Incline Presses

Subscapularis Pulldown

Pectoralis major

Brachloradlalis Rectus abdominis, _ tinder the aponeurosis

Latissimus dorsi Subscapularis

Serratus anterior

Serratus Anterior Muscle

PART OF THE PECTORALS MAINLY USED

Flexor digitorum superficialis Anterior deltoid

Biceps brach» Coracobrachialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi ulnaris Anconeus

Triceps brachii, long head

Brachials

Triceps brachii, medial head

Sit on an incline bench angled at 45 to 60 degrees, grasp the barbell with an overhand grip wider than shoulder width:

• Inhale and lower the barbell to the sternal notch.

• Exhale at the end of the movement. This exercise mainly solicits the clavicular head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, serratus anterior, and pectoralis minor. This exercise may be done at a frame that guides the bar.

Anatomie Svalstva

Comment: Contrary to popular lore, the Incline press does not tone the breasts and in no way prevents their sagging. Breasts are composed of adipose tissue containing the mammary glands, all of which Is contained in a net of connective tissue that rests on top of the pectoralis major.

Clavicle

Lower Deltoid Tear

Brachialis

Biceps brachii

Clavicle

Teres minor Teres major Latissimus Triceps

Pectoralis major Body of the breast

Mammary papilla Serratus anterior

Brachialis

Biceps brachii

Pectoralis Major Ribs

The pectoralis major originates at the anterior surface of the rib cage and inserts at the anterior surface of the upper end of the humerus. It is a powerful muscle whose main function is to bring the arms together in front of the rib cage. (It is the hugging muscle.)

Unlike most sports, where pectoralis major injuries are rare, weightlifting, especially the bench press, can lead to small tears and even partial rupture of its tendon.

This ultimate injury is seen only in relatively powerful athletes using abnormally rapid force before the tendon has had time to strengthen. Sometimes it is associated with a low-calorie diet aimed at increased muscle definition. (These diets tend to weaken the muscles, tendons, and joints.)

The injury, which always occurs during heavy bench-pressing, generally affects only the tendon of the clavicular head of the pectoralis major. A torn tendon is extremely painful, and the athlete may faint. Swelling and bruising often appear on the

Teres Minor Tendonitis

Head of the humerus

Lesser tubercle Greater tubercle Anatomical neck

■ Bicipital groove

Section of the muscle corresponding to the clavicular head (susceptible to tearing)

Section of the muscle corresponding to the sternal portion

Section of the muscle corresponding to the chondro-abdominal portion

INSERTION OF THE PECTORALIS MAJOR MUSCLE ON THE HUMERUS DISPLAYING HOW THE TENDON TWISTS ON ITSELF CREATING A U-SHAPE

During bench presses or flys, the most lateral part of the pectoralis major tendon, which corresponds to the clavicular head, is put under the most stress.

Therefore, when lifting heavy weights, this is the tendon that tears or pulls away from its insertion.

insertion of the pectoralis major anterior surface of the arm, and retraction of the clavicular head leads to a hollow that is medial to the anterior deltoid.

The problem with this injury is that doctors often misdiagnose it. This mistake is unfortunately common but is understandable because during the posttraumatic examination the injured party is able to perform all the movements that indicate full motor function of the pectoralis major. Therefore, the injury appears to be a simple muscle tear rather than the more serious tear of the tendinous insertion.

For example, despite a tear of the clavicular head of the pectoralis major, anterior elevation of the arm, which is part of its function, is compensated for by the anterior deltoid. And abduction is performed by the sternal and abdominal heads of the pectoralis major. If the tendon of the clavicular head of the pectoralis major is torn, it must be surgically reinserted onto the humerus as soon as possible. If this is not done promptly, retraction and fibrosis of the muscle occurs, and the operation will no longer be possible.

Although you can move your arm through its full range of motion without the superior head of the pectoralis major, you will never recover your initial strength and will be at a serious disadvantage if you want to continue heavy weight training.

Pectorals Parts

PART OF THE PECTORALS MAINLY USED

Pronator .teres

Subscapulars

Serrate interior

Anterior deltoid

Pectoralis major

Coracobrachialls

Latisslmus dorsi

Flexor digitorum supsrficialls t—- Raimarls longus

•I Flexor .carpi | ulnaris t\ Extensor » carpi ulnaris

\ Flexor X^srpi rgtjialis

Anconeus

Medial head Long head

Triceps brachii

Lie faceup on a horizontal bench, with buttocks on the bench and feet flat on the ground:

• Grasp the barbell with an overhand grip wider than shoulder width.

• Inhale and lower the bar to the chest with a controlled movement.

• Extend the arms and exhale at the end of the effort.

This exercise engages the complete pectoralis major muscle, pectoralis minor, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and coracobrachialis.

Variations

1. This movement may be performed while arching the back power-lifter style. This position brings the more powerful lower part of the pectoral muscle into play, allowing you to lift heavier weights.

2. Executing the extension with the elbows next to the body concentrates the work onto the anterior deltoid.

3. Varying the width of the hands isolates different parts of the muscle:

• Hands closer together isolates the central part of the pectorals.

• Hands wider apart Isolates the lateral part of the pectorals.

4. Varying the angle of the barbell isolates different parts of the muscle:

• Lowering the bar to the chondrocostal border of the rib cage isolates the lower part of the pectorals. 8 Lowering the barbell onto the middle part of the pectorals isolates the midline fibers.

• Lowering the bar onto the sternal notch Isolates the clavicular head of the muscle.

5. If you have back problems or want to isolate the pectorals, perform the extension with the legs raised.

6. Perform the extension at a frame that guides the bar.

Chondrocostal BorderChondrocostal

ARCHED-BACK VARIATION

Executing the bench press with an arched back, power-lifter style, limits the range of the movement and allows you to lift significantly heavier weights because it uses mainly the lower part of the pectorals, which are the strongest. In competition, the feet and the head should not move, and the buttocks should remain in contact with the bench. People with back problems should not perform this variation.

RAISED-LEG VARIATION

Performing the movement with raised legs helps prevent excessive arching, which can cause low back pain. This variation diminishes the effort of the lower pectorals by working the middle and superior fibers more.

POSITIONING FOR A POWER BENCH PRESS

ATTENTION

m For maximum safety, lock onto the bar with a grip in which the thumb and fingers oppose each other.

[2] if the grip on the bar is not locked on in opposition, the bar could slip out of your hands and fall on the jaw or, worse, the neck and cause a serious injury.

Chin pulled in and head in contact with the bench

Back arched to limit the lowering of the barbell and rib cage positioned to mobilize the lower part of the pectorals, which are by far the most powerful

Raised Rib Cage

Chest raised to limit the lowering of the bar

Feet fixed and heels on the ground to ensure stabilization during the exercise

Buttocks in contact with the bench

Feet fixed and heels on the ground to ensure stabilization during the exercise

Buttocks in contact with the bench

Chest raised to limit the lowering of the bar

Chin pulled in and head in contact with the bench

Back arched to limit the lowering of the barbell and rib cage positioned to mobilize the lower part of the pectorals, which are by far the most powerful

Attention : Depending on your physical structure, the narrow grip may cause wrist pain. In this case, use a wider grip.

Bench Presses and Elbow Pain

Elbow pain most often develops after bench pressing. This overuse injury is generally related to excessive training with long sets. In bench pressing, locking the extended arms at the end of the movement subjects the elbow to rubbing and microtrauma, which over time may lead to inflammation.

Comment: Occasionally, this condition can lead to intra-articular calcifications, which are particularly crippling. In this case, surgery is often the only solution for regaining complete arm extension. At the first sign of elbow pain, avoid for several days exercises that involve arm extension In order to prevent serious injury.

When you resume exercises that include arm extension, avoid completely extending the forearms at the end of the movement until the pain has completely disappeared.

Triceps brachii

Arm Extension Muscles Surgery

EXECUTION WITH ELBOWS OPEN TO THE SIDES TO BETTER ISOLATE THE TRICEPS BRACHII

Lie on a horizontal bench with the buttocks on the bench and the feet on the ground, gripping the barbell with an overhand grip and wrists 4 to 15 inches apart, depending on the flexibility of the wrists: Inhale and lower the bar with a controlled movement to the chest, with the elbows out to the side. Extend and exhale at the end of the effort. This exercise develops the pectoral muscles at the sternal notch and the triceps brachil. (With this in mind, it may be included in a program for the arms.) By extending and keeping the elbows next to the body, a greater part of the work is performed by the anterior deltoid. This movement may be performed at a frame that guides the bar.

Triceps brachii

Flexor digitoaim superficialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Anconeus Biceps brachii Medial head Lateral head Long head

Teres major Posterior deltoid Serratus anterior Latlssimus dorsi

Adipose mass

Main zone of friction prone to inflammation injuries

Olecranon fossa Olecranon Articular cavity Trochlea, cartilage Coronoid process Ulna

Adipose mass

Adipose mass

With repeated extension of the forearm, the olecranon butts up against the olecranon fossa of the humerus. The articulation then suffers from microtrauma, which over time may generate painful Inflammation at the dorsal surface of the elbow.

SECTION THROUGH THE ELBOW JOINT

Dlaphysls of the humerus

Main zone of friction prone to inflammation injuries

Olecranon fossa Olecranon Articular cavity Trochlea, cartilage Coronoid process Ulna

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Tear

PECTORALIS MAJOR

PECTORALIS MAJOR MUSCLE INSERTIONS

Lie or a decline bench (between 20 and 40 degrees), with the head angled down and feet fixed to prevent sliding and grasp the barbell with an overhand grip shoulder width or more:

• Inhale and lower the barbell to the lower pectorals with a controlled movement.

• Extend the arms and exhale at the end of the movement.

This exercise contracts the pectoralis major (mainly its inferior fibers), triceps brachii, and the anterior deltoid.

This exercise is useful for outlining the Inferior groove of the pectorals. Using light weights and lowering the bar to the neck stretches the pectoralis major correctly. The decline press may be performed at a frame that guides the bar.

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Pectoralis major

Brachioradlalis Rectus abdominis Serratus anterior Brachialis Subscapulars External oblique

Sternocostal Pectoralis

PECTORALIS MAJOR

n„.(i„iP Pectoralis major, uayicle clavicular head

\ Pectoralis major,

Acromion-. V sternocostal head

— Sternum Pectoralis (

Humerus

Pectoralis major, abdominal head

Chondrocostal border of rib cage

Scapula

Humerus

Chondrocostal

PECTORALIS MAJOR MUSCLE INSERTIONS

Sternum

Scapula

Humerus

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