Shoulder Injuries

Acromioclavicular joint Coracoacromial ligament Acromion Coracoid process Supraspinatus tendon Humerus, lesser tubercle

; brachii, long head,tendon

Coracobrachlalis brachii

Short head Long head Subscapularis

Scapula, medial border

Shoulder Injuries occur frequently in weightlifting and especially in bodybuilding where developing the entire deltoid group requires the athlete to perform a significant number of repetitions and variations in exercises, which multiplies the risk of injury.

Compared to the stability of the hip joint, where the head of the femur sits deep in the glenoid cavity of the pelvis, the shoulder joint, which is very mobile and allows the arm to move through a wide range of motion, is In fact much less contained and protected.

The shoulder Is defined as a ball-and-socket joint because the head of the humerus is mainly held within the glenoid cavity of the scapula by a complex musculotendinous group. Most weightlifting injuries occur when training the deltoids, and they rarely result in muscle pulls or tears. They are usually caused by poor technique or overuse of the tendons reinforcing the articular capsule.

In contrast to contact sports, such as football, where sudden arm movements can create serious Injuries involving dislocation or even torn tendons, the most serious injury in weightlifting involves entrapment.

When some people perform exercises in which they raise the arms, such as extensions from the neck or lateral raises, the supraspinatus tendon is rubbed and compressed between the head of the humerus and the osteoligamentous ceiling created by the inferior surface of the acromion and the coracoacromial ligament.

Inflammation follows. This generally begins with the serous bursa, which normally protects the supraspinatus from excessive friction, and extends to the supraspinatus tendon itself, which, without treatment, ends up affecting the adjacent infraspinatus tendon posteriorly and the long head of the biceps bra chii anteriorly. Raising the arm becomes extremely painful and eventually can cause irreversible deterioration of the supraspinatus tendon through calcification and even tearing; however, this usually happens to people 40 years of age or older. The space between the humerus and the osteoligamentous acromiocoracoid ceiling varies from person to person. Some athletes cannot raise their arms laterally without excessive friction. These people should avoid all extensions from the neck, lateral raises that go too high, and back presses.

All barbell extensions for the shoulders must be performed to the front with the elbows slightly forward. When doing lateral dumbbell raises, you'll need to determine the proper height to raise the arms to. The correct movement is the one you can perform without causing pain.

Not everyone responds the same way to the same shoulder injury. Some people may perform all sorts of arm raises that compress the tendon, sometimes even causing tendon degeneration, without initiating a painful inflammatory process. This is how a torn supraspinatus tendon can be discovered during assessment without that person ever having complained of pain.

Another cause of shoulder pain may an imbalance in muscle tension around the articular capsule. Remember that the head of the humerus Is solidly fixed against the glenoid fossa of the scapula by a group of muscle tendons adhering to or crossing over the articular capsule: In front, this is the subscapularis; a little more anterior is the long head of the biceps; superiorly, is the supraspinatus; and finally posteriorly, the infraspinatus and teres minor. Spasm, hypertonicity, or hypotonicity in one or more of these muscles can pull the shoulder joint into an incorrect position. This position can cause friction during arm movements, resulting in inflammation.

HIP JOINT

Scapula

Humerus

SHOULDER JOINT

Compared to the relatively stable coxofemoral joint, the shoulder joint Is less encased and Is more mobile, which makes It more vulnerable to injury.

HIP JOINT

Scapula

Humerus

SHOULDER JOINT

Coracoclavicular Muscle

ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES FROM THE FRONT

Supraspinatus

Coracoclavicular ligaments

ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES, SEEN FROM BEHIND Supraspinatus

Long head Lateral head Medial head

Lateral View Rotator Cuff Tear

ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES, SEEN FROM BEHIND Supraspinatus

Spine of scapula Acromion Supraspinatus tendon Humerus, greater tubercle Infraspinatus Teres minor Scapula, medial border

Triceps brachll

Long head Lateral head Medial head

Example: Shortening or spasm of the teres minor and the infraspinatus will pull the head of the humerus In external rotation, which will cause rubbing at the anterior shoulder joint during arm movement. Over time, this will injure the long head of the biceps brachii.

Balance the training of the shoulder muscles and avoid exercises that feel awkward or painful.

LATERAL VIEW OF SCAPULA HIGHLIGHTING THE CORACOACROMIAL LIGAMENTOUS CEILING

Comment:

Massage, either manually or even better with an electric massager, and electrical stimulation are effective for decreasing or eliminating spasms and shortening of the teres minor and infraspinatus.

CORONAL SECTION OF THE SHOULDER JOINT DISPLAYING THE SEROUS BURSA

Supraspinatus

Capsular ligament

Supraspinatus tendon

Acromion

Clavicle

Subacromial serous bursa

Head of humerus

Hyaline cartilage of humeral head

Epiphyseal line

Hyaline cartilage of glenoid fossa

Deltoid

Recess

Humerus

Humerus Head Muscle Exercises

CORONAL SECTION OF THE SHOULDER JOINT DISPLAYING THE SEROUS BURSA

Supraspinatus

Capsular ligament

Supraspinatus tendon

Subacromial serous bursa

Head of humerus

Hyaline cartilage of humeral head

Epiphyseal line

Hyaline cartilage of glenoid fossa

Deltoid

Recess

Humerus

Acromion

Clavicle

LATERAL VIEW OF SCAPULA HIGHLIGHTING THE CORACOACROMIAL LIGAMENTOUS CEILING

Acromion

Spine of scapula

Glenoid

Teres Minor Muscle Bodybuilding

Acromion

Spine of scapula

Glenoid

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