Calcium

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Although bodybuilders typically consume large amounts of food and nutritional supplements, they often skimp on dairy products, even low fat varieties. The case nowadays is whey-based protein powders are mixed with water and not milk. As dairy products are the largest contributors to calcium intakes, if you do not consume sufficient amounts, other sources of calcium have to be eaten. Another great source is naturally bony fish, like sardines and pilchards.

"...Bodybuilders can benefit from supplements, but not the vitamin and mineral types."

I suggest aiming for the US RDA of 1,000mg per day, especially so in women, as they are more prone to osteoporosis (brittle bone disease) later in life. Sources of calcium are:

So, if you are not consuming many dairy products, it is hard to achieve 1,000mg a day from food alone. Remember meal replacement powders are quite high in calcium, but if you're not consuming these or other good sources, then a calcium pill may be in order for optimum health. As calcium homeostasis is so well regulated, only when there is a malfunction in the body can you overdose.

This has got to be the most megadosed supplement of them all. Since Pauling's theory in the 1970s that a high intake of vitamin C may prevent the common cold, people have gone overboard. Pauling's research has since been disproved many times.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and is also involved in immune function, but more does not mean a better immune system. There is an optimal level. While evidence suggests that both the UK RNI and the US RDA are too low, megadoses are not required. Intakes of people consuming plenty of fruit and vegetables as part of a balanced diet are way in excess of the RDAs anyway.

Glass of whole milk (190ml)

Glass of semi- skimmed milk (19ml)

Glass of skimmed milk (19ml)

Pot of yoghurt (150g)

Small pot of fromage frais (100g)

1oz (28g) cheddar type cheese

2 tblsp (20g) grated hard cheese

Cheese spread triangle (25g)

Small pot cottage cheese (115g)

Cream cheese (in sandwich - 30g)

Scoop ice cream (60g)

Thick slice white bread

Thick slice wholemeal bread

Crumpet (40g)

Scone (48g)

Bowl muesli (50g)

Breakfast bar (35g)

2 oz (57g) drained sardines

Shelled prawns (60g) 1 egg

4 oz (110g) green vegetables Small can baked beans (150 g) 2 tblsp red kidney beans (70g) Large orange (210g) 7 dried apricots (56g) 1 tblsp sesame seeds (12g)

226mg 232mg 236mg 225mg 86mg 210mg 148mg 150mg 90mg 29mg 66mg 37mg 20mg 60mg 90mg 55mg 200mg 310mg 90mg 32mg 35mg 80mg 50mg 70mg 52mg 80mg

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