Older dieters or just historians of the field may remember that there were some deaths in the late 70's and early 80's in individuals following something called The Last Chance Diet. This particular diet was a protein sparing modified fast centered around supplemental liquid nutrition but the folks who developed the product couldn't have done a worse job in designing it. First they picked the cheapest protein source available, collagen; a protein that provides essentially zero nutrition to the body. Second, they provided zero supplemental vitamins and minerals (some of which would have been obtained if the dieters had been eating whole foods in the first place). This caused a couple of problems including cardiac heart loss (from the total lack of protein) and arrhythmias from the lack of minerals. Basically, the problem wasn't with the approach so much as with the food choices. PSMF's based around whole foods (which provide high quality proteins as well as vitamins and minerals) and with adequate mineral supplementation have shown no such problems.
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