload. Later the symptoms pile on, just as for many of us the pounds do. You should already have taken the Blood-Sugar Symptom Test and be aware of any blood sugar-related symptoms you might have. The vast majority of overweight people on a high-carbohydrate diet display an extensive range of symptoms, the by-products of unstable blood-sugar levels. A...

Fiber for Diabetes

Eating a high-fiber diet can help people with diabetes better control their blood sugar. This seems to work because soluble fiber especially the guar gum in beans slows down your digestion of carbohydrates. If the carbos enter your bloodstream more slowly, your blood sugar doesn't jump up as sharply after you eat a meal. This helps many diabetics feel better and have fewer energy highs and lows. The National Diabetes Association now recommends a high-fiber diet for all diabetics. If you have diabetes, discuss adding soluble fiber to your diet with your doctor before you try it.

An Insulin Assault

Now let's reverse this line of thought. High blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL and being overweight all turn out to be consistently associated with high insulin levels. If that's the case, then presumably high insulin itself should predict heart disease. Four significant studies done in Wales, Finland, France and Canada support this theory 1. The Caerphilly, Wales, heart disease study, which observed 2,512 men aged 45 to 59, found a connection between fasting plasma insulin levels and heart disease that existed independently of other risk factors. 2. In the Helsinki Policeman Study, 1,059 men aged 30 to 59 were tracked for five years. The data revealed that fatal (and nonfatal) heart attacks were most common in those who had the highest insulin levels. 3. The Paris prospective study followed 7,246 men for an average of sixty-three months. Again coronary heart disease was proportionate to insulin levels, and the relationship was greater when the subjects were obese. 4. A...

Weight Loss and Good Health The Atkins

The advice offered in this book, although based on the author's experience with many thousands of patients, is not intended to be a substitute for the advice and counsel of your personal physician. If you are currently taking diuretics, insulin or oral diabetes medications, consult your physician before starting Atkins. You will need to reduce and then closely monitor your dosage as you lower your blood-sugar level. People with severe kidney disease should not do Atkins. The weight loss phases of the Atkins Nutritional Approach are not appropriate for pregnant women and nursing mothers.

Hormones and the ketogenic diet

Ketogenic diets cause the adaptations described above primarily by affecting the levels of two hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a storage hormone, responsible for moving nutrients out of the bloodstream and into target tissues. For example, insulin causes glucose to be stored in muscle as glycogen, and FFA to be stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Glucagon is a fuel-mobilizing hormone, stimulating the body to break down stored glycogen, especially in the liver, to provide glucose for the body. When carbohydrates are removed from the diet, insulin levels decrease and glucagon levels increase. This causes an increase in FFA release from fat cells, and increased FFA burning in the liver. The accelerated FFA burning in the liver is what ultimately leads to the production of ketone bodies and the metabolic state of ketosis. In addition to insulin and glucagon, a number of

Astonishing proportion of the time for the vast majority of men and women

The Atkins Nutritional Approach can positively impact the lives of people facing the risk factors associated with diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension. It can also alleviate gastrointestinal problems, and certain allergies, chronic pain and immune system weaknesses.

The Next Wave of Disease Management

For years you have been reading about the three most prevalent diseases in the United States heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. And for In Maximum Energy for Life, cardiologist Chip Lavie made the startling statement that 95 percent of all heart disease is preventable. We gave you the facts and the program to prove it. In this book I am taking this concept one step further. I believe that obesity should be named the number one preventable disease in this country, because almost all major health problems have overweight or obesity at their core. Obesity is responsible for a whole constellation of problems generally known as heart disease high cholesterol, hypertension, heart attack, and stroke. It is the number one cause of adult-onset type 2 diabetes. A recent landmark study involving 90,000 cancer-free individuals designed to examine the relationship between cancer and fat found that the risk for all types of cancer was increased by being overfat or obese. It is far easier...

The Four Principles of the Atkins Nutritional Approach

The change is amazing. Doing Atkins, you meet your nutritional needs by eating delicious, healthy, filling foods and avoiding the sugar and carbs that junk food is loaded with. As a result, you become less tired and more energetic, not merely because of the weight loss, but because the physical consequences of a truly dysfunctional blood sugar and insulin metabolism are reversed. Doing Atkins, people start feeling good even before they reach their goal weight. Once they abandon the catastrophic American diet of refined carbohydrates for whole, unrefined food, they start to live again. It's one of the most rewarding experiences I've had the privilege of witnessing with thousands of my patients. 4. You will lay the permanent groundwork for disease prevention. You will change your life, which, believe it or not, is even more important than looking good on the beach next summer. By following an individualized controlled carbohydrate nutritional approach that...

Macronutrient Basics Carbohydrates

Digestion reverses the process the body breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates and ultimately blood sugar (glucose) which can then be used for many different functions, such as the production of ATP (the body's universal energy molecule). Depending on the carbohydrate and other factors, different carbohydrates will have different effects on blood sugar in particular, how fast blood sugar rises and falls. The ability of a carbohydrate food to raise blood sugar quickly or slowly is called the glycemic index (GI). The GI was developed to track how different foods affect blood sugar. Interestingly, many carbohydrates that are consideredcomplexhave been found to raise blood sugar rapidly while a few simple carbohydrates don't have a dramatic effect on blood sugar. The GI rating of a food is based on how much blood glucose rises after consuming a carbohydrate food over a 2 hour period. This is compared to a reference, glucose, a simple sugar. Some GI scales now use...

Why Is The Glycemic Index Important

The Gl's importance relates to blood sugar's effects on the hormone insulin, the primary hormonal mediator of fat storage. Among its hundreds of different functions, the body uses the hormone insulin to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood, help pull amino acids into the cells, turn on protein synthesis in lean tissues and regulate body fat storage. Problems with the body's ability to regulate blood glucose appear if insulin does not properly bind to its receptors on the membranes of the cells or if the cells do not readily accept blood sugar. As already indicated, the general name for the failure of normal amounts of i nsulin to maintain blood sugar (i.e., glucose) within acceptable levels is insulin resistance. When insulin does not bring blood sugar down after meals, the body secretes higher amounts of i nsulin until serum glucose levels eventually fall. Not surprisingly, diets and nutrients, which reduce the amount of insulin required by the body, also appear to...

Section 3 Factors influencing fuel utilization

There are several factors which affect the mix of fuels used by the body. The primary factor is the amount of each nutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat and alcohol) being consumed and this impacts on the other three factors (16). The second determinant is the levels of hormones such as insulin and glucagon, which are directly related to the mix of foods being consumed. Third is the bodily stores of each nutrient including fat stores and muscle liver glycogen. Finally the levels of regulatory enzymes for glucose and fat breakdown, which are beyond our control except through changes in diet and activity, determine the overall use of each fuel. Each of these factors are discussed in detail below. Quantity of nutrients consumed

Section 2 Ketogenesis and the two site model

The formation of ketone bodies, called ketogenesis, is at the heart of the ketogenic diet and the processes involved need to be understood. As described in the previous chapter, the primary regulators of ketone body formation are the hormones insulin and glucagon. The shift that occurs in these two hormones, a decrease in insulin and an increase in glucagon is one of the major regulating steps regulating ketogenesis.

What is it supposed to do

As insulin is a primary fat storage hormone in the human body it is presumed anything that improves the actions of insulin will help prevent weight gain and food cravings. It has been well established that chromium, along with other nutrients, is essential for proper insulin functioning. Some studies suggest chromium can help reduce cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels and improve HDL levels, which would make perfect sense considering this mineral's role in blood sugar and lipid metabolism. Some feel it's also useful for people with blood sugar management problems, such as hypoglycemia.

Understanding Your Metabolism

Many people are afraid of eating fats because they associate them with instant weight gain. When my nutritionist, Molly Kimball, evaluates clients for my health and performance enhancement program (PEP), she often finds that people who are trying to lose weight frequently avoid fats. They believe that everything they eat must be low-fat or fat-free. This makes for a boring and tasteless diet. Their typical breakfast might be dry toast or a bagel or cereal with low-fat milk. Lunch might be a sandwich with very little meat and no mayonnaise or cheese. Dinner might be pasta, brown rice, or a potato and with a little protein. Eating all of these carbohydrates by themselves without a sufficient amount of lean meat (30 percent of the total diet) and acceptable fats (30 percent of the total diet) can trigger an insulin release, causing blood sugar to dip. Fact 4 Controlling Your Insulin Response Is Key for Fat Loss The most effective way to reduce body fat and promote metabolic efficiency is...

Optimising Protein Intake for Gains

The hormone insulin changes in its concentration in the blood with the daily sleep-wake cycle. Insulin levels are lowest in the morning and increase during the day. This is why people say you are more likely to lay down excess food as fat in the evening than you are in the morning. You have probably heard a lot about insulin in relation to carbohydrate metabolism in respect of controlling blood glucose levels, and it is well known for its use as therapy in types of diabetes. Insulin is also heavily involved in protein metabolism, and is an extremely anabolic hormone. For this reason it too has become abused by bodybuilders and strength athletes, and injected to increase protein uptake by muscles. Natural insulin levels are also highest straight after weight training, when there is a high demand on the muscles which have been trained to recuperate, if they have been fully worked. Insulin is needed here to help replenish the glycogen stores and put protein in the muscle cells for repair...

Post Workout Nutrition

Following workouts, the body preferentially shuttles glucose into the liver and muscles replacing lost glycogen via both insulin dependent and noninsulin dependent glucose transport mechanisms. This is the key time to take advantage of the one thing high GI carbs do well raise blood sugar and insulin quickly. Interestingly, studies have found a better insulin response when carbs and protein are mixed together post-workout over carbs alone. The combination also enhances glycogen resynthesis, protein synthesis, reduces muscle damage and reduces post-workout levels of the catabolic (muscle wasting) hormone, cortisol.

Sugar The Nitty Gritty

All carbohydrates foods we eat -whether a potato, a yam, a cup of rice, candy, or a can of soda - will ultimately be digested and absorbed into the blood stream as a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is sometimes referred to as blood sugar. Glucose stimulates the pancreas to release the specialized storage hormone called insulin. And it is insulin's job to regulate how much glucose shall remain in the blood. The total amount of insulin released is related to the concentration of glucose in the blood and the concentration is related to your total carbohydrate intake. If there is a concentrated amount of glucose in the blood, in laymen's terms, a lot of sugar in the blood the pancreas responds by kicking out a large burst of insulin. If there is a moderate amount of glucose present in the blood, the pancreas responds by kicking out far less insulin. When there is is very small amounts of glucose in the blood, the pancreas puts out dramatically less insulin. In...

A calorie is a calorie

However, the calories in calories out mantra fails to take into account modern research that finds fats, carbs, and proteins have very different effects on the metabolism via countless pathways, such as their effects on hormones (e.g., insulin, leptin, glucagon, etc), effects on hunger and appetite, thermic effects (heat production), effects on uncoupling proteins (UCPs),

What is the significance of Glycemic Index and what are its drawbacks

The GI's importance relates to blood sugars affects on the hormone insulin, which is the primary hormonal mediator of fat storage, among the hundreds of functions of insulin. Among its hundreds of different functions, the body uses the hormone insulin to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood, help pull amino acids into the cells and turn on protein synthesis in lean tissues, and is directly linked to regulating bodyfat storage. Problems with the body's ability to regulate blood glucose appear if insulin does not properly bind to its receptors on the membranes of the cells or if, for other reasons the cells do not readily accept blood sugar. As already indicated the general name for the failure of normal amounts of insulin to maintain blood sugar (i.e., glucose) within acceptable levels is insulin resistance. When insulin does not bring blood sugar down after meals, the body secretes higher amounts of insulin until serum glucose levels eventually fall. Not surprisingly,...

Changes in hormones and fuel availability

Although some mention is made in the discussions below of the adaptations seen during this time period, most of the major adaptations to ketosis start to occur by the third day, continuing for at least 3 weeks (4-6). During the first 3 days of fasting, blood glucose drops from normal levels of 80-120 mg dl to roughly 65-75 mg dl. Insulin drops from 40-50 pU ml to 7-10 pU ml (5,7,8). Both remain constant for the duration of the fast. One thing to note is that the body strives to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels even under conditions of total fasting (5). The popularly held belief that ketosis will not occur until blood glucose falls to 50 mg dl is incorrect. Additionally, the popular belief that there is no insulin present on a ketogenic diet is incorrect (7). One difference between fasting and a ketogenic diet is that the slight insulin response to dietary protein will cause blood glucose to be maintained at a slightly higher level, approximately 80-85 mg dl (1). This most...

Dietary Fat The Body Fat Connection

The body fat storing mechanisms in the body rely on total calories to make new body fat and the inter-dynamic relationship between dietary fat and insulin produced from carbohydrates. While insulin has the potential to store carbs as glycogen or to shoot them off towards fat cells influencing the accumulation of body fat, and to release lipoprotein lipase which essentially blocks fat cells from breaking down, it's strongest influence in the accumulation of added body fat lies in its ability to stimulate the uptake of dietary fat by fat cells. In a nutshell, a high dietary fat intake in the presence of insulin virtually guarantees dietary fat will not only make it to fat cells, but quickly be packed away to make bigger fat cells. Just as insulin is the trigger that sets in motion the removal of glucose from the blood and into glycogen or fat, it's the main trigger that allows fat cells to open up and allow additional dietary fat to be packed away. The deadly combo simple sugars or a...

The Glycolytic System

There are two sources of glucose that can be used to make more ATP. The two sources include glucose or blood sugar that floats about in your blood stream from a recent carbohydrate meal or from liver or muscle glycogen. Glycogen is made from glucose. It's a collection of a stored glucose derived from previously eaten carbohydrate foods bundled together and physically packed away into the muscles and liver where it can be called on to fuel your workouts when sugar levels in the blood

Bo Walker The Inches Melted Off and the Numbers Went Down

Bo was concerned about his health because he and his wife had a young child. I knew I was headed in the wrong direction. My father had died at a very early age, fifty-nine years old, from a heart attack and complications with diabetes. I knew that if I continued on this path and stayed in the 250 weight range or worse I was probably headed for the same fate. I wanted my kid to know who I am and I wanted to live long enough to enjoy my life with my wife. Bo was also facing the stress of having just lost his job.

Myth If you exercise it doesnt matter what you eat Fact If you exercise it matters even more what you eat

In fact, there are in excess of 58 million clinically obese men and women in America today, and we spent more than 100 billion last year alone to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and other ailments that are caused, more often than not, by a lack of fitness.

Congenital fiber type disproportion 1251 Clinical aspects

Two brothers with CFTD had clinical insulin resistance due to compound heterozygous insulin receptor mutations (Klein et al., 1999). This may be a chance association. However, the recent description of CFTD associated with SEPN1 mutations and insulin resistance (Clarke et al., 2006) suggests that the possible relationship between CFTD and insulin resistance warrants further investigation.

Basics of Weight Training

Fat around the waist is considered an increased risk for type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. To find out what shape you are, use a tape to measure your hips at their widest point, and then measure your waist at its narrowest (usually around the navel). Then divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement. A ratio greater than .80 for a woman and greater than 1.0 for a man indicate that you are an apple The amount of fat you are carrying will eventually cause a negative impact on your health.

What Happens to a Meal

Obviously, if you eat a lot of carbohydrate, you'll end up with a lot of glucose in your blood. Sounds good, doesn't it All that energy coursing through your system. Eat sugar, starches and fruits and you're going to get those blood-sugar levels up fast, aren't you If you love candy bars, perhaps you're saying, That's great-the more I eat, the more energy I'll have. If you don't understand this yet, let's look at what insulin and the other energy-controlling hormones do when you eat.

The Metabolic Advantage

When carbohydrates make up the bulk of your diet, you basically burn the glucose from the carbs as energy. Glucose enters the body, and insulin is secreted by the pancreas to utilize it for immediate energy, or store it as glycogen in the liver and muscles. The glucose not stored as glycogen is made into triglycerides (bodyfat). When needed for energy, the stored glycogen is converted back to glucose and used up directly by a cell or transported through the bloodstream to other cells for conversion and use as energy. When carbs are the main form of energy to the body, the body produces insulin to process it and store it. This is all well and good but, as we discussed above, one of the problems with insulin is that it activates the lipogenic (fat producing) enzymes on the body and decreases the activity of the lipolytic (fat burning) enzymes. What this leads to is an increased storing of body fat and a decrease in the amount of stored fat that will be burned.

Host of Other Health Issues

Here are some further reasons why high insulin levels can lead to big problems Insulin increases salt and water retention, a recipe for high blood pressure. Insulin is directly involved in creating atherosclerotic plaques, which, if not controlled, can lead to heart disease. High insulin levels have been shown to correlate with high levels of triglycerides and low levels of good HDL cholesterol. High insulin levels correlate with increased risk of breast cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome. (Conversely, the lower the levels of insulin, the better the survival rates for breast cancer.) Obesity increases insulin resistance. This means that you can sharply reduce your risk of blood-sugar disorders-and by extension, heart disease and other ailments-by simply keeping your weight down and controlling carbohydrate intake. Even if you have a hereditary predisposition to diabetes, you may be able to stall or completely avoid its onset.

How Many Calories Do I Need

Any time muscle is shed, the overall basal metabolism drops and a drop in muscle mass effects insulin resistance. Recall, more muscle increases the actual size of insulin receptors reversing insulin resistance so less muscle promotes insulin resistance. Ouch In a way, we could say cutting calories too severely is a losing proposition - no pun intended.

This Is Why You Cant Lose Weight

Now maybe you're past even that stage, and you simply cannot drop pounds. If you are, insulin has really closed the trap. The pancreas, faced with your abuse of simple and refined carbohydrates, has become so efficient at secreting insulin that just a touch of blood sugar will release a flood. In response to high insulin levels, your body has become intent on storing fat by the process I've explained. Group A responders (see pages 34-35) will recognize the role that excess insulin plays in preventing weight loss by giving you an ongoing sensation of hunger that can be satisfied only by constant overeating. I know I've produced a really heart-sinking analysis of how and why fat accumulates on your body. So, what do you do now You adjust the insulin spigot. And so far as weight loss goes, the answer lies in two entwined concepts burning fat and controlling carbohydrates, which we will explore in the upcoming chapters.

Your body hates you

They have good skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and tend to put calories into muscle more effectively (i.e. they partition calories towards muscle instead of fat). They probably have fewer fat cells than most people and that fat is evenly distributed (although even female pros have problems with lower bodyfat). When they diet, they don't have as many problems with metabolic slowdown. Their evenly distributed fat comes off easily and, since they can use fatty acids easily for fuel, they don't lose as much muscle when they diet. All of these factors contribute to their success. We can contrast that to the average individual who could have any number of potential metabolic defects that prevents them from reaching their desired goals. Testosterone might be on the low side of normal, cortisol production is elevated, thyroid or nervous system output may be low (meaning a lower than optimal metabolic rate). Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity is low which means that excess calories get...

Is There a Role for High GI carbs for Bodybuilders and other Athletes

Following workouts the body preferentially shuttles glucose into the liver and muscles replacing lost glycogen via both insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent glucose transport mechanisms (Gautier, J.F., 2001). This is the key time to take advantage of the one thing high GI carbs do well raise blood sugar and insulin quickly. Post workout, the catabolic (muscle wasting) hormone cortisol rises. Drinking a post workout drink consisting of high GI carbs and fast acting proteins is perhaps the best way to prevent the post workout effects of cortisol due to the sharp rise in insulin which is known to counter act the effects of cortisol (Kraemer, W.J., et al, 1998). Interestingly, studies have found a better insulin response when carbs and protein is mixed together post workout over carbs alone (Ivy, J.L., 1998). Specific grams of carbs per kg of bodyweight formulas exist for post workout carbohydrate and proteins recommendations (Burke, L.M., 1997), though 75-100g of high GI carbs and...

Quick Arm Gains Routine

Remember that nutrition is key for gains. If you have an average metabolism, multiply your bodyweight times 15 to gain muscle size and use a macronutrient ratio of 40 carbs, 40 proteins, and 20 fats. If you are a hardgainer, then multiply your bodyweight by 24 and use a nutrient split of 50 carbs (even split of simple and complex), 25 proteins, and 25 good fats. Also, whether a hardgainer or average gainer, remember to have a post workout protein shake with simple carbs to spike insulin levels and induce anabolism (growth).

And then there are drugs

Anyone who tells you that the various bodybuilding drugs (anabolic steroids, insulin, clenbuterol, etc.) don't work, or aren't necessary to reach a monstrous level of development, is bullshitting you. Usually they have an all-natural supplement or steroid replacement to sell you in the first place (I just have a book). I'd be lying if I told you that anything you'll read in this book could take you to the development level of even the worst pro. It can't. Without both their genetics and their drugs, it simply can't be done. At best proper meticulous crafty nutrition and training will let your maximize your own potential and move beyond ordinary. To go above your genetic potential requires drugs. The sooner you come to terms with this, the better off you'll be. Contrast that to a dieting professional bodybuilder. With the choice of the right drugs, he can eliminate pretty much all of the above problems. Anabolic steroids replace natural testosterone, synthetic thyroid replaces what the...

Lipolysis vs Glucosis

Have you ever wondered what sustained bears and other hibernating animals during their long winter sleep It was the utilization of their fat stores. When you dial down the volume of insulin production, as you do in lipolysis, your body is equipped to burn your own body fat in a similar way. It takes place smoothly and is self-sustaining. For you, this is a sort of biologic utopia. The process of losing weight becomes as painless as eating naturally was when you were piling on pounds.

Getting the right amount of fat

Getting the right amount of fat in your diet is a delicate balancing act. Too much, and you increase your risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer. (The risk of colon cancer seems to be tied more clearly to a diet high in fat from meat rather than fat from dairy products.) Too little fat, and infants don't thrive, children don't grow, and everyone, regardless of age, is unable to absorb and use fat-soluble vitamins that smooth the skin, protect vision, bolster the immune system, and keep reproductive organs functioning.

Why Does Lipolysis Work

You'll remember that insulin's job is to convert all your excess carbohydrate into stores of body fat. In a normally functioning body, fatty acids and ketones are readily converted from fat tissue to fuel. But in overweight people, high insulin levels prevent this from happening. Most obese people become so adept at releasing insulin that their blood is never really free of it and they're never able to use up their fat stores. By primarily burning fat instead of carbohydrates, lipolysis breaks the cycle of excess insulin and resultant stored fat. So by following a fat-containing, controlled carbohydrate regimen, you bypass the process of converting large amounts of carbohydrate into glucose. When your carbohydrate intake drops low enough to induce fat burning, abnormal insulin levels return to normal-perhaps for the first time in years or decades.'-'

Chapter Five 3 The Overeating Phase

You've now reached the point that it's time to eat your main meal. Your body is conditionally depleted of carbohydrates. Your hormonal levels are at their height, and their effects are accelerated even more if you've just exercised. Your growth hormone has picked up, and your enzyme pool is fully loaded. Most important, your insulin level is at peak sensitivity, which is one of the biggest advantages of the Warrior Diet.

Psychological Benefits Of The Anabolic Diet

It will delay the onset of hunger. You feel fuller after you eat. This is probably because it doesn't increase insulin to a great degree. When you're on the insulin roller coaster with the high carb diet and your body notices blood sugar falling, it puts in an emergency call to EAT That won't happen on the Anabolic Diet. You'll find yourself losing bodyfat and perhaps, for the first time in your life as a bodybuilder, you won't be famished. Still, once you get that first carb in you and the insulin rush begins, you may find yourself in love with them again. The love affair will pass, though. By Sunday, you're generally tired of all those carbs and more than ready to get back on the high fat, low carb part of the diet and leave the doldrums behind.

What does the research say

OKG also stimulates the secretion of important anabolic hormones. Fifteen grams of OKG added to the feeding solutions of children receiving total parenteral nutrition resulted in improved growth and a significant increase in IGF-1. Enterally fed trauma patients also experienced increased levels of IGF-1, along with insulin and growth hormone vs. controls. There is virtually no data on the utility of OKG supplementation in healthy humans. Rat studies are mildly suggestive of some potential benefits, such as enhanced insulin secretion, which might be useful for pre- and or post-workout recovery. A study on rats exercised to exhaustion demonstrated that OKG increased glutamine synthesis and resulted in enhanced buffering of ammonia. This is an effect that - if it occurs in humans - might enhance performance or recovery.

Why Diets Fail Part 2 Introduction

A good (and heavily researched) example of this is the Pima indians, a group that is divided into roughly two different environments but which share identical genetics. One group of Pima is living the standard Western lifestyle with rather minimal daily activity and easy access to tasty, high-calorie foods the other is living a much more traditional lifestyle with high levels of daily activity and a more traditional diet. The first group shows a much more extreme prevalence of obesity and Type II diabetes than the second. Once again, it's always genetics plus environment than determine the end result.

Set Protein Guidelines

Protein needs are correlated with lean body mass. The more muscle one carries, the more protein is needed. Bodybuilders, the leanest athletes on the face of the earth, usually consume at least one gram of protein for each pound of lean body weight. While such numbers fly in the face of the RDA, the RDA's really don't apply because they're not set to facilitate the stripping away of body fat. Recall, protein has a dragging effect on insulin which favors lower insulin levels. This not only effects fat burning in a positive light, but lower insulin also translates into appetite control because spiking insulin is a potent appetite stimulant. Protein, unlike carbohydrates or dietary fat, can not be stored in the body to any significant degree. Therefore, there is a daily need for it and, to maximize absorption and to provide a constant influx of glucagon - the hormone released with protein that encourages fat metabolism while dragging down insulin levels - it's important to spread your...

Sustained health benefits

It is by the process of glycogenolysis and the resulting amplification cascade that high-intensity exercise really taps into the largest store of glucose in your muscles and mobilizes it so that in the postexercise period, the resulting glucose void must be filled or replenished. As a consequence, a situation has been created whereby the insulin receptors on the surface of the muscle cell now become more sensitive to aid in the process of replenishing this deficit. This replenishment period can last as long as several days, depending on the depth of drainage. Insulin sensitivity is prolonged by the higher level of drainage that attends high-intensity training, as opposed to just an immediate, postworkout sensitivity boost. This replenishment process occurs by a standard glycogen synthesis pathway that does not involve a similar mechanism of amplification. As insulin sensitivity is prolonged, enduring for several days afterward, the sensitivity is also heightened by the magnitude of...

Quantity of carbohydrate

In the past few years there has been quite an outcry against carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, and specifically the insulin response which occurs from (high insulin levels, etc.) are due to the reliance on highly-refined carbohydrate sources in modern society. As mentioned earlier, many cultures do just fine with high carbohydrate intakes, but they are not eating the refined carbs found in most modern diets. Generally, carbohydrate sources are divided into starchy (e.g. potatoes, rice, pasta, fruit) and fibrous (vegetables). Carbohydrates can also be rated by glycemic index refer to issue 57 for more details. In general, but not always, sources of fibrous carbs have a lower glycemic index than sources of starchy carbs. In all likelihood, an ideal diet would contain some mix of starchy and fibrous carbs. Some individuals have reported less fat gains, but good mass gains, with diets made of primarily fibrous carbohydrate sources. Increasing the intake of fibrous carbohydrate sources can...

Carbohydrates and energy A biochemical love story

When you eat carbohydrates, your pancreas secretes insulin, the hormone that enables you to digest starches and sugars. This release of insulin is sometimes called an insulin spike, which means the same thing as insulin secretion but sounds a whole lot more sinister. Eating simple carbohydrates such as sucrose (table sugar) provokes higher insulin secretion than eating complex carbohydrates such as starch. If you have a metabolic disorder such as diabetes that keeps you from producing enough insulin, you must be careful not to take in more carbs than you can digest. Unmetabolized sugars circulating through your blood can make you dizzy and maybe even trip you into a diabetic coma. What makes this interesting is that some perfectly healthful foods, such as carrots, potatoes, and white bread, have more simple carbs than others, such as apples, lentils, peanuts, and whole wheat bread. The Glycemic Index, developed at the University of Toronto in 1981, gives you a handle on this by...

The Complexities of Carbohydrates

When doing Atkins, you will control the number of grams of carbohydrates you eat and will focus on certain food groups rather than others. One reason you will need to do this is because not all carbohydrate found in food is created equal. Most carbohydrate is digested by your body and turned into glucose-and most nutritionists refer to this as digestible carbohydrate. However, some carbohydrate can be digested by your body but not turned into glucose (glycerin is one example), and some carbohydrate is not digestible at all, such as fiber (see Fiber A Form of Carbohydrate, opposite) and is therefore eventually excreted by your body. These last two types of carbohydrate don't have an impact on your blood-sugar levels. Understanding the different behavior of carbohydrate in your body can help you make smart food choices. But you cannot necessarily rely on food labels. Recently (in 2001) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rejected a request by numerous health food manufacturers to...

Fiber A Form of Carbohydrate

What exactly is fiber Simply put, dietary fiber is the indigestible parts of plant cells. Although it is a carbohydrate, fiber does not convert to glucose and thus does not raise your blood-sugar level the way carbohydrates typically do. In fact, fiber actually slows the entry of glucose into the bloodstream. This in turn reduces the blood-sugar spikes that cause insulin production and encourage the body to produce and store body fat.' And by slowing down food's transit time in the digestive tract, fiber helps you feel full longer, resulting in fewer food cravings.

The Glycemic IndexA Beautiful Tool

For someone controlling his or her intake of carbohydrates, the implication of such an index is obvious. By using it, you get to know-in advance of eating it-how a given food will affect both your blood-sugar levels and your insulin response. By choosing low-glycemic foods you can insure yourself a stable, smoothly running metabolic engine. That translates into plenty of energy and lays the foundation for both long-term health and disease prevention. The controlled carbohydrate foods you'll eat during the weight loss phases of Atkins have a good deal of overlap with the lowglycemic foods you'll see listed on the glycemic index table on the following pages. (Pasta lovers who intend to try to squeeze in a little once they reach the Lifetime Maintenance phase, I have a tip for you Note that cooking your pasta al dente significantly lowers its glycemic effects. Here's why The shorter cooking time leaves the long chains of starch that are in pasta more closely packed together than longer...

The Bloating Of America

Along with the chronic insulin response, the high carb diet also decreases the testosterone and growth hormone. That puts you in a position where the effects of the 3 critical hormonal contributors to growth insulin, testosterone and growth hormone are limited. You're just not going to get maximum growth with this situation.

Some problems with carbohydrates

Some people have a hard time handling carbohydrates. For example, people with Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes do not produce sufficient amounts of insulin, the hormones needed to carry all the glucose produced from carbohydrates into body cells. As a result, the glucose continues to circulate in the blood until it's excreted through the kidneys. That's why one way to tell whether someone has diabetes is to test the level of sugar in that person's urine.

Our Metabolic Systems Work the Same

It is my estimate that nearly 90 percent of us have been eating meals that consist primarily of carbohydrates (breads, cereals, grains, pasta, fruits, and sugars) throughout our lifetime. This has trained our systems to crave and use carbohydrates as fuel. Then when we consume carbohydrates, our bodies assume that we are about to engage in strenuous activity. We are, in essence, like Pavlov's dog. Carbohydrates ring our bell, and our bodies respond just as they've been trained they secrete a hormone known as insulin which will either (a) digest and use the newly acquired carbohydrates as energy, (b) properly store the excess in the liver or the muscles, or (c) deposit the excess in the form of fat. The normal action taken by the body when faced with strenuous exercise is to first use up carbohydrates from the stomach (the last meal eaten that day) and then go on to utilize carbohydrates from the muscles and the liver in turn. Only as a last resort will the body use up the...

Reported Characteristics

Sometime in the 80's athletes found out Zeranabol had anabolic activity. Since it is actually a form of estrogen, the drug increases nitrogen retention. IGF-1, GH, and Insulin secretion increases are also realized for the same reason. The result is some lean mass gain with high water retention. For the most part, users have realize HPTA function suppression at extreme rates, gyno, fat deposits, and head-aches. Oh, did I mention liver damage

Chronic Activation of cGMP

Chronic elevation of cGMP upsets the body's biological balance more material (i.e., fat and toxins) is deposited than is removed. The inability to detoxify compromises liver functions, further accelerating the accumulation of metabolic waste toxins and fat in body tissue. This vicious cycle often results in excessive weight gain, sluggish metabolism, chronic craving for sweets, insulin resistance, general fatigue, and aging.

Support for Specific Health Gender or Age Issues Content

The Internet is a marvelous source of information. Nearly all health-related maladies, rare or common, have Web sites devoted to them. There are also sites for seniors, men, women, and children. Many general support sites also include information about specific health, gender, and age issues. For example, eDiets has a newsletter about diabetes and another one about childhood obesity. We'll discuss age and gender issues in Chapter 5, Healthy, Fit, and Well, and health issues in Appendix A, Sites for Specific Diseases and Conditions.

How and When to Eat Your Veggies

Consume vegetables little by little throughout the day. If you save up your carb allowance for a giant veggie splurge, it might produce a surge in your blood sugar. 2. When you eat higher-carb vegetables, such as yams or winter squash, do so along with proteins and fats. They will slow the passage of carbs through your digestive system and minimize their impact on your blood sugar. 4. Don't drink your vegetables. Juicing removes the fiber, which has the double merit of helping you feel full and maintaining a healthy digestive system. Juices also concentrate the sugars from vegetables, increasing the risk that they'll spike your blood sugar.

The Role Of Exercise On Fat Loss

Combining exercise with the proper eating plan can certainly lead to faster and more permanent fat loss than diet alone or exercise alone. On the flip side, its fully possible to engage in heavy amounts of exercise on a daily basis yet miserably fail to firm up and lean down because the wrong diet, one that is excessive in calories. Sugar and its insulin spike coupled with dietary fat can over ride the caloric expenditure and hormonal changes brought on with hard physical exercise.

What does the research have to say

Some studies in people using DHEA have shown slight increases in testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, but most studies -such as the one cited above - have found minimal effect in younger people. On the other hand, older people - particularly post-menopausal women - tend to show more improvement with DHEA supplementation. One recent study found that DHEA therapy enhanced the improvements seen with strength training with older adults. The researchers concluded DHEA alone for 6 mo did not significantly increase strength or thigh muscle volume. However, DHEA therapy potentiated the effect of 4 mo. of weightlift-ing training on muscle strength and on thigh muscle volume Serum insulinlike growth factor concentration increased in response to DHEA replacement. This study provides evidence that DHEA replacement has the beneficial effect of enhancing the increases in muscle mass and strength induced by heavy resistance exercise in elderly individuals.

What about starvation

So let's say you stop eating anything and look at what happens (a much more detailed examination of this and many other topics can be found in my first book The Ketogenic Diet). Over the first few hours of starvation, blood glucose and insulin levels both drop. This signals the body to break down glycogen (stored carbohydrate) in the liver to release it into the bloodstream. As well, the body starts mobilizing fat from fat cells to use for fuel. After 12-18 hours or so (faster if you exercise), liver glycogen is emptied. At this point blood glucose will drop to low-normal levels and stay there. Blood fatty acids have increased significantly.

The Combustion Engine Principle

This high-pressure adrenal-related cellular factor later spins the metabolic wheel into a lower-pressure insulin-related, relaxationlike cellular factor, cGMP. cGMP facilitates growth and replenishes empty energy reserves, thus spinning the metabolic wheel back into cAMP to regenerate maximum energy production while stimulating growth, and so forth. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are cellular factors that, while being cycled, together create a combustionlike charging impact that maximizes energy production, overall growth, and rejuvenation.

Three Overlooked Ways to Lose Fat With Added Muscle

Adding muscle to your frame changes the metabolism of sugar which impacts body fat levels. Recall, there are receptors for insulin on both muscle and fat cells and these receptors act in a see-saw fashion. If the receptors on muscle tissue are more sensitive, they tend to dominate over those located on fat cells. Adding muscle makes muscle cells more insulin sensitive which translates into a decrease in insulin output by the pancreas. When insulin levels are on the lower side, as opposed to chronically elevated, the body is more apt to burn fat as fuel and to store glucose from carbohydrate foods as muscle glycogen. When glucose is being deposited as muscle glycogen, it is less likely to effect fat storage. 4) More muscle improves insulin sensitivity.

Section 2 Carbohydrates and the SKD

Carbohydrates are generally differentiated into complex and simple carbohydrates. This is a crude measure of the quality of carbohydrates. A more accurate measure of carbohydrate quality is the Glycemic Index (GI) which is a measure of how much insulin a given carbohydrate food will cause to be released (see appendix 1 for a partial GI). The GI of a food is defined relative to white bread, which is arbitrarily given a value of 100. A food with a GI of 60 will cause glucose levels to rise in the blood 60 as quickly as white bread, causing the release of 60 as much insulin. Similarly, a food with a GI of 130 will raise blood glucose 30 more quickly than white bread, causing the body to release 30 more insulin. In general, starches and complex carbohydrates tend to have lower GI values than simple sugars like glucose and sucrose. Since our wish is to minimize insulin release during a standard ketogenic diet, any dietary carbohydrates which are consumed on a SKD should come from low GI...

What is the difference between a carbohydrate gram counter and a glycemic index

A carbohydrate gram counter typically lists the total carbohydrate value of a food item. (The carbohydrate gram counter starting on page 492 also lists the level of digestible carbohydrates you should count when doing Atkins.) The glycemic index is a measure of a given carbohydrate's effect on your blood-sugar levels. You can use the glycemic index to choose carbohydrate foods that will have a relatively low impact on your blood sugar. But remember, when doing Atkins your total carbohydrate intake is of ultimate importance.

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