The rest of the diet vegetables EFAs water and supplements

Compared to dealing with protein intake, the rest of the diet is fairly simple. With the exception of peas, carrots and corn, and beets (the starchy vegetables which contain a lot of carbohydrate) which are off limits except in tiny amounts, you can (and should) eat basically an unlimited amount of vegetables. This will give you something crunchy to chew on, keep you full, and keep you regular. Veggies can also provide snacks in between meals to help keep hunger at bay. Since you probably need extra sodium anyhow (see below), a cucumber or bag of celery and a salt shaker can help with munchies for snacking. Vegetables also provides myriad nutrients that are valuable to health. A potential problem is what to put on top of those veggies since most salad dressings and topping contain either sugar or fat. Lemon juice with spices is always an easy option and some of the vinegar based dressings (vinaigrettes) are essentially calorie free. I've listed some 'free foods' at the end of the chapter which can be mixed and matched to spices up your meals.

I mentioned fish oil capsules before but really want to drive home the need for an w-3 essential fatty acid source. Either go buy pre formed fish oils (I personally use Now brand Omega-3 but only because they are inexpensive) and take 6X1 gram capsule per day or, if you must, use one tablespoon of flax oil per day. You can either take all of your EFA's at once or spread them out across the day; just make sure and get them.

As mentioned in the exercise chapter, athletes may want to take 5 grams of a fast acting carbohydrate (you can actually buy glucose pills in the diabetic section of any pharmacy) about 5-10 minutes before their weight workouts, this will raise blood glucose back to the normal range and help to maintain exercise training intensity. It only adds 20 calories to the daily diet. Again, up to 15-30 grams of carbs (think Gatorade) can be sipped on during a workout, adding 60-120 calories to the diet. While this may slow weight or fat loss slightly, the improvement in ability to maintain training intensity (a key in maintaining LBM) more than makes up for this.

A large water intake should be a part of any diet. You can add lemon to it to improve the taste if you don't like it straight. If you can drink the water very cold, you get an added bonus: it turns out folks like Ellington Darden were right, the body expends calories to heat the cold water. One or two liters of cold water per day can result in an extra hundred or so calories burned on top of ensuring that you stay hydrated. Other non-caloric drinks are also acceptable although every now and again you find someone who swears (correctly or not) that the citric acid in soda or stuff like Crystal Light stalls their weight loss

Finally I want to mention some basic supplements which should be a part of any low-carbohydrate diet. The primary group to worry about are the electrolytes, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. All three are lost on a low-carb diet and supplementing them seems to help people avoid fatigue. Three to five grams of sodium (just put salt on your food), up one gram of potassium and 500 mg of magnesium should be supplemented; this seems to help with fatigue. Some dieters have used a potassium salt to put on their foods and this is certainly an option.

I want to mention calcium again, in addition to your one or two servings of dairy protein per day, adding 600-1200 mg of calcium (generic calcium carbonate from the grocery store is fine) is a good way to ensure adequate calcium intake and help with fat loss. Take half of it in the morning and half of it at night. Oh yeah, take a one per day multivitamin every day, just to be sure. Supermarket generic is fine as far as I'm concerned.

I suppose obsessive athletes are wondering about all of the other stuff that they might take. Glutamine to support the immune system, branched chain amino acids (which are useful but only at prohibitively expensive doses), leucine, etc., etc. Your call, I don't think most of it is necessary with the levels of protein intakes I'm suggesting but they are all workable and may have a small benefit for the very lean.

Beyond those few, there are myriad dozens, if not hundreds, of other supplements aimed at fat loss. Some of them have minor effectiveness, most are overhyped crap. Frankly, with the exception of what I'm going to talk about next chapter (a supplement so important that it deserves its own chapter), none of them are really necessary or worth including as far as I'm concerned.

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