The Formulas

I'm not in the business of manufacturing nutritional supplements, but I would like to outline a series of formulas that could be produced to maximize anabolic effects, minimize catabolism, and give you the final piece in the puzzle in transforming training, lifestyle, diet, and supplements to maximum muscle growth. I am currently working with Optimum Training Systems about the possibility of creating various nutritional supplement formulas for use with the Anabolic Diet.

Basically, the goal of these formulas is to increase muscle mass and strength by increasing protein synthesis and decreasing protein catabolism. This is done by increasing the available amino acid pool and high energy phosphates, and providing alternate forms of energy so protein isn't eaten away as training continues.

Dosages are applied at an increased, pharmacological level to provide for the maximum anabolic environment and optimum muscle growth. The formulas are also streamlined and simplified, and there's a good reason for this.

Complex amino acid mixtures can contain ingredients that compete with one another for transport within the body, and lessen the amount of each available. The trick is to devise a mixture of aminos that's comprehensive in nature to maximize anabolism, while selective enough to insure proper serum levels in the blood.

This calls for some precision, but I think we've achieved our goals in each of the four formulas. Each is specifically targeted for a specific function in the body. We'll discuss these functions along with ingredients as we take a brief look at each formula.


STOMACH. If taken with food, the amino acids gained from the food will compete with the supplement aminos and limit their effectiveness.

Formula 1: The "Anticatabolic-Anabolic" Compound

Formula 1 is designed for use both before and during your workout. It includes glutamine, leucine, KIC (ketoisocaproate) and OKG (ornithine alpha-ketogluterate).

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body, and very important. Increasing protein synthesis for muscle building, and decreasing protein degradation and resulting muscle breakdown, are both dependent on the size of the glutamine pool in a cell.46,47,48,49 If it's high, other amino acids won't be forced into glutamine production, so they'll be available for protein synthesis. Skeletal muscle that might also be used to replace glutamine is also spared. Glutamine is also important because it acts to keep an existing amino acid balance in the body, thus enabling the body to synthesize more protein.

Leucine, the branched chain amino listed above, stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits its breakdown, as do both KIC and OKG. Leucine,50 OKG,51 and KIC52,53 all stimulate insulin secretion as well. This increases the flow of amino acids between muscle cells and has all the anabolic and anti-catabolic effects mentioned in earlier chapters. Anabolic hormones are increased, protein synthesis enhanced, and the body isn't forced into using up its own tissue to provide energy, as occurs when the body is reliant on carbohydrate-based energy stores.

Basically, Formula 1 does three things. The first is to increase protein synthesis by the anabolic action of the components in the formula. The second is to make available a free amino acid pool that's not going to be used up as a source of energy. The third is to decrease the breakdown of muscle tissue in the cell by making sure it isn't called on for energy or to feed other tissues in the body.

Formula 1 is taken just prior to training. Then, during your workout, you can also sip the formula in water continuously or put a bit of the powder under your tongue as you go. Allowing the powder to be held in the mouth before swallowing allows some of the aminos to be introduced more directly into circulation, thus bypassing the liver. This can result in a higher level of aminos in the system and may be something you want to try as you train with the formula.

Formula 2: The "Alternate Energy/Antioxidant/Cholesterol Fighter" Compound

Formula 2 combines L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, taurine, methionone, choline, inositol, and betaine.

On the high fat diet, muscle uses fat for energy during rest and exercise. L-carnitine is necessary for the transference of fatty acids in muscle cells, where they're used as an energy alternative to other, more destructive sources. While generally useless in the general diet, L-carnitine is one of those substances that, when targeted properly in the high fat diet, can be very effective.

Acetyl-L-carnitine or acylcarnitine is linked to L-carnitine. When L-carnitine is introduced in the body, acetylcarnitine levels rise, but its been found that acetylcarnitine has beneficial properties of its own. Acylcarnitine has been shown as a boon to testosterone levels.54,55 It's also become a compound of great interest because of its positive effect on aspects of aging and the lowering of cholesterol levels that can be associated with aging.56 Inositol is also included as a cholesterol fighter.

Methionine leads to a natural increase of glutathione, one of the most effective antioxidants in the body. Methionine, choline, betaine, and inositol are also very useful in the anabolic diet for their fat burning potential. Taurine is another antioxidant of value which lowers blood cholesterol and increases the burning of fat as an energy source.

The combination of these substances should provide an advantage in four key areas:

1. Providing and encouraging alternate energy sources.

2. Cutting back on breakdown of muscle tissue.

3. Decreasing serum cholesterol.

4. Providing antioxidant protection from free radical buildup caused by increased stress of workouts.

This formula should be taken twice a day, in morning and evening.

Formula 3: The "Insulin Anabolizer" Compound

Formula 3 consists of KIC, OKG, arginine, glutamine, leucine, taurine, alanine, chromium, and potassium.

As discussed in an earlier chapter, insulin is one of the keys to the muscle producing, fat burning goals of the Anabolic Diet. As outlined above in Formula 1, KIC, OKG, and leucine all stimulate insulin secretion and maximize its anabolic effect when used properly. Taurine also increases the secretion of insulin. Supplemental glutamine leads to decreased muscle breakdown and increased levels of muscle protein, thus insuring the body doesn't waste the insulin response.

Arginine, taurine, and alanine also stimulate and maximize the anabolic effects of both insulin and growth hormone. And while chromium has yet to show any marked anabolic effects in studies, we use it here as a preventative. As discussed above, the need for chromium increases with exercise, and chromium deficiency can really play havoc with insulin and any resulting anabolic effects. We use it here just to make sure that no chromium deficiency will arise (as a result of the bodybuilder's rigorous workout) to sabotage growth.

Similarly, much potassium is lost in sweat. This is especially a problem for women who, because of menstrual flow and the extreme retention and loss of fluids by the body, may experience pronounced potassium problems. Many women are borderline potassium-deficient, and women athletes can have a real problem with the combination of menstruation, fluid flow, and the sweat that comes from training.

The problem can also be severe for males. Even a mild potassium deficiency can lead to fatigue and decreased performance. A big potassium deficiency can also lead to cardiac problems.

Because so much potassium is lost in sweat and other bodily functions, we add it here just to insure there won't be a deficiency.

The basic goal of Formula 3 is to increase and maximize the anabolic, muscle building effects of insulin and growth hormone after the workout and during rest.

Formula 3 should be taken immediately after the workout and just before bedtime.

Formula 4: The "Intracellular Phosphate" Compound

Formula 4 is aimed at increasing energy stores to their highest level by increasing intracellular high-energy phosphates. It consists of creatine monohydrate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate, histidine, arginine, glycine, and methionine.

Creatine monohydrate is formed in the liver from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine. Creatine is then taken up by skeletal muscle where it forms phosphocreatine, the high-energy phosphate compound that replenishes ATP in the phosphocreatine energy shuttle. Creatine supplementation has also been shown to increase muscle torque during maximal voluntary exercise58 and muscle hypertrophy.59

Histidine facilitates the use ofATP and can serve as an effective buffer for lactic acid production in the muscle, thus decreasing acidosis and decreasing fatigue. Synthetic ATP has been used for some time by athletes believing in its ability to positively effect endurance and strength. In combination with creatine phosphate, creatine monohydrate, and the essential amino acids, this formula is targeted at increasing phosphocreatine to replenish ATP in the muscle cell as a way of combating fatigue and providing added benefits in strength and growth.

The main goal of Formula 4 is to actually create more precious ATP for energy in the muscle cell by using a biochemical process known as the "phosphocreatine energy shuttle" to replenish it. Phosphocreatine allows for the continual recycling of ATP in the cell, and by maximizing it, we can provide the muscle with expanded ATP sources and increase protein synthesis while minimizing catabolism.

This formula should be taken 4 times daily.

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