How To Take Creatine

Creatine Practical Guide.

Creatine: A practical guide evolved from the thousands of questions asked by professional and amateur athletes from around the globe. Learn How To Most Effectively Combine Exercise, Nutrition And Smart Creatine Use For Explosive Muscle Growth And Improved Overall Health. Here is just a small sampling of the many questions addressed by this e-book How long can I keep creatine on the shelf? Will I lose muscle after I stop supplementing? Not all creatine brands recommend the same amount. What gives? Is mixing creatine with protein powder a bad idea? Why do so many creatine brands contain so much dextrose? Is loading really necessary? Im currently taking Accutane for nodular acne. Is it safe for me to supplement? Will creatine stunt my growth? Im training twice as much these days and Im still not making any gains! Why? If creatine isnt a steroid, then how come it gave me a positive doping result? Will creatine shrink my package?! Read more here...

Creatine Practical Guide Summary


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Aas Increase Phosphocreatine Synthesis

Those who have used creatine products such as creatine monohydrate or creatine phosphate realize the effects that more creatine can provide. When anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are administered they cause an increase in Phosphocreatine (CP) synthesis. Let me explain why this creatine stuff is such a cool thing. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the fuel that your muscles use to actuate contractions. For this to happen ATP must be changed into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) so that energy can be released. This in turn allows for muscular contractions. In order to convert ADP back into the energy source ATP phospcreatine (CP) is needed. So the more CP that is available, the greater the regeneration of ADP to ATP and the greater the work capacity of the muscle at an accelerated rate. There was once a belief that elevated cellular CP levels added strength but not size. Obviously this belief was crushed when creatine products hit the supplement market. Increased CP levels also increase...

How does creatine work

In a nutshell, creatine works to help generate energy. When ATP loses a phosphate molecule and becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP), it must be converted back to ATP to produce energy. Creatine is stored in the human body as creatine phosphate (CP) also called phosphocreatine. When ATP is depleted, it can be recharged by CP. That is, CP donates a phosphate molecule to the ADP, making it ATP again.

Creatine and older adults

With aging and inactivity, most atrophy an aging person's muscle mass is seen in the fast twitch (FT) fibers which are recruited during high-intensity, anaerobic movements (e.g., weight lifting, sprinting, etc.). Interestingly, these are exactly the fibers creatine has the most profound effects on. One study called Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults (J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003 Jan 58(1) 11-9.) fed twenty-eight healthy men and women (above 65 years old) either 5 grams per day of creatine Both groups were put on a resistance training (weight training) regimen for the duration of the study. Fourteen weeks of resistance exercise training resulted in significant increases in all measurements of strength and functional tasks and muscle fiber area for both groups. However, the group getting the creatine resulted in significantly greater increases in fat-free mass, greater...

Antiinflammatory effects of creatine

Interestingly, though not surprisingly, creatine may have the ability to modulate inflammation, at least after exercise. One study entitled The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race The researchers looked at the effect of creatine on inflammatory and muscle soreness markers creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in experienced runners after running 30km. Runners were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of 5g of creatine and 15g of maltodextrine per day while the control group received the same amount of maltodextrin. Pre-race blood samples were collected before running the 30km, immediately after the race, and 24 hours after the end of the run. As one would expect, the control group had large increases in CK, LDH, PGE2, and TNF-alpha concentrations. In fact, there was over a four fold increase in CK, 43 increase in LDH,...

The Science of Creatine

Creatine in muscles is converted to creatine phosphate (CP - also known as phosphocreatine), involving the enzyme creatine kinase, which bonds creatine to a high-energy phosphate group. Creatine is permanently stored in muscle cells as CP until it is required to replenish phosphate. I'll now attempt to briefly explain some of the science of energy production, to give you insight into the background as to how creatine helps. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecule used to provide energy in all cells. It is the key molecule formed from the Krebs cycle, glycolysis and lipolysis, three of the key metabolic pathways that show the chain of reactions whereby nutrients are converted to energy or stored. ATP carries three phosphate atoms, and when each bond, which holds a phosphate group to the adenosine molecule, is broken, a 'unit' of energy is released. By this process our muscles have access to energy enabling them to contract and our bodies to function. Each molecule of ATP can...

Other Positive Effects of Creatine

Not only does creatine allow you to have more energy to help lift heavier weights, train harder and at higher intensity, but it also has other benefits to the bodybuilder. It has been demonstrated that creatine may also promote muscle growth by stimulating protein synthesis in two ways. Firstly, is from the increased work you are able to do as a result of the above actions. Secondly is that the more CP that is stored in muscle, the more water is drawn into muscle and makes it fuller and stronger. More CP and water in muscle, the volume of the muscle increases, and the muscle cell and is known as 'volumised' or 'super-hydrated'. A volumised muscle helps to trigger protein synthesis, minimise protein breakdown and increase glycogen synthesis (Haussinger 1996 1996). If a muscle is then trained properly, this could lead to enhanced muscle growth. A muscle 'pump', as you know, is a desired effect sought by bodybuilders during training where blood rushes to the muscle and it is worked. The...

Should I use Creatine

Creatine monohydrate has been shown in numerous studies to be, safe, even in large quantities (Robinson, et al 2000). Side effects are temporary gastric upset and nausea, especially during the loading phase, which can be quite unpleasant. Also quite intense muscle cramps have been reported in many athletes, which could lead to injuries, and impair performance. Muscle cramps tend to be more prevalent in more energetic sports like athletics and football, rather than bodybuilding. Creatine is the most researched of all sports supplements and is still raved about by many sports people of different disciplines, and definitely has a role in bodybuilding. However, despite the scientific hype, creatine is not the be-all-and-end-all of supplements in bodybuilding, as you can build an excellent physique without ever touching it. It may be worth giving it a try to see for yourself, and I do not doubt that you will see and feel positive results. Remember though, like many supplements, it is...

Creatine effects on the function of healthy and damaged brains

Perhaps the most compelling use for creatine is its effects on brain function and metabolism. I covered some of those effects in the past two articles but research continues to show creatine is a key nutrient for brain function and metabolism in both people with healthy or damaged diseased brains. Traumatic brain injuries affect thousands of people each year. The real tragedy however is that much of the damage to the brain is not caused by the immediate injury, but due to cell death caused by ischemia (a lack of blood flow and oxygen to tissues) and free radical damage oxidative stress. The ability of a cell to do work is directly related to its ATP status and the health of the mitochondria. Heart tissue, neurons in the brain and other highly active tissues are very sensitive to this system. Even small changes in ATP can have profound effects on the tissues' ability to function properly, which can cause damage and or death for the cell. Of all the nutritional supplements available to...

Creatine and the healthy brain

But what about the healthy brain you ask No, you don't need to injure your brain in an auto accident to get benefits A recent study entitled Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial (Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Vol. 270, No. 1529 on 22 October 2003.) found that six weeks of creatine supplementation at 5g per day to 45 five vegetarians using a double blind placebo cross over designed study, greatly improved cognitive function. According the report put out by The Royal Society, results agree with previous observations showing that brain creatine levels correlate Though creatine supplementation would probably have a less dramatic effect on non-vegetarians -due to the fact they get some creatine in their diet from the meat they eat - it stands to reason creatine will still be effective for improving creatine levels in the brain of meat eaters and vegetarians alike. Healthy and injured...

Creatine and neuromuscular diseases

One of the most promising areas of research with creatine is its effect on neuromuscular diseases such as Muscular Dystrophy (MD). One study looked at the safety and efficacy of creatine monohydrate in various types of muscular dystrophies using a double blind, crossover trial. Thirty-six patients (12 patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, 10 patients with Becker dystrophy, eight patients with Duchenne dystrophy and six patients with sarcoglycan-deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy) were randomized to receive creatine or placebo for eight weeks. The researchers found there was a mild but significant improvement in muscle strength in all groups. The study also found a general improvement in the patients' daily-life activities as demonstrated by improved scores in the Medical Research Council scales and the Neuromuscular Symptom scale. Creatine was well tolerated throughout the study period, according to the researchers.1 Another group of researchers fed creatine monohydrate...

Creatine and heart function

Because it is known that heart cells are dependent on adequate levels of ATP to function properly, and that cardiac creatine levels are depressed in chronic heart failure, researchers have looked at supplemental creatine to improve heart function and overall symptomology in certain forms of heart disease. It is well known that people suffering from chronic heart failure have limited endurance, strength and tire easily, which greatly limits their ability to function in everyday life. Using a double blind, placebo-controlled design, 17 patients aged 43 to 70 years with an ejection fraction

Creatine may reduce homocysteine levels

Homocysteine has been recognized as an important independent risk factor of heart disease, more so than cholesterol levels according to some studies. Creatine biosynthesis has been postulated as a major effector of homocysteine concentrations,2 and oral creatine supplements may reduce levels of homocysteine. Many studies have found that methyl donors (such as trimethylglycine (TMG) reduce levels of homocysteine, which also reduces the risk of heart disease. Conversely, pathways that demand large amounts of methyl groups may hinder the body's ability to reduce homocysteine levels. The methylation of guanidinoacetate to form creatine consumes more methyl groups than all other methylation reactions combined in the human body. Researchers have postulated that increasing or decreasing methyl demands on the body may increase or decrease homocysteine levels. In one study researchers fed rats either guanidinoacetate-or creatine-supplemented diets for two weeks.3 According to the researchers...

Creatine and chronic fatiguefibromyalgia

Because of creatine's apparent abilities to improve the symptoms of other pathologies involving a lack of high energy compounds (e.g., congestive heart failure, etc.) as well as the aforementioned afflictions outlined in the introduction to this article, it has been suggested that creatine may help with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (some researchers now posit that they are in fact the same syndrome). Although the causes of both pathologies are still being debated, a lack of high energy compounds (e.g. ATP) at the level of the mitochondria and general muscle weakness exists. For example, people with fibromyalgia have lower levels of creatine phosphate and ATP levels compared to controls.4 No direct studies exist at this time showing creatine supplementation improves the symptomology of either chronic fatigue or fibromyalgia. Considering, however, the other data that finds that creatine supplementation increases creatine and ATP levels consistently in other pathologies...

Creatine safety issues fact or fiction

Fears over the safety of creatine are usually generated from some hysterical news report or poorly researched article. It's odd, but predictable that the media and conservative medical establishment have desperately tried to paint creatine as an inherently dangerous or poorly researched dietary supplement. The fact is, creatine may be the most extensively researched performance enhancing supplement of all time, with a somewhat astounding safety record. True to form, the don't confuse us with the facts media and anti-supplement conservative medical groups have had no problems ignoring the extensive safety data on creatine, or simply inventing safety worries where none exists. A perfect example of this was the news report that mentioned the deaths of three high school wrestlers who died after putting on rubber suits and riding a stationary bike in a sauna to lose weight. Amazingly, their deaths were linked to creatine by the media, rather than extreme dehydration Even more amazingly, on...

Coachs Effervescent Creatine Formula

The main problem with powdered creatine monohydrate is water solubility. It takes 100 milliliters of pure water to dissolve 750 milligrams of creatine monohydrate. So 5grams would require about 670 ml or roughly 24 ounces of room temperature water to dissolve. Warm water does a somewhat better job. Remember, if creatine does not dissolve, it can not be absorbed. Some bright individuals actually just toss creatine powder into their mouths and chase it with water. That is like not chewing your food. Most of the creatine granules will not go anywhere useful. The second problem is the monohydrate electrical charge. Intestinal mucosa cells, which absorb nutrients, resist to some extent anything containing a net electrical charge of other than zero. (Which creatine monohydrate does not have) By the way, a molecule with a net electrical charge of zero is called a zwitterion and is readily absorbed by intestinal mucosa. Next is the issue of PH. The PH that allows creatine to have a net...

Creatine and athletics

It's only normal for people writing about a compound that is well accepted by athletes and researchers alike to assume that everyone understands what this particular product is and what it does. However, I am quite sure there are plenty of people who have heard the word creatine, or might even be using the stuff, and still don't have a clue what it is and how it works. If you are one of those people, the beginning of this section is for As mentioned in previous sections, the body uses the high energy compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as its main energy producing compound. During short maximal bouts of exercise such as weight training or sprinting, stored ATP is the energy source. However, stored ATP is depleted rather quickly which is why after only a few reps on a heavy lift things come to a fast finish and you run out of steam. To give energy, ATP loses a phosphate and becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP). At this point the ADP must be converted back to ATP to derive energy from...

The creatine and sugar story

As mentioned above, creatine can definitely increase lean body mass (muscle) and improve performance in sports that require high intensity intermittent exercise such as the aforementioned sprinting, weight lifting, etc. However, creatine was found to be not effective on some people (approximately 30 of the people studied). Scientists theorized then that combining creatine with a simple sugar which would cause an insulin spike, might dramatically enhance creatine uptake into muscles and thus more creatine would be stored. These non-responders appeared not to store creatine well from an oral supplement.

Premade creatinesugar mixtures

Various companies combine dextrose with creatine and sell it as a single product. Also, they often add in other ingredients that might be helpful for increasing creatine uptake, lean body mass, and performance, such as glutamine, taurine, and various vitamins. However, research showing these products are superior to simple creatine and glucose mixtures is lacking. Some people just make their own by mixing the creatine in a glass of grape juice, but of course grape juice is not all glucose (it also contains fructose) and does not contain the other ingredients that some products offer the user may want. None the less, many people feel they get good results just going the grape juice and creatine route. I often recommend half an Ultra Fuel mixed with creatine.

Supplemental Creatine

Creatine is a nitrogenic compound naturally manufactured in the liver from the three amino acids Methionine, Arginine, and Glycine and is transported to the muscles via the circulatory system. Creatine is transformed into phosphocreatine and is stored in the muscle. (Also called Creatine Phosphate or CP) The conversion of Creatine to C.P. is aided by the enzyme Creatine Kinase (CK) in bonding the Creatine to a high energy phosphate group. Once C.P. is stored in a cell, it remains until it is used as a high energy source called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Normally the body produces about 1-2 grams of Creatine daily, and of course, metabolizes about 2 grams daily also. The average person stores over 100 grams of Creatine in muscle tissue and in the liver. When C.P. is utilized in natural ATP regeneration, one of the by-products is called Creatinine which is then removed by the kidneys and eliminated in urine. Since Creatinine levels are checked as an indicator of proper kidney...

What is creatine

Creatine is formed in the human body from the amino acids methionine, glycine and arginine. The average person's body contains approximately 120 grams of creatine stored as creatine phosphate. Certain foods such as beef, herring and salmon, are fairly high in creatine. However, a person would have to eat pounds of these foods daily to equal what can be obtained in one teaspoon of powdered creatine. Creatine is directly related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is formed in the powerhouses of the cell, the mitochondria. ATP is often referred to as the universal energy molecule used by every cell in our bodies. An increase in oxidative stress coupled with a cell's inability to produce essential energy molecules such as ATP, is a hallmark of the aging cell and is found in many disease states. Key factors in maintaining health are the ability to (a) prevent mitochondrial damage to DNA caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and (b) prevent the decline in ATP synthesis, which reduces...

The Creatine Craze

Talk to serious weight lifters, cyclists, swimmers, and a host of athletes from a cross-section of sports and the odds are they've tried creatine. Creatine, a nitrogen-containing compound naturally found in our bodies, is made by the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine helps provide the energy your muscles need to move, particularly when they make movements that require short bursts of explosive energy such as that required in weight lifting. When your muscles contract, the fuel that initiates this movement is a catchy-sounding compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). There is only enough ATP in your body to provide energy for roughly 10 seconds, meaning that for this energy system to continue functioning, the body must produce more ATP. We'll spare you the chemistry lesson, but trust us that creatine acts like an oxygen tank to a high-altitude mountaineer, assisting the body to produce more ATP, which in turn can be used as fuel for more muscle contraction. Since the ability...


Translated, not only did the older subjects have lower levels of essential high energy compounds (e.g. ATP, CP, etc.) to begin with compared to the younger group, it was made worse the more intense the exercise As the studies above with older adults show, creatine in supplemented form can ameliorate some of that decline. Creatine may be one of the most effective and safe non-prescription compounds currently available to improve cellular energetics (the ability of the cells to produce energy which keeps us alive ) and may be an effective treatment for sarcopenia, especially when combined with the proper exercise regimen. 1. prevent concomitant decline in ATP CP levels - which reduces whole body ATP levels and leads to sarcopenia and many other pathologies - via the use of creatine and other supplements that maintain cellular energetics (e.g., acetyl-l-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, QoQ10, etc.)

Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine is a compound made naturally in our bodies as an energy transporter. It is manufactured in the liver, kidneys and pancreas and secreted into blood for transport to muscle (amongst other) cells. Its chemical name is methyl guanido-acetic acid, formed from the amino acids arginine, methionine and glycine by a process that is beyond the scope of this ebook and boring for a bodybuilder Creatine is probably the most scientifically researched sports supplement ever, providing conclusive results in that creatine does work.

Creatine Formulas

Creatine monohydrate is the form of creatine that is most commonly sold, because it is virtually tasteless and dissolves quite well in water. Creatine phosphate and creatine citrate are also available, but are not as popular, because they are not as good. Always make sure you use creatine monohydrate. Some studies have shown that creatine is even more effective when taken with simple carbohydrates. This is due to the effect carbohydrates have on insulin release, and the insulin in turn helps muscle cell uptake of creatine. It has been suggested that a formula of roughly 35g of dextrose plus 5g of creatine monohydrate is the optimum for an effect. Studies in a range of athletes from different sports have shown creatine plus carbohydrates to produce better performance than creatine alone (Stout, et al 1997 1997). Some creatine and carbohydrate formulas also contain the amino acid taurine, which acts as an insulin mimicker, to aid creatine uptake and disodium phosphate, magnesium...

How to Take Creatine

There are a number of theories as to the best way of supplementing with creatine, some say take in fruit juice some say take with a hot beverage so it dissolves and is absorbed more easily some advocate a loading and maintenance phase some say only five grams a day. Studying all the data, and from experience, it appears the following may be optimal A creatine serving should be in a hot drink (tea coffee) with a teaspoon of sugar with some fruit or fruit juice. Take it with a loading and maintenance phase, as clinical studies have clearly shown more benefit here (Greenhaff, et al 1993). .creatine is even more effective when taken with simple carbohydrates. This may be followed by a period of rest from using creatine, or back on the loading phase. If you want to have some time off, have at least 2 weeks. Many companies who sell creatine claim the dosages need to be higher for optimum effects, but all they are trying to do is sell more, and I know I couldn't tolerate more than this...

Creatine Boosters

Creatine boosters claim to contain Krebs cycle intermediates, B vitamins and a small amount of creatine. They are marketed with the theory that by supplying the raw materials that are required for the manufacture of creatine leads to more creatine production. This is not the case, as natural creatine production is controlled by a feedback mechanism, and no matter how much of the raw materials are available, if there is no stimulus to produce it, production will not occur. The only way therefore to boost creatine stores is to consume exogenous creatine.

Creatine And Insulin

Creatine in any form is an amino acid. The body stores creatine in the form of creatine phosphate phosphocreatine in the liver and in muscle cells for the purpose of regeneration of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). Tissue building requires a great deal of ATP. Limited ATP and ATP regeneration means limited tissue building. (This is too obvious, huh ) Several studies have proven supraphysiological levels of creatine increase muscle cell hypertrophy and aid in cellular hyperplasia as well as satellite-cell up-regulation. Several companies market great creatine product that they claim is 880 more effective than regular creatine monohydrate. It is more effective due to 75 grams of glucose to trigger increased endogenous insulin release and 200 mg of alfa lipoic acid to aid in insulin receptor-site sensitivity. They also added a few other minerals necessary for ATP regeneration. Good product (for those who do not fear fat accumulation). The key fact here is that insulin secretion must be...

Effects on growth hormone GH

Although data is limited, some research suggests creatine can raise growth hormone equal to that of intense exercise. Growth hormone (GH) is known to play an essential role in the regulation of body fat levels, immunity, muscle mass, wound healing, bone mass and literally thousands of other functions both known and yet unknown. It is well established that GH levels steadily decline as we age and is partially responsible for the steady loss of muscle mass, loss of skin elasticity, immune dysfunction and many other physical changes that take place in the aging human body. Therefore, the possible effects of creatine on GH is worth exploring in aging populations. One study found creatine could mimic the increased GH levels seen after intense exercise.1 In this comparative cross-sectional study, researchers gave six healthy male subjects 20 grams of creatine in a single dose at resting (non-exercising) conditions. The study found that all subjects showed a significant increase of GH in the...

To load or not to load that is the question

One question that often comes up regarding Creatine is whether or not the loading phase is required. Originally the advice for getting optimal results was to load up on Creatine followed by a maintenance dose there after. This advice was based on the fact that the human body already contains approximately 120 grams of Creatine (as Creatine and Creatine phosphate) stored in tissues and to increase total Creatine stores, one had to load for several days in order to increase those stores above those levels. The need for a loading phase was a long held belief, but is it really needed to derive the benefits of Creatine The answer appears to be no as both research and real world experience have found the loading phase may not be needed after all. A 1996 study compared a loading phase vs. no loading phase 31 male subjects. The subjects loaded for 6 days using 20 g day and a maintenance dose 2 g day for a further 30 days. As expected, tissue Creatine levels went up approximately 20 and the...

Additional references of interest

Creatine supplementation in congestive heart failure. CardiovascRes 1996 Jan 31(1) 174-6. 2. Pearson DR, et al. Long-term effects of creatine monohydrate on strength and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 13(3) 187-192,1999. 3. dland LM, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle PCr and short-term maximum power output. Med-Sci-Sports-Exerc. 1997 Feb 29(2) 216-9. 4. Earnest CP, et al. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin-Sci-Colch. 1996 Jul 91(1) 113-8. 5. Peeters B, et al. Effect of oral creatine monohydrate and creatine phosphate supplementation on maximal strength indices, body composition and blood pressure. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 6. Kreider RB, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength and sprint performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1998 30(1) 73-82.


This is why creatine has been so successful for athletes. For short-duration explosive sports, such as sprinting, weight lifting and other anaerobic endeavors, ATP is the energy system used. To date, research has shown that ingesting creatine can increase the total body pool of CP which leads to greater generation of energy for anaerobic forms of exercise, such as weight training and sprinting. Other effects of creatine may be increases in protein synthesis and increased cell hydration. Creatine has had spotty results in affecting performance in endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and long distance running, with some studies showing no positive effects on performance in endurance athletes. Whether or not the failure of creatine to improve performance in endurance athletes was due to the nature of the sport or the design of the studies is still being debated. Creatine can be found in the form of creatine monohydrate, creatine citrate, creatine phosphate,...


Withdrawal from Creatine had no effect on the rate of strength, endurance, and loss of lean tissue mass with 12 weeks of reduced-volume training. However, it's the experience of most creatine users, as well as most studies in younger adults, that the positive effects of creatine do in fact fade over time if one stops using creatine. Since there is no particular reason to go off creatine once started, the best effects will probably come from continued use.

Purity issues

There has been much made about creatine purity, mostly due to an article I did some time back that exposed the fact that not all creatine is created equal. The article can be viewed on my website, the BrinkZone Click to Read What's In Your Creatine So who tested out the best at the time of those articles were written It's now sold to companies as Creapure, so if you see on the can of creatine the company uses Creapure creatine as their source, that's the good stuff. Most companies using Creapure as their source list it on the bottle of product.

That Just Aint Natural

Well you know what I have a different take on it. You say you're a natural bodybuilder Great But I have to wonder, how natural is it to wake up and do 20 minutes of cardio on an empty stomach How natural is it to take 25 grams of pure creatine a day to saturate your tissues beyond what would otherwise be possible How natural is it to drive to a commercial gym and perform all manner of exercises to tear down your muscle tissue Then, how natural is it to rush home to get exactly 30 grams of micron-filtered whey protein and maldodextrin to replenish your glycogen stores

Postslaughter Handling

Following slaughter, as postmortem glycolysis proceeds, creatine phosphate (CP) in the muscles becomes depleted so that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cannot be regenerated, as would be the case in living muscle. As the ATP levels decrease at a certain low level, rigor is established within the muscle. In this process the actin and myosin of the myofibrillar become locked together and the muscle becomes rigid. It is critical for good meat quality, especially tenderness, that when this process occurs the muscle is as stretched as possible. If excessive shortening takes place, then the muscle can become very tough and water is expressed from the shrunken fibers. If the meat is allowed to go into rigor at a high temperature, then the depletion of ATP occurs very rapidly and the muscle is warm shortened and becomes tough. However, if the meat is chilled or frozen rapidly while the pH of the muscle is still high, then because of damage induced there is a large efflux of calcium ions and...

ATPCP System for Speed Work

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediate source of energy within all cells of our body for activities such as sprinting. There are .small stores of ATP within skeletal muscle, and these energy stores provide immediate energy to sustain physical activities for a short time. Once the ATP is used, it breaks down into adenosine diphosphate (ADP). For regeneration of ADP into ATP for more energy, creatine phosphate (CP) is needed. It is the CP that regenerates the ATP. Without CP, ATP could provide energy for only a few seconds. With CP, the ATP-PC system can provide energy for about 30 seconds before other energy systems must take over. Thus, this ATP-CP system, sometimes referred to as the phosphate pool or reservoir, provides immediate anaerobic energy for muscle contraction. ADP + CP - ATP + Creatine

Central core disease 1221 Clinical aspects

Central core disease is one of the two most common congenital myopathies. Most cases have a typical phe-notype, presenting with hypotonia at birth and developmental delay. Weakness is most noticeable in the hip girdle and axial musculature, and the muscles are often somewhat underdeveloped. The disease is typically non-progressive, or very slowly progressive. Facial involvement is usually mild, and inability to bury the eyelashes may be the only finding. Orthopedic complications are common, more so than in other congenital myopathies. Congenital dislocation of the hips is common and scoliosis later in childhood is seen. Tendo Achilles tightening is seen, but contractures elsewhere are rare. In fact, it is more common to have ligamentous laxity. Serum creatine kinase activity is usually normal or only mildly elevated. Most typical cases achieve independent ambulation, and stay ambulant throughout life. However, hip dislocation can complicate walking. Another potentially...

The Advertisements Only Tell Part of the Story

You've seen the advertisements for supplements in the magazines. The ridiculous claims made in some of these advertisements. Things like Gain 5 lbs. in 8 days on super duper creatine , Scientifically proven to burn fat now , Gain 16 lbs. of muscle , and other claims made by the supplement companies to push their supplements on you. Of course if you dispute any of their claims, they can quickly show a scientific study that proves it does what is advertised. I'm not saying all supplements are bad. Yes I've seen some people gain 5 lbs. of muscle in 8 days on creatine but they could have saved about 100 dollars buying the same product somewhere else at a cheaper price. There is a company in the US that produces about 40 of the creatine sold in the US stores. If you are willing to buy in bulk you can get a hefty years supply of the same creatine for less than 100 dollars. But what about the extra ingredients in the creatine that gives it the boost These are the bells and whistles...

BBR Member Profile Paul Afek MD

Eating I eat a lot of lean protein- chicken and fish, lots of fruits and vegetables, and minimally processed carbs. I eat 5 or 6 meals a day- a protein shake in the AM, and often at bedtime, a protein bar as a mid-morning snack, and real food for the rest. I often have a cup of cottage cheese for my afternoon snack, which I can work into a busy schedule. I take flax oil and green tea capsules, as well as creatine and a multivitamin.

What is it supposed to do

Beta-alanine is being touted as the new creatine and the latest breakthrough supplement in the world of sports nutrition. It's used by the body to synthesize carnosine (L-beta-alanyl-L-histidine). Carnosine performs a variety of valuable roles, including inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which can damage tissues, chelating metal ions, and scavenging free radicals. Carnosine's importance to athletic performance, however, lies in its ability to buffer hydrogen ions produced in skeletal muscle during high intensity exercise.

What does the research say

The above is, of course, an immensely oversimplified review of an exceptionally complex system, but the basic explanation is correct. To date, research has shown ingesting creatine can increase the total body pool of CP which leads to greater generation of force with anaerobic forms of exercise, Early research with creatine showed it can increase I ean body mass and improve performance in sports that require high intensity intermittent exercise such as sprinting, weight lifting, football, etc. Creatine has had spotty results in research that examined its effects on endurance oriented sports such as swimming, rowing and long distance running, with some studies showing no positive effects on performance with endurance athletes. Whether or not the failure of creatine to improve performance with endurance athletes was due to the nature of the sport or the design of the studies is still being debated. But one thing is for sure the research is stronger in high intensity sports of short...

What does the real world have to say

What can I say Creatine monohydrate is one of the most widely used supplements in bodybuilding, and I know of very few people who feel that they haven't gotten good results from using it. a rapid way to creatine load human skeletal muscle is to ingest 20 g of creatine for 6 days. This elevated tissue concentration can then be maintained by ingestion of 2 g day thereafter. The ingestion of 3 g creatine day is, in the long term, likely to be as effective at raising tissue levels as this higher dose.

Intravascular Injection

The most dramatic examples of successful intravascular delivery of gene transfer vectors to the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles have been achieved with AAV vectors. Gregorevic et al (2004) initially reported that by combining intravenous AAV6 administration and treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to increase vascular permeability, it was possible to transduce most major skeletal muscle groups of the body in adult mice, including the intercostal muscles. However, a notable exception was the diaphragm, which demonstrated poor trans-duction. This latter finding was likely related to the version of creatine kinase promoter (CK6) used in the vector, which has been shown to have poor activity in the murine diaphragm (Salva et al. 2007). Indeed, when using a constitutively


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Bottomline Bodybuilding

NM For the same reason Phillips changed. You can only go so far with an educated audience. Once you lay out the stuff that works and expose the rubbish, there isn't much left to talk about. It's time to sell supplements. At first, they only sold creatine, protein and tribulus -- all proven products. And they weren't pushed hard. But if you want to make millions you have to sell lots of stuff and advanced trainers know better. That means appealing to the kids and the newbies.

Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy FCMD

Serum creatine kinase is invariably markedly elevated. The skeletal muscle shows a combination of a degenerative process, with fibrosis from early infancy. Laminin a2 and several proteins of the dystrophin-associated gly-coprotein complex were found to be abnormal in skeletal muscle of FCMD patients. Following the suggestion that fukutin was a glycosyltransferase, Hayashi et al. (2001) demonstrated a complete loss of glycosylated a-dystroglycan from FCMD muscle, identifying the involvement of this molecule as a possible substrate for the deficiency of a putative glycolsytransferase. In addition, abnormally glycosylated a-dystroglycan in FCMD has lost most of its laminin a2-, neurexin- and agrin-binding abilities. Electron microscopy confirms a disruption of the muscle fiber basal lamina (Ishii et al., 1997).

Congenital muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation and abnormal glycosylation MDC1D

The spontaneously arising mutation in the LARGE gene encoding a putative bifunctional glycosyltransferase, Large, found in the myodystrophy (myd now renamed Largemyd) mouse causes loss of function reflected by a profound loss of muscle a-dystroglycan. Homozygous Largemyd mice display a severe, autosomal-recessively inherited progressive muscular dystrophy including involvement of the diaphragm and the tongue, and a mild cardiomyopathy associated with a reduced lifespan, in addition to retinal abnormalities, sensorineural deafness, and central nervous system involvement. Abnormalities in neuronal migration are observed in the brain particularly the cortex and cerebellum which is similar to that seen in fukutin-deficient mice (Holzfeind et al., 2002 Grewal et al., 2003 Muntoni and Voit, 2004). So far, one human with mutations in the human homolog of this gene (LARGE) mapped to chromosome 22q13 has been reported, and the disease was named MDC1D. The patient presented at age 5 months with...

Congenital myopathy with muscle spindle excess

Selcen et al. (2001) reported a weak and hypotonic neonate with arthrogryposis (flexion contractures at the wrists, adducted thumbs with metacarpophalangeal joint contractures and bilateral club feet) who developed respiratory insufficiency and hypertrophic cardio-myoapthy and succumbed at the age of 14 months. Serum creatine kinase activity was normal. Muscle biopsy revealed marked excess of muscle spindles with atrophy of extrafusal fibers. At autopsy other skeletal muscles were shown to have similar findings although the deltoids and quadriceps femoris muscles were the most affected. Additional findings were enlargement of brain, liver and kidneys and a congenital neuroblasto-ma which had been surgically removed. The authors identified one such case in the literature, albeit that the patient in question had Noonan syndrome which was not the case in the case described by Selcen et al.

Reducing body myopathy

Goebel et al. (2001) described a bedridden 21-year old man who developed a rigid spine at the age of 7 years. At that time he was also found to have tight Achilles tendons. Muscle strength was normal. Ancillary investigations revealed a slightly elevated serum creatine kinase activity and a myopathic electromyogram. Subsequently, his muscle strength deteriorated and at the age of 8 years he became wheelchair-bound. Thereafter, he developed contractures of all his major joints. Heart was normal and so was mentation.

Nucleotide Breakdown in Postmortem Muscle

ATP is the main source of energy in the muscle for the biochemical reactions. ATP is necessary in the muscle to provide the required energy to drive the Na K pump of the membranes, to drive the calcium pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and to provide energy for muscle contraction and relaxation.4 The ATP concentration is usually approximately 5-8 mol g in resting muscle but this amount drops to final negligible values in a few hours postmortem, when the rigor state is reached. This is related to the formation of actomyosin and the loss of extensibility.5 At very early postmortem, there is an apparent stability of ATP due to its formation from creatine phosphate through creatine kinase and also through anaerobic glycolysis.1,3,6 But the efficiency is not so good as only 2 moles of ATP are produced per mole of glucose through anaerobic glycolysis versus 12 moles that are produced under aerobic conditions (living state). Once both creatine phosphate and glycogen are exhausted, or the...

Chloridechannel myotonias 331 Thomsen and Becker myotonias

Muscle shortening due to continuous contractions may limit dorsiflexion of the wrist or foot. Severely affected patients with Becker myotonia tend to toe-walk and develop a compensatory lordosis. The leg and glute-al muscles are often markedly hypertrophic. In some patients, especially older ones, the neck, shoulder and arm muscles appear poorly developed resulting in a characteristic disproportionate figure. Also very disabling is a peculiar transient weakness affecting especially the hand and arm muscles (Deymeer et al., 1998). This lasts only a few seconds following initial contraction and may be interpreted as clumsiness by the affected individual. Patients with severe Becker myotonia are limited in their choice of occupation and are unsuited for military service. A few patients with Becker myotonia show permanent weakness in some muscle groups, distal muscle atrophy, and unusually high serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, making the differentiation from myotonic dystrophies...

Reducing Muscle Fiber Degeneration and Atrophy

An emerging strategy to counter the loss of muscle mass and function in muscular dystrophy concerns that of regulating the activity and expression of PGCl-alpha. In forms of muscle wasting associated with nondegenerative myofiber myofibril atrophy, significant transcriptional repression of this transcription coactivator has been observed (Sandri et al. 2006). Efforts to increase PGCl-alpha expression in vivo using transgenic mouse cross breeding have established that elevated PGCl-alpha levels can inhibit models of muscle wasting and atrophy (Sandri et al. 2006). The mechanisms of action underlying these results are likely to be associated with multiple effects, although the repression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases that facilitate the proteasomal degradation of particular muscle proteins is prominently involved. Interestingly, it appears that the muscles of dystrophin-deficient mice exhibit altered transcriptional profiles consistent with dysregulation of a subset of the genes...

Energy production during exercise

ATP-CP system From one to twenty seconds of activity, the body relies on stored ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) to provide fuel. This energy pathway is used primarily during maximal intensity exercise such as sprinting and low rep weight training. This reaction does not require the presence of oxygen (i.e. it is anaerobic).

Salt The Precontest Nutrient

Reduced salt intake also negatively effects the all important sodium-potassium pump. This is the mechanism the body uses to shuttle many nutrients into cells like those that all muscle fibers are composed of. (Gee, ya think ) This would therefore inhibit creatine and some amino acid structures from adequately transporting, as well as inhibit glycogen synthesis.

Turkey and Other Lean Meats Lean Steak Chicken Fish

Secret weapons protein, iron, zinc, creatine (beef), omega-3 fatty acids (fish), vitamins B6 (chicken and fish) and B12, phosphorus, potassium Beef is another classic muscle-building protein. It's the top food source for creatine the substance your body uses when you lift weights. Beef does have a downside it contains saturated fats, but some cuts have more than others. Look for rounds or loins (that's code for extra-lean) sirloins and New York strips are less fatty than prime ribs and T-bones. Wash down that steak with a glass of fat-free milk. Research shows that calcium (that magic bullet again ) may reduce the amount of saturated fat your body absorbs. Choose cuts on the left side of the chart. They contain less fat but still pack high amounts of protein.

Creating Your Mass Schedule

On non-training days, all of your meal sizes are exactly the same except for your post-workout meal (Meal B). On your non-training days, instead of Meal B, you will eat Meal B2 (a lower calorie meal). Finally, since you are not training on those days, you will not need to take your entire post-workout supplement stack (Stack B). Just take the creatine, glutamine and Vitamin C. I call this stack B2. Now fill in your meals on non-training days.

RULE 2 Cardiovascular exercise needs to be used as a tool to burn extra calories and thus facilitate fat loss

Of these times glycogen (stored carbohydrates) levels are low in the body. While I have read many articles recently disputing that this is not really a good idea as it can lead to muscle loss, I have found that this is only true if the person has an unusually fast metabolism (a hardgainer). Everyone else will be fine, especially if supplements like creatine and glutamine are taken which help preserve muscle tissue.

Pharmacological Fat Burning

As we know, the body needs a constant supply of ATP. When ATP is utilized as energy, it loses a phosphate molecule which creates Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). ADP turns to creatine phosphate (CP) stores for the missing phosphate molecule and ATP is again manufactured. This is of course why creatine products aid in strength and lean tissue gains.

Reported Characteristics

Many top bodybuilders utilized insulin to increases intracellular amino acid and supplement storage. This means nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and supplements such as creatine and glutamine were forced into cells at a much higher rate and volume. Since insulin is not site-specific, and both fat and muscle cells have insulin receptor-sites, nutrient storage is in both areas as well as in organs. The actual partitioning of nutrients is highly dependent upon receptor sensitivity. For this reason individuals who have developed insulin resistance (receptor insensitivity) gained significant fat tissue during insulin administration. Insulin is highly anabolic and anti-catabolic.

Immunosuppression Strategies

In contrast, lentiviral vectors based on the human immunodeficiency virus has the ability of transducing dividing and non-dividing cells the insert capacity is 7.5-9 Kb, and early data showed stable expression of transgenes in muscle cells, muscle stem cells or early precursors. Data from the use of lentiviral for ex vivo transduction of autologous mesangioblast stem cell with m-dystrophin gene or heterologous mesangioblast stem cells harvested from normal dogs and injected into the GRMD model are encouraging (Sampaolesi et al. 2006). Following the delivery of the mesangioblasts by intra-arterial (femoral) injection, dystrophin expression was associated with remarkable improvement of both muscle morphology and function. There was improvement of the disease phenotype in both groups of treated dogs. The group of dogs receiving heterolo-gous cells required transient IS with cyclosporine or cyclosporine with rapamy-cin to avoid immune responses to the donor cells (containing the wild-type...

Maintaining High Atp Levels

During AAS phases intense strength gains were realized and protein synthesis at the cellular level increased dramatically. This was in partly due to, and dependent upon, an up-regulation in internal production of CP (Creatine Phosphate) and ATP (Adenosine Tri-phosphate) from AAS use. As readers are aware from reading Chemical Muscle Enhancement or elsewhere, ATP is the body's primary high energy source for anaerobic activities such as lifting weights. Supplemental creatine products were an excellent source of CP, and they aided in maintaining much of the AAS induced ATP CP elevation post-cycle. I have already written extensively about creatine monohydrate and how beasts utilized its maximum potentials. So let's look at the king of creatines Effervescent Creatine.

What set duration should we use

When using metabolic work with muscle growth and fat loss in mind the set duration should allow for the use of a moderate weigh, lifted at high speed and while inducing an increase in lactate production. Sets of less than 20 seconds should be ruled out because these will rely mostly on the phosphagen energy system (ATP and creatine phosphate) which doesn't lead to a significant elevation of blood lactate. Sets lasting longer than 60 seconds should also be ruled out because, since the HTMUs are not fatigue-resistant, it will be impossible to maintain a high rate of work for that duration and you will have to use a lighter load to complete the set. While the load used is not of prime importance with metabolic work, it still plays a role in stimulating positive adaptations. So it should be evident that the ideal set duration is between 20 and 60 seconds. Anecdotally I found that sets of 30-40 seconds produce the best results with metabolic work. So I do recommend this as a baseline time...

Arginine for Immunity

Arginine, along with methionine and glycine, forms the building blocks of creatine, a protein that is needed for making energy in your muscles and for muscle growth. Based on the logic that if you eat more of the building blocks you'll make more of the protein, some bodybuilders and athletes take supplements of all three. Straight creatine supplements are now also very popular. Do these work They don't work any better than just eating a well-balanced diet.

Secondary Mechanisms And Factors

Additionally, each gram of glucose stored as glycogen in muscle tissue brings with it 2.7-3.0 grams of water. This triggers osmotic anabolism similar to one positive factor of creatine supplement use. This simply means cells are supersaturated with growth nutrients intracellularly. The osmotic effect also increases localized IGF-1 production due to the increase in pump and stretch realized during conditions of elevated glycogen storage. (Guess that explains the cookies-n-cream ice cream carb-loading during women's periods) AAS increase CP (Creatine Phosphate) synthesis.

Performance Enhancement

SUPPLEMENT Creatine Monohydrate USES Creatine can significantly boost your power and strength by helping your body quickly regenerate your Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) stores during your workout (for more information on ATP see page 69). This regeneration gives you more energy during your workouts and allows you to work harder, creating more stimulation for your muscles. Additionally, creatine can produce a small amount of rapid weight gain due to an increase in muscle water content. POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS None recorded. But make sure you drink PLENTY of water while supplementing, as creatine can increase dehydration rates. For best results, cycle creatine supplementation 8 weeks on, 4 weeks off. Also, even SMALL amounts of CAFFEINE can block the effects of creatine. To take full advantage of its benefits, lay off the coffee, tea, and caffeinated soft drinks until your 4-week off cycle.

Skill Method of Overload

BETTER NUTRITION Getting the Best Results From Creatine Creatine monohydrate is the most thoroughly studied and probably the most ergogenic of all legal performance-enhancement supplements available. Still, many people have lots of questions about the best way to use creatine. Q I've heard that creatine causes cramping. True A From research on athletes, creatine users actually cramp less then non-users. The anecdotal reports of cramping, diarrhea, etc., that seem to prevail in practice among the lay population is most likely evidence that people are either taking too much creatine at one time, taking too many simple sugars at one time, or that there are contaminants in the creatine product being ingested. I have heard males claim that they needed 50 grams at one time, when a 5 gram dose is sufficient even for athletes who weigh in excess of 300 pounds. Bear in mind that excessive doses of creatine can cause osmotic diarrhea this has nothing to do with the specific properties of the...

Supplements And The Hypertrophychallenged

So if steroids are out of the question, why did we bring them up in the first place Well, we wanted to illustrate the fact that even with the use of powerful steroids, there still is no magic pill that'll allow you to get the results you're looking for without putting in the required effort. And this is true even more so with supplements. To get bigger, you need to have your training and nutritional programs optimized first. Then, and only then, should you consider supplements such as creatine, workout stimulants, Cortisol suppressors, testosterone boosters, etc. We're serious if your nutrition isn't optimized, your money will be much better spent on food versus supplements. Want an example Our typical clients come to us frustrated with their gains. After examining their supplement and grocery bills, we often realize why. They're spending money on bricklayers but not bricks (remember this analogy from earlier ). After we reduce their supplement bills, using the supplement money...

Anaerobic Energy Pathways

Each muscle contains enough ATP to fuel the first few reps of a work-set. After stored ATP is spent, the working muscle fibers must produce more ATP in order to continue the set. After the first few seconds, the CP ATP- Pathway kicks in and supplies fresh ATP for about 20-30 seconds. CP stands for Creatine Phosphate (sometime referred to as phosphocreatine and the ATP-PC system). After existing working muscle stores of Cp are spent, the next anaerobic energy pathway kicks in and can fuel ATP production for an additional 60-150 seconds. This is the Glycogen ATP-Pathway . Of course 3 minute work-sets are unlikely. How does that creatine stuff get created Most athletes who live on this planet have heard of creatine monohydrate supplement products. Some do not realize that the body produces creatine (CP) endogenously everyday. Where did you think CP came from Natural or endogenous creatine is produced from amino acids. The two dominant amino acids in the process are Arginine and Glycine....

Formula 7 Secret Bedtime Trick Boosts Muscle Growth Dramatically

Before you go to bed you can whip up a meal replacement or protein shake, and add some creatine, glutamine, and colostrum to give your body a spike in growth hormone, testosterone, and IGF-1 levels.( formula 3 would be a good example of a middle of the night drink) The starvation mode for the first 4 hours will have your body screaming for more food similar to after a workout. It would also be a good idea to take in more protein than usual for higher nitrogen retention for the rest of the night until you eat your next meal at breakfast time.

Advanced Training The Perfect

People tend to look for complex answers to simple problems. I get stacks of letters and email from people with all sorts of questions as to why they are not making any progress. Their theories range from I think it was the descending setnegative feedback loop-burn sets that stop my muscle growth , to Aliens have put growth retarding chemicals in my creatine.

Atp And Anabolicandrogenic Steroids

Diet has a profound effect upon cellular ATP CP stores and formation. When an athlete decreases available energy ATP substrates (Nutrients from which ATP energy can be manufactured by bodily processes), cellular loss of CP occurs and the entry of any creatine source is inhibited. This is simply due to a decrease in cellular energy ATP available for cellular processes as a result of reduced calorie substrate intake. In short, you feel lazy and so do your cells. This is a major reason why AAS provided very poor muscle building qualities during calorie restricted periods. It was very important to use a carbohydrate spike day every 3rd or 4th day during diet phases and AAS use. This simply meant eating more carbs on a spike day to refill glycogen stores so creatine and androgens in the blood stream can enter muscle cells.

Is there someplace I can find unbiased information on a particular supplement

The best place I've found on my searches, and believe me I've searched, is a place called SupplementWatch. What makes this unique is not that they contain every product ever produced, but the amount of available information. There are categories on the various vitamins and minerals. Many popular substances are discussed in detail such as glutamine, creatine, taurine and a host of others. For a yearly membership of 25.00 at the time of this writing, they will even do a review of supplements for you when you post a question. It works out to be a very sweet deal and the information is unbiased and has a fair amount of research.

Section 3 Supplements that increase glycogen storage

The final mechanism by which supplements may improve the carb-load is by increasing glycogen storage. The two major supplements which may increase glycogen storage during the carb-load are creatine and glutamine. Both are discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. Glutamine is an amino acid which has been found to increase glycogen storage when consumed with carbohydrates (20). Additionally, creatine has also been found to increase glycogen synthesis when taken with carbohydrates (21). Therefore individuals may wish to experiment with one or both during the carb-load phase, to see if it gives them noticeably better glycogen supercompensation. As mentioned in the next chapter, glutamine supplementation can keep some people out of ketosis. If individuals find it difficult to establish ketosis after having used glutamine during the previous carb-load, they should try carb-loading without the glutamine to see if there is any difference.

Gene Therapy for Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

Taking advantage of both double-stranded AAV vector and new AAV serotypes, we have tested the feasibility of systemic delivery of AAV-8-SG into the TO-2 hamster model. A single dose intravenous injection of double-stranded AAV serotype 8 vector carrying human 8-SG gene, without any physical or pharmaceutical interventions, achieved nearly complete gene transfer and tissue-specific expression in the heart and skeletal muscles of the diseased hamsters (Wang et al. 2005 Zhu et al. 2005). Broad and sustained restoration of the missing 8-SG gene in the TO-2 hamsters corrected muscle cell membrane leakiness throughout the body and normalized serum creatine kinase levels (Fig. 4.4a, b). Furthermore, the restoration of 8-SG gene, in both the skeletal and the cardiac muscles, has greatly improved histology, cardiac functions and the endurance of treadmill running (Fig. 4.4c). The lifespan of the animals was dramatically extended as well (Zhu et al. 2005) with a group of treated TO-2 hamsters...

Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis hypoPP

Although serum potassium levels are often reduced, especially at the beginning of an attack, they may not be below the normal range. The original studies of periodic paralysis in the early 20th century reported a number of other electrolyte changes (for review see Talbott 1941), including a decrease in serum phosphate in parallel with potassium and reduced urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride and water. Serum creatine kinase (CK) may be normal or slightly elevated in between attacks. During paralytic attacks there can be a moderate rise in CK (De Keyser et al., 1987).

Tel Hashomer camptodactyly syndrome THCS

Melegh et al. (2005) described a mentally retarded Hungarian boy who was diagnosed with THCS at age 4 months. Features compatible with skeletal muscle and or connective tissue involvement include high-arched palate, hypoplastic and hypotonic muscles, scapulae ala-tae, thoracic scoliosis, clubfeet, and rigid campodactyly of fingers 2-5. Serum creatine kinase activity was two times the upper limit of normal. Muscle biopsy showed only abnormalities at the ultrastructural level, i.e., irregularities of the transverse tubuli of the sarcop-lasmic reticulum and some morphological abnormalities of mitochondria.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

CLA is being marketed as a fat burner and muscle-tone enhancer supplement to athletes, bodybuilders and everyone. Bare in mind that most of the studies have been performed on animals, so are really only weak evidence when applying the data to humans. More research is also needed to elucidate what dose is optimal, somewhere between two and six grams a day. Like creatine, it is impossible to obtain enough in order to give a desired result from foods alone.

Congenital muscular dystrophy type MDC1A

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

Serum creatine kinase activity is usually markedly elevated. Absence of laminin a2 from skeletal muscle gives rise to a dystrophic picture with massive muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration combined with an increase in endo- and perimysial connective tissue fibrosis that can be detected already immediately after birth (Tom et al., 1994). Prominent inflammatory infiltrate can lead to the erroneous diagnosis of congenital inflammatory myopathy (Pegoraro et al., 1996). From a diagnostic point of view, a wider panel of antibodies to different regions of the protein is required to avoid false positive or negative results, especially in cases where residual expression of the protein is found (Sewry et al., 1997). The C-terminal 80-kDa fragment of laminin a2 may be preserved whereas pronounced reduction of the 300-kDa fragment can be demonstrated (Sewry et al., 1997). In patients with complete laminin a2 deficiency, a concomitant reduction of a-dystroglycan, laminin p2 and integrin a7 and...

Snake Oil Supplements

That being said, there are some wonderful supplements you should consider. A good multivitamin may be essential depending on your current nutrition and food sources. Fish oil is a great way to get your essential fatty acids. I prefer krill oil to fish oil for its higher antioxidant properties. Magnesium has been used for heart health and mental clarity. I find Ginkgo biloba helpful my mental focus. For sports performance, good old creatine is hard to beat when it comes to strength and muscle gain and glutamine when it comes to muscle recovery. My favorite sports performance supplement is Tribustol. Produced here in Dallas, Tribustol has been tested at the university level and used for years among top-level athletes.

Historical Development of Muscle Energetics

Maths College

The Lohmann reaction and its inhibition In 1934, Lohmann showed that in muscle extracts, ATP and PCr were held in equilibrium by a specific enzyme now known as creatine kinase (Equations, EN3) creatine Since the equilibrium constant is greatly shifted toward ATP formation and not toward PCr formation, the results indicated that PCr might not be the immediate energy source for muscle contraction. This conclusion was substantiated by the lack of an enzyme in muscle that would hydrolyze PCr into Cr and Pi. The results also indicated that ATP might be the immediate energy source demonstration of this required the inhibition of creatine kinase. Almost 30 years have passed until Cain and Davies (1962) were able to inhibit creatine kinase in frog muscle with 1-fluoro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) and thereby measured the decrease in ATP concentration during contraction (Table, EN4). This provided the proof that ATP is the direct energy source for contraction. Without inhibiting creatine kinase,...

AC Who else in the field has influenced or helped you What are the best tips you learned from them and can pass on to

NG Supplements is a four letter word in the UK (well its not but you know what I mean), it's a minefield when working with top level athletes and at the moment it's very difficult to make sure that the supplement you are taking is clean. Depending on what the clients nutritional requirements were and assuming that it's clean I would go with the following supplements (based on the fact that they have been shown to work) Creatine

Humulinr Aas Cycle Example 1 Chart

This cycle is quite similar to the Blitz Cycle example listed in Cycles. However, it was utilized without an Anabolic Androgenic steroid (AAS) layer. This was usually considered a much more controllable method of Insulin use. There is a profound synergystic effect between Insulin, GH, and thyroid hormone T-3. In fact, it is a case of 1+1 3 when speaking of anabolic activity. Elevated T-3 levels increased protein synthesis as long as levels were not too high. 25-mcg daily would replace normal T-3 production if Cytomel was the drug utilized. However 25 mcg 2 times daily did cause a rapid turn-over in calories and accelerated protein synthesis. GH increases fat burning, is very anabolic and anti-catabolic. Insulin is quite anabolic but non-specific in its areas of calorie storage. This means fat deposits increased when insulin alone was administered. Since Cytomel burned excess calories and aided in GH conversion to IGF-1, fat storage was not an issue for those who reported this to be...

Target Muscle Isolation Exercise

Growth Hormone, testosterone and creatine can induce hyperplasia (the splitting of existing muscle fibers to form new ones or the joining of satellite cells to create additional fibers and or cell count) and GH increases type I fiber counts (Ayling et al. 1989) or both type I and type II in the presence of testosterone elevation as well.

Day 4 Thursday PM The workout

To prepare for today's weight workout, you want to consume about 25-30 grams of carbs, with about 15 grams of whey protein 30-60 minutes before the workout. This accomplishes a few things. First, it starts to shift you out of a ketogenic state, so you can resume anabolism and start the carb-load. The increase in insulin will also lower free fatty acids, helping to increase insulin sensitivity. Second, it will make you much stronger in the gym by raising blood glucose from low-normal levels. Third, it will provide amino acids for growth. If you decide to creatine load over this and the next day, I'd also advise adding 5 grams of creatine to this meal .

Making an Informed Choice

Creatine monohydrate is an exception to the rule that there is little evidence for a theory in bodybuilding, as it is well researched. Experiments have measured muscle creatine concentration, and there are numerous studies that have measured improved performance on individuals using creatine against those on placebo (see Chapter 8).

Additional Supplements

Creatine Monohydrate - Creatine monohydrate induces an increase in body mass while increasing muscular energy reserves. Creatine augments energy levels by increasing the availability of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), the organic compound that yields energy for muscular contraction. Supplementing with Creatine will cause moderate weight gain due to water retention by the skeletal muscle. Creatine will increase strength and explosive power. It can help you get more out of your workout while increasing recovery rates. Try supplementing with 3-5 grams per day. You can avoid the loading phase prescribed on most Creatine packages. You can consume Creatine before or after your workout. Ribose can also increase the effectiveness of Creatine. During quick bursts of activity, Creatine plays an important role in energy production. A muscle only stores enough ATP to perform intense muscle contractions for about 10 seconds. The body must develop new ATP for your energy to continue. Creatine and...

Pre and Postworkout nutrition to maximize the training effect

The simpler way of doing things is to take one serving of Biotest Surge pre-workout and one serving post-workout. This really takes the hassle out of mixing your shake together as it has all the right ingredients. But you can always mix a home made drink using whey protein, maltodextrin, and creatine. If that's the case the following is adequate Protein 25-35g Carbohydrates 35-45g Creatine 5-10g

Insulin Is A Powerful Proteasome Inhibitor

Obviously a carbohydrate BCAA drink with peptide glutamine and creatine monohydrate would be more effective. (Peptides tend to resist rapid break-down in solutions better than free form amino acids) 25 g L-Glutamine (or) Peptide Glutamine 10 g Creatine Monohydrate 25-75g Dextrose 16 oz. Water The dry ingredients were pre-mixed and water was added only immediately before consuming to prevent degradation of L-Glutamine and creatine.

Muscle growth part

Skeletal muscle is composed of a number of different components. This includes the actual contractile muscle fibers (made up of protein) as well as a lot of other stuff. The other stuff is basically the support system for the muscle fibers and includes glycogen (stored carbohydrate), water, minerals, creatine phosphate, mitochondria (for energy production), capillaries, a small amount of fat in the form of intramuscular triglycerides and others. As I've mentioned before, this is an energy intensive process. Meaning that if cellular energy levels are low (because glycogen is depleted or creatine phosphate levels are low), protein synthesis won't occur very effectively. I should also mention that mRNA doesn't hang around forever, it starts to be degraded fairly quickly. In fact, recent studies show that the increased protein synthesis from a single bout of training is gone within 36 hours after that training bout. So maybe the old dictum of train a muscle every 48 hours wasn't so far...

The Psychological Edge

Many people suspect that they'll experience a loss of energy on the Anabolic Diet because the body isn't getting glucose from carbohydrates anymore but, again, this just isn't true. The free fatty acids, triglycerides and ketones your body burns provides more than enough energy to get through a workout. Red meat is also high in creatine, which is one of the compounds that increases high energy phosphates in the body and the availability of ATP. There's no lack of energy.

Congenital myopathies

The clinical features vary, but typical features of the early onset forms are hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, poor muscle bulk, feeding difficulties, and skeletal abnormalities developing secondary to the muscle weakness, such as a high arched palate, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis and hip dysplasia. Conversely, even early-onset cases can be extremely mild, presenting only with slight hypoto-nia. Serum creatine kinase levels are normal or only moderately elevated.

Metabolic causes of fatigue

The potential metabolic causes of fatigue during weight training depend on the length of the set being performed and the energy system which is being primarily used. During very short weight training sets (less than 20 seconds), the metabolic cause of fatigue is most likely depletion of creatine phosphate (CP). Although ATP never drops more than 20 below resting values even at exhaustion (93), CP may be fully depleted after 20 seconds of maximal intensity exercise. Although CP may be 96 resynthesized within 3 minutes (55), force production capacity frequently takes longer to recover to normal, as much as 4-5 minutes (8). This suggests an additional component of fatigue during this type of exercise (see neural fatigue below).

There are Always Choices

It is important to remember that electrolytes such as sodium and potassium regulate the electric charges for flow of water molecules across cell membranes and are an intricate part of the sodium-pump mechanism that allows goodies like nutrients and creatine to actually enter the muscle cells.

Pre During Workout Nutrition

Combining pre- and post-workout nutrition received some very recent, experimental confirmation. The 10 week study by Dr. Paul Cribb compared pre- and post-workout carbs, protein and creatine consumed by a group of resistance-trained men, to a group taking the same nutrients at other times of the day. Improvements in strength and lean mass were greater in the group receiving the pre- and post-workout feedings. The study concluded If you'd like to keep it simple though, mix 30 - 50 g of high quality whey with 75 - 100 g of high GI carbs (such as glucose, maltodextrin, etc.,) and 3 - 5 g of creatine monohydrate and drink half immediately before you hit the gym, and the other half immediately following your workout. If you're 160 - 200 lb., use the lower end of the range over 200 lb., use the higher numbers. The pre- and post-workout drinks should contain as little fat as possible, as dietary fat will slow down the absorption of the high GI carbs and proteins.

The Benefits of Adding Salt to Your Meals

Liberally salting your food will help your body transport important bodybuilding nutrients and supplements (like creatine and glutamine) into your muscles more efficiently. No, salting your food won't cause high-blood pressure (although excess salt could exasperate high-blood pressure if you already have it). After getting accustomed to its use, salting your food won't bloat you either. If you drink enough water, your body will routinely flush excess sodium out of your system. If you find yourself looking bloated due to the amount of sodium you are eating, try drinking more water. Keep drinking more water until you find the right amount needed to neutralize or balance out the amount of salt you are eating.

Other Supplements For Accelerated Fat Loss

This is a product that contains both creatine and a new supplement called HMB (beta-hydroxy beta-methylbuteyrate). Recent studies indicate that HMB may suppress protein breakdown following intense exercise. It also contains creatine, so if you use this product you will not need to buy additional creatine. The recommended dosage is 3 servings per day, so a 90 serving container should last you 30 days. Creatine I use Phosphagen, put out by EAS. They were the first to bring it to the market and are still the leading sellers of this supplement. But there are many other reputable companies that sell quality creatine. I suggest you find one that fits your budget. The price for pure creatine can range from 20- 75.00, depending on the size of the container.

Inside Tip Instead of paying supplement prices from a bodybuilding company you can save a lot by buying maltodextrin

Creatine- Creatine monohydrate is absorbed by the muscle and is believed to increase the rate of protein synthesis in the body. A higher rate of protein synthesis puts the body into an anabolic state. EAS was the first to introduce it, but almost all creatine is the same. A company called Pfanstiehl makes about 40 of all the creatine produced in the US. You can get 1000 grams of creatine for about 25 at http totfit.

Glossary of Relevant Terms

Additive Effect Refers to when researchers are measuring the effects of two or more substances in a single study. Additive effect means the combined effect of two or more factors is equal to the sum of their individual effects in isolation. For example, creatine monohydrate supplementation, by itself, may enhance lean body mass by six pounds over a four-week period HMB supplementation, by itself, may increase lean body mass by two pounds over a four-week period. If their effects are additive, subjects may gain eight pounds in a four-week period when the two products are used in combination. ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) ADP is formed when ATP is broken down within mitochondria of cells to provide energy. In order to recreate ATP and replenish cellular energy stores, ADP must combine with creatine phosphate. AMP (Adenosine Monophosphate) AMP is formed when ADP is broken down within mitochondria of cells. In order to recreate ATP and replenish cellular energy stores, AMP must be combined...

Clinical presentation

The former is based on the Delphi system of awarding points to each type of clinical sign. It is an objective system but its use is limited when signs are not recorded, as is often the case in clinical practice. The total number of points then indicates the likelihood of MH. Another drawback is that signs cannot be graded, e.g., a creatine kinase (CK) of 20 000 iu L, when suxamethonium has been used, is awarded 15 points, whereas a CK of 19 000 iu L is awarded no points when clearly it is a significant increase above normal. high creatine kinase

Oral Aas Are Not All

Elevated ATP levels significantly aided in post-cycle lean mass retention. And guess what Anavar increased creatine phosphate synthesis. I know of several fitness competitors who stacked 25 mg of Anavar daily with 20-30 mg of Nolvadex and either 80-120 mcg of Clenbuterol and or an ephedrine caffeine stack, daily. They got lean, hard, and often didn't need thyroid drugs if a good diet plan was followed. Insulin is the most anabolic hormone, yet it is anti-catabolic as well. Since this is a storage hormone, anabolism is initiated by inducing storage intracellularly of glucose, amino acids, and fats, as well as electrolytes. Remember, creatine is an amino acid structure as are several growth inducing chemicals. As well, there is a great deal of evidence that by creating a state of cellular hydration, supraphysiological insulin induces a secondary anabolism and cellular hypertrophy.

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