Specific Topics

The Cell and its Composition

Bretscher, M.S. (1985) The molecules of the cell membrane. Scientific American, 253, 100-108. (*)

Burton, R.F. (1983) The composition of animal cells: solutes contributing to osmotic pressure and charge balance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology [B], 76, 663-671. (****)

Fettiplace, R., and Haydon, D.A. (1980) Water permeability of lipid membranes

Physiological Reviews, 60, 510. (****) Gilles, R. Mechanisms of Osmoregulation: Maintenance of Cell Volume. New York: Wiley, 1979. (***)

Kwon, H.M., and Handler, J.S. (1995) Cell volume regulated transporters of compatible osmolytes. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 7, 465-471. (**) Macknight, A.D. (1988) Principles of cell volume regulation. Renal Physiology and

Biochemistry, 11, 114-141. (****) Orgel, L.E. (1994) The origin of life on the earth. Scientific American, 271, 76-83. (*) Singer, S.J., and Nicolson, G.L. (1972) The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. Science, 175, 720. (***) Verkman, A.S. (1992) Water channels in cell membranes. Annual Review of Physiology, 54, 97-108. (***)

Resting Membrane Potential

Fambrough, D.M., Lemas, M.V., Hamrick, M., Emerick, M., Renaud, K.J., Inman, E.M., Hwang, B., and Takeyasu, K. (1994) Analysis of subunit assembly of the Na-K-ATPase. American Journal of Physiology, 266, C579-C589. (****) Glynn, I.M. (1988) How does the sodium pump pump? Society of General Physiologists

Series, 43, 1-17. (***) Hodgkin, A.L., and Horowicz, P. (1958) The influence of potassium and chloride ions on the membrane potential of single muscle fibers. Journal of Physiology, 148, 127.

Hodgkin, A.L., and Katz, B. (1949) The effects of sodium ions on the electrical activity of the giant axon of the squid. Journal of Physiology, 108, 37. (****) Kaplan, J.H. (1985) Ion movements through the sodium pump. Annual Review of

Physiology, 47, 535-544. (***) Neher, E., and Sakmann, B. (eds) Single Channel Recording, 2nd ed. New York:

Plenum Press, 1995. (***) Sather, W.A., Yang, J., and Tsien, R.W. (1994) Structural basis of ion channel permeation and selectivity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 313-323. (**)

Action Potential

Armstrong, C.M. (1992) Voltage-dependent ion channels and their gating. Physiolo-

gicalReviews, 72, S5-S13. (***) Bezanilla, F., and Stefani, E. (1994) Voltage-dependent gating of ionic channels.

Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure, 23, 819-846. (****) Catterall, W.A. (1992) Cellular and molecular biology of voltage-gated sodium channels. Physiological Reviews, 72, S15-S48. (***) Catterall, W.A. (1995) Structure and function of voltage-gated ion channels. Annual

Review of Biochemistry, 64, 493-531. (***) Hodgkin, A.L., and Huxley, A.F. (1952) Quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. Journal of Physiology, 117, 500. (****)

Hodgkin, A.L., Huxley, A.F., and Katz, B. (1952) Measurement of current voltage relations in the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. Journal of Physiology, 116, 424. (****)

Kallen, R.G., Cohen, S.A., and Barchi, R.L. (1993) Structure, function, and expression of voltage-dependent sodium channels. Molecular Neurobiology, 7, 383-428. (****) Neher, E., and Sakmann, B. (1992) The patch clamp technique. Scientific American, 266:3, 28-35. (*)

Pallotta, B.S., and Wagoner, P.K. (1992) Voltage-dependent potassium channels since Hodgkin and Huxley. Physiological Reviews, 72, S49-S67. (***)

Synaptic Transmission

Augustine, G.J., Burns, M.E., DeBello, W.M., Pettit, D.L., and Schweizer, F.E. (1996) Exocytosis proteins and perturbations. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 36, 659-701. (***) Augustine, G.J., Charlton, M.P., and Smith, S.J. (1987) Calcium action in synaptic transmitter release. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 10, 633-693. (***)

Bennett, M.K., and Scheller, R.H. (1994) A molecular description of synaptic vesicle membrane trafficking. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 63, 63-100. (***) Bertolino, M., and Llinas, R.R. (1992) The central role of voltage-activated and receptor-activated calcium channels in neuronal cells. Annual Review of Phamaco-logy and Toxicology, 32, 399-421. (***) Brown, D.A. (1990) G-proteins and potassium currents in neurons. Annual Review of

Physiology, 52, 215-242. (***) Calakos, N., and Scheller, R.H. (1996) Synaptic vesicle biogenesis, docking, and fusion a molecular description. Physiological Reviews, 76, 1-29. (***) Catterall, W.A. (1999) Interactions of presynaptic Ca2+ channels and snare proteins in neurotransmitter release. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 868, 144-159. (**)

Clapham, D.E. (1994) Direct G protein activation of ion channels? Annual Review of

Neuroscience, 17, 441-464. (***) Del Castillo, J., and Katz, B. (1954) Quantal components of the end-plate potential.

Journal of Physiology, 124, 560. (****) Dunlap, K., Luebke, J.I., and Turner, T.J. (1995) Exocytotic Ca2+ channels in mammalian central neurons. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 89-98. (**) Fatt, P., and Katz, B. (1952) Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings. Journal of Physiology, 117, 109. (****) Geppert, M., and Südhof, T.C. (1998) RAB3 and synaptotagmin, the yin and yang of synaptic membrane fusion. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 21, 75-95. (**) Gilman, A.G. (1987) G proteins: transducers of receptor-generated signals. Annual

Review of Biochemistry, 56, 615-649. (**) Hamm, H.E., and Gilchrist, A. (1996) Heterotrimeric G proteins. Current Opinion in

Cell Biology, 8, 189-196. (**) Heuser, J.E. (1989) Review of electron microscopic evidence favoring vesicle exo-cytosis as the structural basis for quantal release during synaptic transmission. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 74, 1051-1069. (***) Heuser, J.E., and Reese, T.S. (1981) Structural changes after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscularjunction. Journal of Cell Biology, 88, 564-580. (****) Jahn, R., and Südhof, T.C. (1999) Membrane fusion and exocytosis. Annual Review of

Biochemistry, 68, 863 -911. (**) Jahn, R., and Südhof, T.C. (1994) Synaptic vesicles and exocytosis. Annual Review of

Neuroscience, 17, 219-246. (**) Katz, B., and Miledi, R. (1967) The timing of calcium action during neuromuscular transmission. Journal of Physiology, 189, 535. (****) Linder, M.E., and Gilman, A.G. (1992) G proteins. Scientific American, 267:1, 56-61. (*) Matthews, G. (1996) Neurotransmitter release. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 19, 219-233. (***)

Rothman, J.E. (1996) The protein machinery of vesicle budding and fusion. Protein

Science, 5, 185-194. (***) Tsien, R.W., Lipscombe, D., Madison, D., Bley, K., and Fox, A. (1995) Reflections on

Ca2+-channel diversity, 1988-1994. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 52-54. (**) Van der Kloot, W., and Molgo, J. (1994) Quantal acetylcholine release at the vertebrate neuromuscularjunction. Physiological Reviews, 74, 899-991. (***) von Gersdorff, H., and Matthews, G. (1999) Electrophysiology of synaptic vesicle cycling. Annual Review of Physiology, 61, 725-752. (***)

Wickman, K., and Clapham, D.E. (1995) Ion channel regulation by G proteins. Physiological Reviews, 75, 865-885. (***)

Skeletal Muscle

Ashley, C.C., and Ridgeway, E.B. (1968) Simultaneous recording of membrane potential, calcium transient and tension in single muscle fibres. Nature, 219, 1168. (****) Bourne, G.H. The Structure and Function of Muscle, 2nd ed. New York: Academic

Press, 1972 (Vol. I), 1973 (Vols. II and III), 1974 (Vol. IV). (***) Buchtal, E., and Schmalbruch, H. (1980) Motor unit of mammalian muscle.

Physiological Reviews, 60, 90. (***) Freund, H.-J. (1983) Motor unit and muscle activity in voluntary motor control.

Physiological Reviews, 63, 387. (***) Hoyle, G. (1983) Muscles and Their Neural Control. New York: Wiley. (**) Huxley, H.E. (1973) Muscular contraction and cell motility. Nature, 243, 445. (**) Huxley, H.E. (1996) A personal view of muscle and motility mechanisms. Annual

Review of Physiology, 58, 1-19. (**) Schneider, M.F. (1994) Control of calcium release in functioning skeletal muscle fibers. Annual Review of Physiology, 56, 463- 484. (***)


Brown, H.F. (1982) Electrophysiology of the sinoatrial node. Physiological Reviews, 62, 505. (***)

Campbell, D.L., Rasmusson, R.L., and Strauss, H.C. (1992) Ionic current mechanisms generating vertebrate primary cardiac pacemaker activity at the single cell level: an integrative view. Annual Review of Physiology, 54, 279-302. (***) Clapham, D.E. (1994) Direct G protein activation of ion channels? Annual Review of

Neuroscience, 17, 441-464. (***) Deal, K.K., England, S.K., and Tamkun, M.M. (1996) Molecular physiology of cardiac potassium channels. Physiological Reviews, 76, 49-67. (***) Hartzell, H.C. (1988) Regulation of cardiac ion channels by catecholamines, acetyl-choline and second messenger systems. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 52, 165-247. (***) Hartzell, H.C., Mery, P.-F., Fischmeister, R., and Szabo, G. (1991) Sympathetic regulation of cardiac calcium current is due exclusively to cAMP-dependent phosphorylation. Nature, 351, 573 -576. (****) Irisawa, H., Brown, H.F., and Giles, W. (1993) Cardiac pacemaking in the sinoatrial node. Physiological Reviews, 73, 197-227. (***) Kobilka, B. (1992) Adrenergic receptors as models for G protein-coupled receptors.

Annual Review of Neuroscience, 15, 87-114. (***) Linder, M.E., and Gilman, A.G. (1992) G proteins. Scientific American, 267:1, 56-61. (*)

Szabo, G., and Otero, A.S. (1990) G protein mediated regulation of K+ channels in heart. Annual Review of Physiology, 52, 293-305. (***) Wickman, K., and Clapham, D.E. (1995) Ion channel regulation by G proteins. Physiological Reviews, 75, 865-885. (***)

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